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Design Thinking?
Introduction to a methodology and mindset
Nov 6th, Design Thinking Week Warsaw 2015, Centrum Zarządzania Innowacjami i Transferem Technologii Politechniki Warszawskiej
W A R S Z A W A
Politechnika Warszawska
2
Solving wrong problems precisely
“How can we maximize the number of child patient
scans per day while reducing the cost of anesthetizing?”
Image Credit: By ISAF Headquarters Public Affairs Office (originally posted to Flickr as 100410-F-7713A-002) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APreoxygenation_before_anesthetic_induction.jpg
2
Solving wrong problems precisely
“How can we maximize the number of child patient
scans per day while reducing the cost of anesthetizing?”
BEST PRACTICE
General anesthesia should be preferred
in preterm or small children as safety
and success are predictable.
For optimal performance trained,
experienced and certified personnel,
appropriate drugs for the individual patient
risk profile and sufficient monitoring
equipment are essential.
Anesthesia or sedation for MRI in
children. (2010), Schulte-Uentrop L1,
Goepfert MS.
Image Credit: By ISAF Headquarters Public Affairs Office (originally posted to Flickr as 100410-F-7713A-002) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/
licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APreoxygenation_before_anesthetic_induction.jpg
Boundaries and scope of a problem?
3
PROBLEM
SPACE
Boundaries and scope of a problem?
3
PROBLEM
SPACE
Boundaries and scope of a problem?
3
PROBLEM
SPACE
Boundaries and scope of a problem?
3
PROBLEM
SPACE
4Image Credit: © 2011 General Electric Company (http://www.gehealthcare.com/promo/advseries/adventure_series.html)
Seeing the world through new eyes
5
Design as … Example
Problem Framing
Design redefines the challenges
facing the organization.
Umpqua Bank
Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem
DesigningOutCrime Sydney
Nintendo Wii
SAP HANA
Godrej chotuKool
Problem Solving
Design finds new opportunities
by solving existing problems.
The Transtrap
Kickstart Irrigation Pumps
Pangea Organics Packaging
Digital Rights Management
OXO Good Grips
Aquaduct Tricycle
Form, Feature & Function
Design makes things work
better than they did before.
Gillette Mach 3 Razor
Nokia Mobile Phones
Acer Computers
Hewlett Packard Devices
iPod + Wheel
Style
Design is the avenue
to being hip and cool.
Target
Microsoft Zune
Apple Product Identity
Media Markt Private Labels
No Conscious Design
Design has no perceived
value for the organization.
German Elster Tax Declaration Software
TV Remote Controls
Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
5
Design as … Example
Problem Framing
Design redefines the challenges
facing the organization.
Umpqua Bank
Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem
DesigningOutCrime Sydney
Nintendo Wii
SAP HANA
Godrej chotuKool
Problem Solving
Design finds new opportunities
by solving existing problems.
The Transtrap
Kickstart Irrigation Pumps
Pangea Organics Packaging
Digital Rights Management
OXO Good Grips
Aquaduct Tricycle
Form, Feature & Function
Design makes things work
better than they did before.
Gillette Mach 3 Razor
Nokia Mobile Phones
Acer Computers
Hewlett Packard Devices
iPod + Wheel
Style
Design is the avenue
to being hip and cool.
Target
Microsoft Zune
Apple Product Identity
Media Markt Private Labels
No Conscious Design
Design has no perceived
value for the organization.
German Elster Tax Declaration Software
TV Remote Controls
Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
5
Design as … Example
Problem Framing
Design redefines the challenges
facing the organization.
Umpqua Bank
Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem
DesigningOutCrime Sydney
Nintendo Wii
SAP HANA
Godrej chotuKool
Problem Solving
Design finds new opportunities
by solving existing problems.
The Transtrap
Kickstart Irrigation Pumps
Pangea Organics Packaging
Digital Rights Management
OXO Good Grips
Aquaduct Tricycle
Form, Feature & Function
Design makes things work
better than they did before.
Gillette Mach 3 Razor
Nokia Mobile Phones
Acer Computers
Hewlett Packard Devices
iPod + Wheel
Style
Design is the avenue
to being hip and cool.
Target
Microsoft Zune
Apple Product Identity
Media Markt Private Labels
No Conscious Design
Design has no perceived
value for the organization.
German Elster Tax Declaration Software
TV Remote Controls
Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
5
Design as … Example
Problem Framing
Design redefines the challenges
facing the organization.
