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Unit-2
WARPING
Objective of warping
o The objective of warping process is to convert the yarn
packages into a warper’s beam having desired width and
containing requisite number of ends.
oThe yarns are would onto the warper’s beam in the form of a
sheet composed of parallel bands of yarns each coming out from
a package placed on the creel.
2
Creel
Headstock
Warpers Beam
3
Warping
Machines(on basis
of headstock)
Beam Warping
machine
Sectional Warping
Machine
4
Direct or Beam Warping
Machine
It produces the warper beams that are combined together as a
single weavers beam in the next process of sizing.
A warpers beam may contain 500-1000 ends.
Direct warping is suitable for grey or mono-colored warps that
require sizing.
Components of Warping Machine are:
 Creel;
Headstock;
Control devices.
5
6
7
Working principle of Winding
machine
8
CREEL:
1. Cone Holder : Hold the cone or arrange the cone in the
creel.
2. Yarn Guide : To guide the yarn.
3. Tension Rod : Maintain yarn tension by upper & lower disc
tensioner.
4. Ceramic Guide Disc : To guide the yarn from creel to warping m/c.
5. Auto Stop Sensor : To sense the breakage yarn.
6. Creel Panel Board : Display where the yarn break.
9
Head Stock :
1. Guide Reed : Uniformly spread the yarn over the warp width.
2. Adjustable V-Reed : Guides the yarn to follow the fixed path.
3. Speed Controller : control the speed, crawl speed or full speed.
4. Pressure Roller : Exert required pressure to the warp yarn.
5. Measuring Device : Measures the length of the yarn.
6. Beam Bracket : Holds the warp beam.
7. Emergency Stop Device : For emergency stop.
8. Automatic Knock Off : Stop m/c at achieving required length of beam or in
case of yarn breaks.
9. Electrical Panel Board : To give the automatic controlled function.
10
Creel
 Creel is a stand for holding the supply packages in the form of wound
packages.
 It enables to hold the supply packages in proper position for warping.
No single type of creel can give the same beaming efficiency for
different types of yarns.
Different types of creels are:
• V-creel; • Magazine creel;
• Rectangular creel; • Automatic Creels;
• Truck creel ; • Special Creels.
• Continuous chain creels
11
12
V- Creels
13
 This type of creel is in V-shaped.
 It consists of wooden pegs horizontally to hold the supply
package.
 This is arranged so that the apex is in line with the centre of the
machine.
 The arm of this V-shaped wooden frame diverges on both sides
from its apex.
It enables the ends to be with drawn easily from the supply
package without touching or getting entangled with one another
during passing to the back reed of the head stock of the machine.
V- Creels
14
Rectangular Creels
15
 It is rectangular in shape.
 Frames are provided with pegs to hold supply packages
horizontally.
 Frames can be increased to accommodate more number of
supply packages & vice versa.
 Each frame consists of thread guides, indicator lamps etc.
It is mostly used in slow speed warping machine.
Rectangular Creels
16
Truck Creel

17
 It utilizes Trucks or Mobile package carrier units.
 Each unit consists of number of columns & tiers on either side
and can be inserted on the axis of the creel frame to become a
part of the creel.
 Tension units are positioned in relation to the packages , & the
unit is movable.
 Trucks can be creeled to the winding machine & thereby
minimize handling of the supply package provided there are
sufficient number of trucks.
This system is not cost effective as many trucks are required.
Truck Creel
18
Continuous Chain Creel
19
 First used by Barber Coleman & Co.
 Creel is in the form of 2 arms that form acute angle with each
other.
 These carry an endless chain that moves the column of supply
package holders & tension units into working position.
 It also moves the exhausted package away from the working
position, enabling creel changes in short time(15 mins).
 Creel is being transferred from creeling position to running
position.
 The creel also has free space to accommodate storage of
packages/ creel trolleys.
Continuous Chain Creel
20
Magazine Creel
21
Magazine Creel
22
In magazine creel, the tail end of the yarn from one cone is tied
with the tip of the yarn of another neighboring cone.
When the first cone is exhausted, the transfer to the second
cone takes place automatically and machine does not stop.
Thus the creeling time is completely eliminated which helps to
improve the running efficiency.
However, due to sudden change in unwinding position and
tension variation associated with this, some of the yarns break
during the transfer (known as transfer failure).
The magazine creel has reduced capacity. If the creel has 1000
package holders, then the warp sheet can actually have 500 ends.
Magazine Creel
23
Swivelling Creel
24
In swivelling creel, the pegs with full packages can move
from inside (reserve) position to the outside (working)
position when the running packages are exhausted.
 Thus considerable time is saved.
Then the operator replaces the exhausted packages with
full packages when the machine is running.
Swivelling Creel
25
Automatic Creel
 More sophisticated creel and used for modern warping
machines.
 Basically a truck creel with automatic chain loading &
unloading & is designed to reduce the creel change time.
 The yarn is threaded by an operative, from the supply package
simultaneously through tension device & break detector & then
gather all warp threads from 1 tension column, & twist them
together before locating them in a holder on a threading truck.
As the thread is pushed forward; it automatically threads &
separates the end according to creels , tiers & columns.
It requires shortest creel change time.
26
Unrolling Creels
1=Lever,
2=Bobbin,
3=Take-up roller,
4=Stop motion,
5=Pre-tensioning
device,6=Spacer
reed,7=Warped.
27
Unrolling Creels
 In situation in which elastic materials are being warped
in section onto warp beams from individual bobbins, an
even yarn tension can only be achieved using a positive
thread feed.
 Cylindrical bobbins on one or more rollers that are
turning synchronously in the same direction are
unwound tangentially.
28
29
Brake & Stop Motion
 In order to stop the heavy warping beam rotating at high
speed , a very efficient brake is required.
 Brake may be operated by mechanical, hydraulic or
electrical devices & is fitted at the head stock or at the
creel.
 Mechanical is used in conventional machines & electrical
devices are used in modern machines.
30
Function of components of creel:
1. Cone or cheese spindle for high speed warping.
2. Thread guide: To pass through the yarn in the reqd way.
3. Tensioner: To keep the yarn always in a uniform tension.
4. Yarn cleaner: To remove various faults of yarn like slubs, neps etc.
5. Suction fan or blower: To remove the dirt & dust from the yarn.
6. Breakage indicator: To indicate breakage in package.
7. Stop device: To stop the m/c when yarn will be broken.
FUNCTION OF COMPONENTS OF CREEL
31
32
Features of components of headstock:
1. Adjustable or variable v-reed or wraith: To control the width of the warp
beam.
2. Measuring & making device: Measure the amount of warp yarn on the
beam & marks the yarn.
3. Yarn speed controlling device: To control the speed of yarn.
4. Pneumatic pressure unit: To press the warp beam with the surface contact
of driving drum.
5. Break assembly: It stop the m/c after read length is wound on beam.
6. Driving drum: Beam is in contact & control with driving drum.
7. Stop motion: Used to stop the m/c after read length is wound on beam.
8. Beam bracket: To support & hold the beam.
9. Lease rod: Used for separation of yarn individually.
HEAD STOCK
33
34
Control device:
Similar to winding, warp yarns are threaded through tension devices , stop
motions, leasing rods and the reed. The stop motion electrically links each
warp end to the warper braking system; when a warp end breaks, the warper
stops. A light indicates the location of the broken end. The warping process is
generally irreversible, unwinding, of the beam would cause yarn entanglement.
The stop motion device which can be mechanical or electronic for quick
response, is usually located near the creel. Fans are used to prevent lint
accumulation when warping staple yarns.
35
Sectional Warping Machine
36
HEAD STOCK OF SECTIONAL WARPING MACHINE:
37
Sectional warping is preferred over beam warping for multi-
colored warp. Here the entire width of the warping drum is
not developed simultaneously. It is developed section by
section.
Also used for double/grey or mono-colored warps that do
not require sizing.
 Here a weavers beam is produced, where as sizing beam is
produced in direct warping .
Sectional Warping Machine
38
In case of single colored yarns, the yarns are sized and then
wound on the beam.
The yarn is wound in sections & each section has particular
width.
Thus the total number of warp ends for the weavers beam
are divided into suitable number of sections on the warping
drum.