Umpqua Bank
Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem
DesigningOutCrime Sydney
Nintendo Wii
SAP HANA
Godrej chotuKool
Problem Solving
Design finds new opportunities
by solving existing problems.
The Transtrap
Kickstart Irrigation Pumps
Pangea Organics Packaging
Digital Rights Management
OXO Good Grips
Aquaduct Tricycle
Form, Feature & Function
Design makes things work
better than they did before.
Gillette Mach 3 Razor
Nokia Mobile Phones
Acer Computers
Hewlett Packard Devices
iPod + Wheel
Style
Design is the avenue
to being hip and cool.
Target
Microsoft Zune
Apple Product Identity
Media Markt Private Labels
No Conscious Design
Design has no perceived
value for the organization.
German Elster Tax Declaration Software
TV Remote Controls
Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
5
Design as … Example
Problem Framing
Design redefines the challenges
facing the organization.
Umpqua Bank
Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem
DesigningOutCrime Sydney
Nintendo Wii
SAP HANA
Godrej chotuKool
Problem Solving
Design finds new opportunities
by solving existing problems.
The Transtrap
Kickstart Irrigation Pumps
Pangea Organics Packaging
Digital Rights Management
OXO Good Grips
Aquaduct Tricycle
Form, Feature & Function
Design makes things work
better than they did before.
Gillette Mach 3 Razor
Nokia Mobile Phones
Acer Computers
Hewlett Packard Devices
iPod + Wheel
Style
Design is the avenue
to being hip and cool.
Target
Microsoft Zune
Apple Product Identity
Media Markt Private Labels
No Conscious Design
Design has no perceived
value for the organization.
German Elster Tax Declaration Software
TV Remote Controls
Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
5
Design as … Example
Problem Framing
Design redefines the challenges
facing the organization.
Umpqua Bank
Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem
DesigningOutCrime Sydney
Nintendo Wii
SAP HANA
Godrej chotuKool
Problem Solving
Design finds new opportunities
by solving existing problems.
The Transtrap
Kickstart Irrigation Pumps
Pangea Organics Packaging
Digital Rights Management
OXO Good Grips
Aquaduct Tricycle
Form, Feature & Function
Design makes things work
better than they did before.
Gillette Mach 3 Razor
Nokia Mobile Phones
Acer Computers
Hewlett Packard Devices
iPod + Wheel
Style
Design is the avenue
to being hip and cool.
Target
Microsoft Zune
Apple Product Identity
Media Markt Private Labels
No Conscious Design
Design has no perceived
value for the organization.
German Elster Tax Declaration Software
TV Remote Controls
Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
Competitive Advantage
Decades
Years
Quarters
Months
z
Expertise Empathy Explore ExecuteRe-Frame
SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND
Talk to Experts
Research
Experience
Immerse
Observe
Engage
Share
Synthesize
Point of View
Brainstorm
Visualize
Prototype
Insight
Big Idea
Sticky Takeaway
PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION
The ‘process’
7
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTANDUNDERSTAND OBSERVE
8
Image Credit: © MIT AgeLab, Age Gain Now Empathy System; Photos by Nathan Fried-Lipski
Experience what your user might experience …
Immerse. Observe. Engage.
9
Image Credit: © IDEO 2009, www.ideo.com
Experience what your user might experience …
Immerse. Observe. Engage.
10
Image Credit: © IDEO 2009, www.ideo.com
Experience what your user might experience …
Immerse. Observe. Engage.
11
Be a fly on the wall: The art of unobtrusive research …
Immerse. Observe. Engage.
Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
12
Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
ARTIFACTS
DOING
(behavior)
SEEING
THINKING (framing)
WHERE
WHEN
HEARING
INTERACTIONS
(services)
MESSAGES
12
Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
ARTIFACTS
DOING
(behavior)
SEEING
THINKING (framing)
WHERE
WHEN
HEARING
INTERACTIONS
(services)
Religion: Christian
MESSAGES
12
Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
ARTIFACTS
DOING
(behavior)
SEEING
THINKING (framing)
WHERE
WHEN
HEARING
INTERACTIONS
(services)
Religion: Christian
Workaround:
Beer Cover
MESSAGES
12
Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
ARTIFACTS
DOING
(behavior)
SEEING
THINKING (framing)
WHERE
WHEN
HEARING
INTERACTIONS
(services)
Religion: Christian
Workaround:
Beer Cover
Potential »Distribution Partner«
MESSAGES
13
Enlightening conversations …
Immerse. Observe. Engage.
14
Enlightening conversations …
Immerse. Observe. Engage.
Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
Methods triangulation
15
THE RIGHT
BALANCE?
What people experience.
TRY: Immersion
Participatory Design
What people do.
LOOK: Observations
Ethnography
What people say they do.
ASK: Engagement
Contextual Interviewing
MARKET RESEARCH INSIGHTS RESEARCH
“Can you prove that?” “No, not yet, but I can inspire you.”
16
Image Credit: after Polaine, A., Løvlie, L., & Reason, B. (2013). Service design: from insight to implementation. (1st ed.). Rosenfeld Media.;
Lightbulb Icon → Idea designed by Björn Andersson from The Noun Project
100 People
10 Truths
10 People
100 Insights
17
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND POINT
OF VIEW
19
Space serves as an important facilitator for design synthesis
War rooms
20
Perspective 1 Perspective 2 Perspective 3
Capture structured data
Investment
Compatibility /
Influence
Time Horizon
Provider of Services
Investment
Compatibility /
Influence
Time Horizon
Group of Stakeholders
Investment
Compatibility /
Influence
Time Horizon
Supplier
Investment
Compatibility /
Influence
Time Horizon
Public Institution Actor
21
Perspective 4 Perspective 5
Distill and explore it from a meta perspective
Personas Affinity Diagramming
Cause-and-Effect- /
Flow Models
Journey Mapping Stakeholder Maps Storyboards
Physical Walk-Throughs Service Blueprints etc. ...
22
A random selection of examples
Building »models of reality«
23
Making sense out of a »mess of data«
24Image Credit: © 2011 General Electric Company (http://www.gehealthcare.com/promo/advseries/adventure_series.html)
User:	 Kids with cancer.
Need:	 Play and have fun. Feel like a normal child.
Insight:	 Kids participate in everything once they perceive it as an adventure.
“How might we turn MRI scans for children
(fearing »medical treatment«) into an adventure?”
25Image Credit: © Embrace (www.embraceglobal.org)
User:	 Young moms in poor rural areas in developing countries.
Need:	 Always carry baby close to body equals being a good mother.
Insight:
 Low cultural acceptance in many countries to »leave babies alone« (e.g. in incubators).
“How might we create an non-electrical infant
incubator that keeps babies close to mother’s body?”
26
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND IDEATE
27
“How might we design a solar charging system
that reduces risk and perceived risk theft?”
27
28
Image Credit: Jan Schmiedgen (www.schmiedgen.eu)
What do users really expect?
Idea Generation
31
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND PROTOTYPE
Prototype fidelity and representations
32
Looks like
Works like
Interacts like
Product Service/Experience Space Story
Source: © d.School Stanford
Prototype fidelity and representations
32
Looks like
Works like
Interacts like
Product Service/Experience Space Story
Source: © d.School Stanford
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
#1
Experience:
Augmentation
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
1 DAY
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
#1
Experience:
Augmentation
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
1 DAY
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
#2
Options Exploring:
Gesture Control#1
Experience:
Augmentation
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
1 DAY
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
#2
Options Exploring:
Gesture Control#1
Experience:
Augmentation
45 MIN
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
1 DAY
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
#3
Try & Iterate:Shape, Size, Weight
#2
Options Exploring:
Gesture Control#1
Experience:
Augmentation
45 MIN
½ HOUR
33
Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping
1 DAY
Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
#3
Try & Iterate:Shape, Size, Weight
#2
Options Exploring:
Gesture Control#1
Experience:
Augmentation
45 MIN
Google Glass’ Hi-fi Prototyping
34Source: http://www.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Early-Google-Glass-prototypes.png
35
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPEPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND TEST
36Image Credit: Service Design Berlin (Martin Jordan)
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND
Going broad to go narrow
“solving” “solving”“seeking”“seeking”
PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION
Initial
understanding
of problem
increasing complexity increasing certainty
Problem
definition:
“reframing”
OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT
OF VIEW
UNDERSTAND “solving” “solving”“seeking”“seeking”
PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION
Initial
understanding
of problem
increasing complexity increasing certainty
Problem
definition:
“reframing”
No need to fear the »model mayhem«
EMPATHIZE IDEATE
PROTOTYPE
TEST
DEFINE
Convergence-Divergence ID.IIT: Analysis-Synthesis Engine Service Design (UK) »Design Chaos«
Spirit of Creation (UK) St. Gallen d.school Potsdam IDEO (Educators Toolkit)
d.school Stanford Beckman & Barry Bill Moggridge Stanford’s d.Modes
Jeanne Liedtka and Tim Ogilvie Stanford’s Necktie Flare ID.IIT: Vijay Kumar
39
!