Sectional Warping Machine
39
Sectional Warping Machine
40
Passage of the Yarn
 Cone/Cheese are placed on a V-shaped creel or a semi-circular
creel depending upon whether stop motion is used or not.
The yarn from the creel passes through the back reed. Reed
maintains uniform spacing of the yarn throughout the width of
the warp.
Then yarn passes over & under guide & drop rollers. The drop
rollers impart tension to the yarn passing under them & holds the
yarn tight when the machine is stopped.
41
Passage of the Yarn
Then yarn goes through the leasing reed. The use of reed is to
form an end to end lease at the start & completion of each
section.
Each end of the warp passes separately inserted in the warp at
the completion of one section of warp & reed is lowered.
The purpose of the leasing is to wind as well as unwind the
warp without any entanglements between threads to distribute
evenly.
42
The yarn then goes through a stop motion device which stops
the machine in the event of the end breakage in supply.
Yarn then passes through the V-reed which enables the width of
the warp through it to be adjusted according to sections.
The yarn then passes through the measuring roller & is wound
on the wooden block called Swift.
After winding pre-determined length of yarn, leasing is carried
out & next section winding is done.
Passage of the Yarn
43
Sequence of Sectional
Warping
44
45
Leasing: It is a system by which the position of the ends is maintained in the
warp sheet. Generally it is done by grouping the ends in two groups (odd and
even). If odd ends are passing over the lease rods then the even ends will pass
below the rod. The relative positions of the ends will reverse in case of second
lease rod.
Expandable reed: It is used to control the spacing between consecutive ends.
The two limbs of V shaped expandable reed can be expanded or collapsed as
per the required spacing of ends.
Beaming system: In the beaming process, all the sections are simultaneously
transferred to the flanged warper’s beam. The drum is rotated by the tension of
warp sheet where as positive drives are given to the warper’s beam. The speed
of beaming process in sectional warping is quite slow (around 300 m/min).
Sequence of Sectional Warping
46
47
Comparison between Beam &
Sectional Warping
Beam warping Sectional warping
Used for high volume
production
Used for small volume and
customised production (stripes
and specialised yarns)
One step process Two step process
High creel capacity is required Low creel capacity is sufficient
Comparatively less expensive Comparatively more expensive
Beaming speed is high Beaming speed is low
Better control over the tension
of individual yarns
Lesser control over the tension
of individual yarns
More popular Less popular
48
Warper Beam Defects
 Sunken Ends : Some of the warp ends of a layer can get
submerged in the next inner layers.
Cause :
• Flanges get damaged due to improper handling of the beam &
unsatisfactory storage condition and hence unwinding becomes
difficult.
Remedies:
•Care should be taken of the beam & it should be stored in beam
racks. Preferably cushioning seats between beams.
49
Lapped end
Cause:
The broken end of yarn is not tied to the end on the warp beam & overlaps the
adjoining yarn. The beam is not properly brake & the signal hook fails to
operate.
Remedies:
Tying the broken end to the end on the warp beam.
Proper signal hook.
Piecing
Cause:
One broken end is pieced to another yarn end on the warping beam.
Remedies:
By proper joining.
Warper Beam Defects
50
 Soft ends on the warping beam
Cause:
Breakage of a group of ends & piecing them in bundle or by lapping. This
defect is caused by the careless of the operator.
Remedies:
Careful operation.
Broken end should be piece up properly.
Incorrect form of build
Cause:
Caused by non uniform spreading of ends in the guide reed & its improper
setting & conical winding in case of non uniform pressure of the warping
beam.
Remedies:
Uniform spreading of ends.
Appropriate setting.
Warper Beam Defects
51
 Slacks & irregular yarn tension
Cause:
It happens due to any one of these reasons- improper threading of the
yarn into the tension devices, ejection of yarn from under the disc of
the yarn tensioning device, or yarn tension devices of poor quality.
Remedies:
Proper threading of tension device.
Good quality of tension device.
 Broken ends on the beam
Cause:
A group of ends is broken & tied as a brunch or worked-in with
overlapping.
Remedies:
Broken ends should be removed.
.
Warper Beam Defects
52
Conical winding on the beam
Cause:
It occurs due to incorrect load applied by the pressure roller.
Remedies:
Correct load applied.
Improper length of warping
Cause:
It is due to malfunction of the counter & the brakes of the measuring
device & warp beams.
Remedies:
Good measuring device
Warper Beam Defects
53

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textile warping

  • 2. Objective of warping o The objective of warping process is to convert the yarn packages into a warper’s beam having desired width and containing requisite number of ends. oThe yarns are would onto the warper’s beam in the form of a sheet composed of parallel bands of yarns each coming out from a package placed on the creel. 2
  • 4. Warping Machines(on basis of headstock) Beam Warping machine Sectional Warping Machine 4
  • 5. Direct or Beam Warping Machine It produces the warper beams that are combined together as a single weavers beam in the next process of sizing. A warpers beam may contain 500-1000 ends. Direct warping is suitable for grey or mono-colored warps that require sizing. Components of Warping Machine are:  Creel; Headstock; Control devices. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Working principle of Winding machine 8
  • 9. CREEL: 1. Cone Holder : Hold the cone or arrange the cone in the creel. 2. Yarn Guide : To guide the yarn. 3. Tension Rod : Maintain yarn tension by upper & lower disc tensioner. 4. Ceramic Guide Disc : To guide the yarn from creel to warping m/c. 5. Auto Stop Sensor : To sense the breakage yarn. 6. Creel Panel Board : Display where the yarn break. 9
  • 10. Head Stock : 1. Guide Reed : Uniformly spread the yarn over the warp width. 2. Adjustable V-Reed : Guides the yarn to follow the fixed path. 3. Speed Controller : control the speed, crawl speed or full speed. 4. Pressure Roller : Exert required pressure to the warp yarn. 5. Measuring Device : Measures the length of the yarn. 6. Beam Bracket : Holds the warp beam. 7. Emergency Stop Device : For emergency stop. 8. Automatic Knock Off : Stop m/c at achieving required length of beam or in case of yarn breaks. 9. Electrical Panel Board : To give the automatic controlled function. 10
  • 11. Creel  Creel is a stand for holding the supply packages in the form of wound packages.  It enables to hold the supply packages in proper position for warping. No single type of creel can give the same beaming efficiency for different types of yarns. Different types of creels are: • V-creel; • Magazine creel; • Rectangular creel; • Automatic Creels; • Truck creel ; • Special Creels. • Continuous chain creels 11
  • 12. 12
  • 14.  This type of creel is in V-shaped.  It consists of wooden pegs horizontally to hold the supply package.  This is arranged so that the apex is in line with the centre of the machine.  The arm of this V-shaped wooden frame diverges on both sides from its apex. It enables the ends to be with drawn easily from the supply package without touching or getting entangled with one another during passing to the back reed of the head stock of the machine. V- Creels 14
  • 16.  It is rectangular in shape.  Frames are provided with pegs to hold supply packages horizontally.  Frames can be increased to accommodate more number of supply packages & vice versa.  Each frame consists of thread guides, indicator lamps etc. It is mostly used in slow speed warping machine. Rectangular Creels 16
  • 18.  It utilizes Trucks or Mobile package carrier units.  Each unit consists of number of columns & tiers on either side and can be inserted on the axis of the creel frame to become a part of the creel.  Tension units are positioned in relation to the packages , & the unit is movable.  Trucks can be creeled to the winding machine & thereby minimize handling of the supply package provided there are sufficient number of trucks. This system is not cost effective as many trucks are required. Truck Creel 18
  • 20.  First used by Barber Coleman & Co.  Creel is in the form of 2 arms that form acute angle with each other.  These carry an endless chain that moves the column of supply package holders & tension units into working position.  It also moves the exhausted package away from the working position, enabling creel changes in short time(15 mins).  Creel is being transferred from creeling position to running position.  The creel also has free space to accommodate storage of packages/ creel trolleys. Continuous Chain Creel 20