Diamond 1: Direction setting Diamond 2: Service design Diamond 3: Service production
Create SelectInitiateInitiate Create Select Define Define Sustain
Vision
Document
Service
Blueprint
Create SelectInitiate Define
Assimilating Converging
Diverging Accommodating
Active
Experimentation
Abstract
Conceptualization
Concrete
Experience
Reflective
Observation
Imperatives
Problem Finding Solution Finding
Problem
Selecting
Solution
Selecting
SolutionsObservations
Frameworks
etc.
No need to fear the »model mayhem«
ABSTRACT
CONCRETE
DISCOVERY INTERPRETATION IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION EVOLUTION
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
40
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
Analysis-Synthesis Model
Existing – Implicit
(Current)
Preferred – Explicit
(Future)
Frameworks Imperatives
SolutionsObservations
Problem Space Solution Space
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
40
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
Problem
Finding
Analysis-Synthesis Model
Existing – Implicit
(Current)
Preferred – Explicit
(Future)
Frameworks Imperatives
SolutionsObservations
Problem Space Solution Space
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
40
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
Problem
Selecting
Problem
Finding
Analysis-Synthesis Model
Existing – Implicit
(Current)
Preferred – Explicit
(Future)
Frameworks Imperatives
SolutionsObservations
Problem Space Solution Space
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
40
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
Problem
Selecting
Solution
Finding
Problem
Finding
Analysis-Synthesis Model
Existing – Implicit
(Current)
Preferred – Explicit
(Future)
Frameworks Imperatives
SolutionsObservations
Problem Space Solution Space
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
40
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
Problem
Selecting
Solution
Finding
Problem
Finding
Solution
Selecting
Analysis-Synthesis Model
Existing – Implicit
(Current)
Preferred – Explicit
(Future)
Frameworks Imperatives
SolutionsObservations
Problem Space Solution Space
41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
What »is«
Model of
what »is«
Model of
what
»could be«
What
»could be«
distilledto
suggest
manifestas
OBSERVATIONS
PRINCIPLES
PLANS
TESTS
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
What »is«
Model of
what »is«
Model of
what
»could be«
What
»could be«
distilledto
suggest
manifestas
OBSERVATIONS
PRINCIPLES
PLANS
TESTS
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
What »is«
Model of
what »is«
Model of
what
»could be«
What
»could be«
distilledto
suggest
manifestas
OBSERVATIONS
PRINCIPLES
PLANS
TESTS
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
What »is«
Model of
what »is«
Model of
what
»could be«
What
»could be«
distilledto
suggest
manifestas
OBSERVATIONS
PRINCIPLES
PLANS
TESTS
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work)
[CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare
Analysis (Think)
Concrete: Real World
Abstract: Modeled World
Synthesis (Make)
What »is«
Model of
what »is«
Model of
what
»could be«
What
»could be«
distilledto
suggest
manifestas
OBSERVATIONS
PRINCIPLES
PLANS
TESTS
It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
Balancing out ‘reliability bias’ and ‘decision attitude’
42
Business People Designer
100% Reliability 100% Validity
Reliability vs. Validity
a fundamental predilection gap
50/50 Mix
Martin, R. L. (2009). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional.
Studies, Market research,’
Past Experiences said ...
This interesting
extreme Case tells Us …
Balancing out ‘reliability bias’ and ‘decision attitude’
42
Business People Designer
100% Reliability 100% Validity
Reliability vs. Validity
a fundamental predilection gap
50/50 Mix
Martin, R. L. (2009). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional.
Studies, Market research,’
Past Experiences said ...
This interesting
extreme Case tells Us …
BEST PRACTICE
General anesthesia should be preferred in
preterm or small children as safety and
success are predictable.
For optimal performance trained, experienced
and certified personnel, appropriate drugs for
the individual patient risk profile and
sufficient monitoring equipment are essential.
Anesthesia or sedation for MRI in children.
(2010), Schulte-Uentrop L1, Goepfert MS.
43
People and
Human Values
Desirability
Technology
Feasibility
Business
Viability
43
People and
Human Values
Desirability
Technology
Feasibility
Business
Viability
44Image Credit: © 2011-2012 General Electric Company
MRI Scan
Technology
Adventure
Frame
Cost Avoidance
Less sedations,
more patients
The culture aspect
45© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
46
The culture aspect
© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
The culture aspect
47© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
48
The culture aspect
© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
Problem Discovery Mindset
+ Customer Discovery Appetite
+ Structured Unstructured Process
+ Encouraging Working Culture
+ Sanity and Reason
= Design Thinking
49My personal inadmissible and non-scientific simplification of what DT is.