  • 23. In magazine creel, the tail end of the yarn from one cone is tied with the tip of the yarn of another neighboring cone. When the first cone is exhausted, the transfer to the second cone takes place automatically and machine does not stop. Thus the creeling time is completely eliminated which helps to improve the running efficiency. However, due to sudden change in unwinding position and tension variation associated with this, some of the yarns break during the transfer (known as transfer failure). The magazine creel has reduced capacity. If the creel has 1000 package holders, then the warp sheet can actually have 500 ends. Magazine Creel 23
  • 25. In swivelling creel, the pegs with full packages can move from inside (reserve) position to the outside (working) position when the running packages are exhausted.  Thus considerable time is saved. Then the operator replaces the exhausted packages with full packages when the machine is running. Swivelling Creel 25
  • 26. Automatic Creel  More sophisticated creel and used for modern warping machines.  Basically a truck creel with automatic chain loading & unloading & is designed to reduce the creel change time.  The yarn is threaded by an operative, from the supply package simultaneously through tension device & break detector & then gather all warp threads from 1 tension column, & twist them together before locating them in a holder on a threading truck. As the thread is pushed forward; it automatically threads & separates the end according to creels , tiers & columns. It requires shortest creel change time. 26
  • 27. Unrolling Creels 1=Lever, 2=Bobbin, 3=Take-up roller, 4=Stop motion, 5=Pre-tensioning device,6=Spacer reed,7=Warped. 27
  • 28. Unrolling Creels  In situation in which elastic materials are being warped in section onto warp beams from individual bobbins, an even yarn tension can only be achieved using a positive thread feed.  Cylindrical bobbins on one or more rollers that are turning synchronously in the same direction are unwound tangentially. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. Brake & Stop Motion  In order to stop the heavy warping beam rotating at high speed , a very efficient brake is required.  Brake may be operated by mechanical, hydraulic or electrical devices & is fitted at the head stock or at the creel.  Mechanical is used in conventional machines & electrical devices are used in modern machines. 30
  • 31. Function of components of creel: 1. Cone or cheese spindle for high speed warping. 2. Thread guide: To pass through the yarn in the reqd way. 3. Tensioner: To keep the yarn always in a uniform tension. 4. Yarn cleaner: To remove various faults of yarn like slubs, neps etc. 5. Suction fan or blower: To remove the dirt & dust from the yarn. 6. Breakage indicator: To indicate breakage in package. 7. Stop device: To stop the m/c when yarn will be broken. FUNCTION OF COMPONENTS OF CREEL 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. Features of components of headstock: 1. Adjustable or variable v-reed or wraith: To control the width of the warp beam. 2. Measuring & making device: Measure the amount of warp yarn on the beam & marks the yarn. 3. Yarn speed controlling device: To control the speed of yarn. 4. Pneumatic pressure unit: To press the warp beam with the surface contact of driving drum. 5. Break assembly: It stop the m/c after read length is wound on beam. 6. Driving drum: Beam is in contact & control with driving drum. 7. Stop motion: Used to stop the m/c after read length is wound on beam. 8. Beam bracket: To support & hold the beam. 9. Lease rod: Used for separation of yarn individually. HEAD STOCK 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. Control device: Similar to winding, warp yarns are threaded through tension devices , stop motions, leasing rods and the reed. The stop motion electrically links each warp end to the warper braking system; when a warp end breaks, the warper stops. A light indicates the location of the broken end. The warping process is generally irreversible, unwinding, of the beam would cause yarn entanglement. The stop motion device which can be mechanical or electronic for quick response, is usually located near the creel. Fans are used to prevent lint accumulation when warping staple yarns. 35
  • 37. HEAD STOCK OF SECTIONAL WARPING MACHINE: 37
  • 38. Sectional warping is preferred over beam warping for multi- colored warp. Here the entire width of the warping drum is not developed simultaneously. It is developed section by section. Also used for double/grey or mono-colored warps that do not require sizing.  Here a weavers beam is produced, where as sizing beam is produced in direct warping . Sectional Warping Machine 38
  • 39. In case of single colored yarns, the yarns are sized and then wound on the beam. The yarn is wound in sections & each section has particular width. Thus the total number of warp ends for the weavers beam are divided into suitable number of sections on the warping drum. Sectional Warping Machine 39
  • 41. Passage of the Yarn  Cone/Cheese are placed on a V-shaped creel or a semi-circular creel depending upon whether stop motion is used or not. The yarn from the creel passes through the back reed. Reed maintains uniform spacing of the yarn throughout the width of the warp. Then yarn passes over & under guide & drop rollers. The drop rollers impart tension to the yarn passing under them & holds the yarn tight when the machine is stopped. 41
  • 42. Passage of the Yarn Then yarn goes through the leasing reed. The use of reed is to form an end to end lease at the start & completion of each section. Each end of the warp passes separately inserted in the warp at the completion of one section of warp & reed is lowered. The purpose of the leasing is to wind as well as unwind the warp without any entanglements between threads to distribute evenly. 42
  • 43. The yarn then goes through a stop motion device which stops the machine in the event of the end breakage in supply. Yarn then passes through the V-reed which enables the width of the warp through it to be adjusted according to sections. The yarn then passes through the measuring roller & is wound on the wooden block called Swift. After winding pre-determined length of yarn, leasing is carried out & next section winding is done. Passage of the Yarn 43
  • 45. 45
  • 46. Leasing: It is a system by which the position of the ends is maintained in the warp sheet. Generally it is done by grouping the ends in two groups (odd and even). If odd ends are passing over the lease rods then the even ends will pass below the rod. The relative positions of the ends will reverse in case of second lease rod. Expandable reed: It is used to control the spacing between consecutive ends. The two limbs of V shaped expandable reed can be expanded or collapsed as per the required spacing of ends. Beaming system: In the beaming process, all the sections are simultaneously transferred to the flanged warper’s beam. The drum is rotated by the tension of warp sheet where as positive drives are given to the warper’s beam. The speed of beaming process in sectional warping is quite slow (around 300 m/min). Sequence of Sectional Warping 46
  • 47. 47
  • 48. Comparison between Beam & Sectional Warping Beam warping Sectional warping Used for high volume production Used for small volume and customised production (stripes and specialised yarns) One step process Two step process High creel capacity is required Low creel capacity is sufficient Comparatively less expensive Comparatively more expensive Beaming speed is high Beaming speed is low Better control over the tension of individual yarns Lesser control over the tension of individual yarns More popular Less popular 48
  • 49. Warper Beam Defects  Sunken Ends : Some of the warp ends of a layer can get submerged in the next inner layers. Cause : • Flanges get damaged due to improper handling of the beam & unsatisfactory storage condition and hence unwinding becomes difficult. Remedies: •Care should be taken of the beam & it should be stored in beam racks. Preferably cushioning seats between beams. 49
  • 50. Lapped end Cause: The broken end of yarn is not tied to the end on the warp beam & overlaps the adjoining yarn. The beam is not properly brake & the signal hook fails to operate. Remedies: Tying the broken end to the end on the warp beam. Proper signal hook. Piecing Cause: One broken end is pieced to another yarn end on the warping beam. Remedies: By proper joining. Warper Beam Defects 50
  • 51.  Soft ends on the warping beam Cause: Breakage of a group of ends & piecing them in bundle or by lapping. This defect is caused by the careless of the operator. Remedies: Careful operation. Broken end should be piece up properly. Incorrect form of build Cause: Caused by non uniform spreading of ends in the guide reed & its improper setting & conical winding in case of non uniform pressure of the warping beam. Remedies: Uniform spreading of ends. Appropriate setting. Warper Beam Defects 51
  • 52.  Slacks & irregular yarn tension Cause: It happens due to any one of these reasons- improper threading of the yarn into the tension devices, ejection of yarn from under the disc of the yarn tensioning device, or yarn tension devices of poor quality. Remedies: Proper threading of tension device. Good quality of tension device.  Broken ends on the beam Cause: A group of ends is broken & tied as a brunch or worked-in with overlapping. Remedies: Broken ends should be removed. . Warper Beam Defects 52
  • 53. Conical winding on the beam Cause: It occurs due to incorrect load applied by the pressure roller. Remedies: Correct load applied. Improper length of warping Cause: It is due to malfunction of the counter & the brakes of the measuring device & warp beams. Remedies: Good measuring device Warper Beam Defects 53