Some Recommended Literature:
Beckman, S. L., & Barry, M. (2007). Innovation as a Learning Process:
Embedding Design Thinking. California Management Review, 50(1), 25–56.
Boland Jr., R., & Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as Designing (1st ed.).
Stanford: Stanford Business Books.
Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms
Organizations and Inspires Innovation:
How Design Thinking Can Transform Organizations and Inspire Innovation.
New York: Harper Business.
Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues,
8(2), 5–21.
Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About Face 3: The Essentials
of Interaction Design (3rd ed.). Wiley.
Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity
from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm (1st ed.). New York: Crown
Business.
Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The Ten Faces of Innovation: IDEO’s
Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s Advocate and Driving Creativity
Throughout Your Organization. New York: Doubleday.
Kimbell, L. (2009, September). Beyond Design Thinking: Design-as-practice
and designs-in-practice. Presentation Paper, Saïd Business School,
University of Oxford.
Krippendorff, K. (2005). Semantic Turn: New Foundations for Design. Boca
Raton, Fla.; London: CRC.
Kuhn, T. (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary
Edition (50th anniversary ed.). University of Chicago Press.
Kumar, V. (2012). 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving
Innovation in Your Organization (1. Auflage.). John Wiley & Sons.
Kumar, V., & Whitney, P. (2007). Daily life, not markets: customer-centered
design. Journal of Business Strategy, 28(4), 46–58.
Liedtka, J. (2000). In Defense of Strategy as Design. California Management
Review, 42(3), 8–30.
Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2011). Designing for growth : a design thinking tool
kit for managers. New York: Columbia University Press - Columbia Business
School Publishing.
Martin, R. L. (2009a). The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win
Through Integrative Thinking. Mcgraw-Hill Professional.
Martin, R. L. (2009b). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next
Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional.
Nagji, B., & Tuff, G. (2012). Managing Your Innovation Portfolio - Harvard
Business Review. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 1, 2013, .
Ouden, E. den. (2011). Innovation Design: Creating Value for People,
Organizations and Society (1st Edition.). Springer London.
Owen, C. L. (2005a, May 14). Societal Responsibilities. - Growing the Role
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@Jan_Schmiedgen

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Design Thinking?

  • 1. Design Thinking? Introduction to a methodology and mindset Nov 6th, Design Thinking Week Warsaw 2015, Centrum Zarządzania Innowacjami i Transferem Technologii Politechniki Warszawskiej W A R S Z A W A Politechnika Warszawska
  • 2. 2 Solving wrong problems precisely “How can we maximize the number of child patient scans per day while reducing the cost of anesthetizing?” Image Credit: By ISAF Headquarters Public Affairs Office (originally posted to Flickr as 100410-F-7713A-002) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APreoxygenation_before_anesthetic_induction.jpg
  • 3. 2 Solving wrong problems precisely “How can we maximize the number of child patient scans per day while reducing the cost of anesthetizing?” BEST PRACTICE General anesthesia should be preferred in preterm or small children as safety and success are predictable. For optimal performance trained, experienced and certified personnel, appropriate drugs for the individual patient risk profile and sufficient monitoring equipment are essential. Anesthesia or sedation for MRI in children. (2010), Schulte-Uentrop L1, Goepfert MS. Image Credit: By ISAF Headquarters Public Affairs Office (originally posted to Flickr as 100410-F-7713A-002) [CC BY 2.0 (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APreoxygenation_before_anesthetic_induction.jpg
  • 4. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  • 5. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  • 6. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  • 7. Boundaries and scope of a problem? 3 PROBLEM SPACE
  • 8. 4Image Credit: © 2011 General Electric Company (http://www.gehealthcare.com/promo/advseries/adventure_series.html) Seeing the world through new eyes
  • 9. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  • 10. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  • 11. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  • 12. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  • 13. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2)
  • 14. 5 Design as … Example Problem Framing Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. Umpqua Bank Apple iPod/iPhone/iTunes-Ecosystem DesigningOutCrime Sydney Nintendo Wii SAP HANA Godrej chotuKool Problem Solving Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. The Transtrap Kickstart Irrigation Pumps Pangea Organics Packaging Digital Rights Management OXO Good Grips Aquaduct Tricycle Form, Feature & Function Design makes things work better than they did before. Gillette Mach 3 Razor Nokia Mobile Phones Acer Computers Hewlett Packard Devices iPod + Wheel Style Design is the avenue to being hip and cool. Target Microsoft Zune Apple Product Identity Media Markt Private Labels No Conscious Design Design has no perceived value for the organization. German Elster Tax Declaration Software TV Remote Controls Design Maturity Stages: Adapted from Steve Sato (former HP), Rosa Wu and Jess McMullin (Ambidextrous Magazin 2006-2) Competitive Advantage Decades Years Quarters Months z
  • 15. Expertise Empathy Explore ExecuteRe-Frame SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND Talk to Experts Research Experience Immerse Observe Engage Share Synthesize Point of View Brainstorm Visualize Prototype Insight Big Idea Sticky Takeaway PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION The ‘process’
  • 16. 7 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTANDUNDERSTAND OBSERVE
  • 17. 8 Image Credit: © MIT AgeLab, Age Gain Now Empathy System; Photos by Nathan Fried-Lipski Experience what your user might experience … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  • 18. 9 Image Credit: © IDEO 2009, www.ideo.com Experience what your user might experience … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  • 19. 10 Image Credit: © IDEO 2009, www.ideo.com Experience what your user might experience … Immerse. Observe. Engage.
  • 20. 11 Be a fly on the wall: The art of unobtrusive research … Immerse. Observe. Engage. Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
  • 21. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) MESSAGES
  • 22. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) Religion: Christian MESSAGES
  • 23. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) Religion: Christian Workaround: Beer Cover MESSAGES
  • 24. 12 Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin ARTIFACTS DOING (behavior) SEEING THINKING (framing) WHERE WHEN HEARING INTERACTIONS (services) Religion: Christian Workaround: Beer Cover Potential »Distribution Partner« MESSAGES
  • 26. 14 Enlightening conversations … Immerse. Observe. Engage. Image Credit: © Klara Lindner for Mobisol GmbH Berlin
  • 27. Methods triangulation 15 THE RIGHT BALANCE? What people experience. TRY: Immersion Participatory Design What people do. LOOK: Observations Ethnography What people say they do. ASK: Engagement Contextual Interviewing
  • 28. MARKET RESEARCH INSIGHTS RESEARCH “Can you prove that?” “No, not yet, but I can inspire you.” 16 Image Credit: after Polaine, A., Løvlie, L., & Reason, B. (2013). Service design: from insight to implementation. (1st ed.). Rosenfeld Media.; Lightbulb Icon → Idea designed by Björn Andersson from The Noun Project 100 People 10 Truths 10 People 100 Insights
  • 29. 17 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND POINT OF VIEW
  • 30. 19 Space serves as an important facilitator for design synthesis War rooms
  • 31. 20 Perspective 1 Perspective 2 Perspective 3 Capture structured data Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Provider of Services Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Group of Stakeholders Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Supplier Investment Compatibility / Influence Time Horizon Public Institution Actor
  • 32. 21 Perspective 4 Perspective 5 Distill and explore it from a meta perspective
  • 33. Personas Affinity Diagramming Cause-and-Effect- / Flow Models Journey Mapping Stakeholder Maps Storyboards Physical Walk-Throughs Service Blueprints etc. ... 22 A random selection of examples Building »models of reality«
  • 34. 23 Making sense out of a »mess of data«
  • 35. 24Image Credit: © 2011 General Electric Company (http://www.gehealthcare.com/promo/advseries/adventure_series.html) User: Kids with cancer. Need: Play and have fun. Feel like a normal child. Insight: Kids participate in everything once they perceive it as an adventure. “How might we turn MRI scans for children (fearing »medical treatment«) into an adventure?”
  • 36. 25Image Credit: © Embrace (www.embraceglobal.org) User: Young moms in poor rural areas in developing countries. Need: Always carry baby close to body equals being a good mother. Insight: Low cultural acceptance in many countries to »leave babies alone« (e.g. in incubators). “How might we create an non-electrical infant incubator that keeps babies close to mother’s body?”
  • 37. 26 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND IDEATE
  • 38. 27 “How might we design a solar charging system that reduces risk and perceived risk theft?”
  • 39. 27
  • 40. 28 Image Credit: Jan Schmiedgen (www.schmiedgen.eu) What do users really expect? Idea Generation
  • 41. 31 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND PROTOTYPE
  • 42. Prototype fidelity and representations 32 Looks like Works like Interacts like Product Service/Experience Space Story Source: © d.School Stanford
  • 43. Prototype fidelity and representations 32 Looks like Works like Interacts like Product Service/Experience Space Story Source: © d.School Stanford
  • 44. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/)
  • 45. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #1 Experience: Augmentation
  • 46. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #1 Experience: Augmentation
  • 47. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation
  • 48. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation 45 MIN
  • 49. 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #3 Try & Iterate:Shape, Size, Weight #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation 45 MIN
  • 50. ½ HOUR 33 Google Glass’ Lo-fi Prototyping 1 DAY Source: Tom Chi (Google X) @ TED (http://blog.ted.com/2013/02/01/google-glass-prototyped-using-binder-clips-and-clay/) #3 Try & Iterate:Shape, Size, Weight #2 Options Exploring: Gesture Control#1 Experience: Augmentation 45 MIN
  • 51. Google Glass’ Hi-fi Prototyping 34Source: http://www.digitaltrends.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Early-Google-Glass-prototypes.png
  • 52. 35 OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPEPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND TEST
  • 53. 36Image Credit: Service Design Berlin (Martin Jordan)
  • 54. OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND Going broad to go narrow “solving” “solving”“seeking”“seeking” PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION Initial understanding of problem increasing complexity increasing certainty Problem definition: “reframing”
  • 55. OBSERVE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TESTPOINT OF VIEW UNDERSTAND “solving” “solving”“seeking”“seeking” PROBLEM SPACE EXPLORATION SOLUTION SPACE EXPLORATION Initial understanding of problem increasing complexity increasing certainty Problem definition: “reframing” No need to fear the »model mayhem« EMPATHIZE IDEATE PROTOTYPE TEST DEFINE
  • 56. Convergence-Divergence ID.IIT: Analysis-Synthesis Engine Service Design (UK) »Design Chaos« Spirit of Creation (UK) St. Gallen d.school Potsdam IDEO (Educators Toolkit) d.school Stanford Beckman & Barry Bill Moggridge Stanford’s d.Modes Jeanne Liedtka and Tim Ogilvie Stanford’s Necktie Flare ID.IIT: Vijay Kumar 39 ! Diamond 1: Direction setting Diamond 2: Service design Diamond 3: Service production Create SelectInitiateInitiate Create Select Define Define Sustain Vision Document Service Blueprint Create SelectInitiate Define Assimilating Converging Diverging Accommodating Active Experimentation Abstract Conceptualization Concrete Experience Reflective Observation Imperatives Problem Finding Solution Finding Problem Selecting Solution Selecting SolutionsObservations Frameworks etc. No need to fear the »model mayhem« ABSTRACT CONCRETE DISCOVERY INTERPRETATION IDEATION EXPERIMENTATION EVOLUTION
  • 57. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  • 58. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Finding Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  • 59. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Selecting Problem Finding Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  • 60. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Selecting Solution Finding Problem Finding Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  • 61. It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis 40 Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) Problem Selecting Solution Finding Problem Finding Solution Selecting Analysis-Synthesis Model Existing – Implicit (Current) Preferred – Explicit (Future) Frameworks Imperatives SolutionsObservations Problem Space Solution Space
  • 62. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  • 63. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  • 64. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  • 65. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  • 66. 41Analysis-Synthesis Model, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3APretend-city-grocery-store.jpg by Ermalfaro (Own work) [CC BY-SA 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0)], via Wikimedia Commons; © General Electric - GE Healthcare Analysis (Think) Concrete: Real World Abstract: Modeled World Synthesis (Make) What »is« Model of what »is« Model of what »could be« What »could be« distilledto suggest manifestas OBSERVATIONS PRINCIPLES PLANS TESTS It’s pretty ‘simple’: It’s an ongoing parallel analysis and synthesis
  • 67. Balancing out ‘reliability bias’ and ‘decision attitude’ 42 Business People Designer 100% Reliability 100% Validity Reliability vs. Validity a fundamental predilection gap 50/50 Mix Martin, R. L. (2009). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Studies, Market research,’ Past Experiences said ... This interesting extreme Case tells Us …
  • 68. Balancing out ‘reliability bias’ and ‘decision attitude’ 42 Business People Designer 100% Reliability 100% Validity Reliability vs. Validity a fundamental predilection gap 50/50 Mix Martin, R. L. (2009). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Studies, Market research,’ Past Experiences said ... This interesting extreme Case tells Us … BEST PRACTICE General anesthesia should be preferred in preterm or small children as safety and success are predictable. For optimal performance trained, experienced and certified personnel, appropriate drugs for the individual patient risk profile and sufficient monitoring equipment are essential. Anesthesia or sedation for MRI in children. (2010), Schulte-Uentrop L1, Goepfert MS.
  • 71. 44Image Credit: © 2011-2012 General Electric Company MRI Scan Technology Adventure Frame Cost Avoidance Less sedations, more patients
  • 72. The culture aspect 45© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  • 73. 46 The culture aspect © 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  • 74. The culture aspect 47© 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  • 75. 48 The culture aspect © 2015 - HPI School of Design Thinking, Potsdam
  • 76. Problem Discovery Mindset + Customer Discovery Appetite + Structured Unstructured Process + Encouraging Working Culture + Sanity and Reason = Design Thinking 49My personal inadmissible and non-scientific simplification of what DT is.
  • 77. Some Recommended Literature: Beckman, S. L., & Barry, M. (2007). Innovation as a Learning Process: Embedding Design Thinking. California Management Review, 50(1), 25–56. Boland Jr., R., & Collopy, F. (2004). Managing as Designing (1st ed.). Stanford: Stanford Business Books. Brown, T. (2009). Change by Design: How Design Thinking Transforms Organizations and Inspires Innovation: How Design Thinking Can Transform Organizations and Inspire Innovation. New York: Harper Business. Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), 5–21. Cooper, A., Reimann, R., & Cronin, D. (2007). About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2001). The Art of Innovation: Lessons in Creativity from IDEO, America’s Leading Design Firm (1st ed.). New York: Crown Business. Kelley, T., & Littman, J. (2005). The Ten Faces of Innovation: IDEO’s Strategies for Defeating the Devil’s Advocate and Driving Creativity Throughout Your Organization. New York: Doubleday. Kimbell, L. (2009, September). Beyond Design Thinking: Design-as-practice and designs-in-practice. Presentation Paper, Saïd Business School, University of Oxford. Krippendorff, K. (2005). Semantic Turn: New Foundations for Design. Boca Raton, Fla.; London: CRC. Kuhn, T. (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition (50th anniversary ed.). University of Chicago Press. Kumar, V. (2012). 101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your Organization (1. Auflage.). John Wiley & Sons. Kumar, V., & Whitney, P. (2007). Daily life, not markets: customer-centered design. Journal of Business Strategy, 28(4), 46–58. Liedtka, J. (2000). In Defense of Strategy as Design. California Management Review, 42(3), 8–30. Liedtka, J., & Ogilvie, T. (2011). Designing for growth : a design thinking tool kit for managers. New York: Columbia University Press - Columbia Business School Publishing. Martin, R. L. (2009a). The Opposable Mind: How Successful Leaders Win Through Integrative Thinking. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Martin, R. L. (2009b). Design of Business: Why Design Thinking Is the Next Competitive Advantage. Mcgraw-Hill Professional. Nagji, B., & Tuff, G. (2012). Managing Your Innovation Portfolio - Harvard Business Review. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved May 1, 2013, . Ouden, E. den. (2011). Innovation Design: Creating Value for People, Organizations and Society (1st Edition.). Springer London. Owen, C. L. (2005a, May 14). Societal Responsibilities. - Growing the Role of Design. . International Conference on Planning and Design, National Cheng Kung University Tainan, Taiwan. Owen, C. L. (2005b, October 21). Design Thinking: What It Is, Why It Is Different, Where It Has New Value. . Presentation Paper, Gwanju, Korea. Owen, C. L. (2007). Design Thinking: Notes on its Nature and Use. Design Research Quarterly, 2(1), 16–27. Simon, H. A. (1996). Sciences of the Artificial (3 ed.). The Mit Press. Suri, J. F. (2005). Thoughtless Acts?: Observations on Intuitive Design (Ideo, Ed.). Chronicle Books. Ulla Johansson, J. W. The emperor’s new clothes or the magic wand? The past, present and future of design thinking. . Conference paper - peer reviewed, Verganti, R. (2009). Design Driven Innovation: Changing the Rules of Competition by Radically Innovating What Things Mean. Harvard Business Press. Wetter Edman, K. (2011, September). Service Design - A Conceptualization of an emerging Practice. Licentiate Thesis (PhD), Göteborg: Göteborgs Universitet. Konstnärliga Fakulteten. Retrieved November 4, 2011, from http://gupea.ub.gu.se/handle/2077/26679. @Jan_Schmiedgen