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Blood grouping & Paternity
Testing
Toxicology & Forensic Serology 1
Dr. Aamir Ali Khan
Assistant Professor
PhD Biochemistry
Blood Grouping
• The RBC’s of men/mammalsarecircular,bioconcave & non
nucleated (camels are exceptions)
• Birds, fish&reptilesRBC’s areoval& nucleated
• RBC’s contains
– 65%water
– 35 %Solid
» Of which33% ishemoglobin
» 2%mixture of protein, blood group,cholesteroletc
Application of Blood Group in Forensic
Toxicology & Forensic Serology 3
• The applicationof blood group determination for medico
legalproblems isdone for following purpose
– Disputed paternityandmaternity
– Todeterminepossiblesource of blood staine.g. murder, rape
etc
– Inheritance claim
– Rh hazard
– Transfusion error
Basic GeneticPrincipal
5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology 4
• Genes the hereditary factor present in every cell
• Genes present inpairsknow alleles/Allelomorphs
– Alleles are pairof contrasting genesone from eachparent
– Iftwo genesidentical-homozygous
– iftwo genesdifferent-heterozygous
• Organismjudgedbycharacter- Phenotype e.g.Blood GroupA
• Organismgeneticmakeup-genotype e.g.GroupA maybe
AO/AA
Blood Group As Hereditary Factor
5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology 5
• The various blood group system (ABO,MN,Rh etc) its
inheritance based on two principal
– First: the groupand its characteristics develop atearlyage,
specificto individual&unchangedthroughout life
– Second: the characteristic of antigeninheritedas per
Mendel’s Laws ofHereditary
ABO System and Paternity
Toxicology & Forensic Serology 6
• AgglutinogenA (A1,A2) or Bcannot appearinchild until
present inboth or one of theparents
• An O parent canthaveAB childandvice versa
• Iftwo both parents of genotypeAO , achildmay born
with O group
Exclusion of paternity on theABO system
Toxicology & Forensic Serology 7
M N Blood System
Toxicology & Forensic Serology 8
• The MN blood group system is under the control of an autosomal locus
found on chromosome 4, with two alleles designated LM and LN. The
blood-type is due to a glycoprotein present on the surface of red blood
cells, which behaves as a native antigen.
• AgglutinogenMor N alwaysappearinbloodofchild
• TwoMparentscanthaveN childandviceversa
• Ifone parentistype Mandother TypeN thenallchildren aretypeMN
• Ifone parentishomozygous(Mor N) andother heterozygous thenallchildren
having50,50ratioto parental types
• IfbothparentsareMNtype thenchildrenof allthree types possible
Rh System
Toxicology & Forensic Serology 9
• Rh negativeparents cannot produce Rhpositive child
• Rhpositive homozygous parents canthaveaRh
negative children
• Rhpositive heterozygous parents canproduce both Rh
positive andRhnegative parents
Other bloodcomponent
1
0
5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology
• Groupingbasedonbloodprotein
– Haptoglobin(Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein capable of binding
hemoglobin, thus preventing iron loss and renal damage. Haptoglobin
also acts as an antioxidant, has antibacterial activity and plays a role in
modulating many aspects of the acute phase response)
– Hemoglobintypesetc
• Groupingbasedonenzymes
– Phosphoglucomutase(Phosphoglucomutase(PGM)(EC5.4.2.21)isanevolutionarily
conservedandwellcharacterizedenzymethatcatalyzestheinterconversionofglucose1-
phosphateandglucose6-phosphateviaaglucose1,6-diphosphateintermediate,makingita
keyenzymeinbothglycolysisandgluconeogenesis).
• Groupingbasedonwhitecellantigen
• Humanleucocytes antigen (HLA)
Efficacy of DifferentSystem
1
1
5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology
Group
• ABO grouping system
• MN system
• Rhsub groups
• HLA system
• DNA profiling
Exclusion of Paternity
16 %
33 %
50%
90 %
100 %
Case of Disputed paternity
1
2
Toxicology & Forensic Serology
• Alleged father AB, mother O, Child O, what isyour
thoughtsof paternity?
• Alleged FatherA, mother O, Child AB, isthat issue of
paternity or maternity?
Reference
1
3
Toxicology & Forensic Serology
• Text book of MedicalJurisprudence,ForensicmedicineandToxicology,BV
SubrahmanymSeventhedition.

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Paternity testing in forensic science.pptx

  • 1. Blood grouping & Paternity Testing Toxicology & Forensic Serology 1 Dr. Aamir Ali Khan Assistant Professor PhD Biochemistry
  • 2. Blood Grouping • The RBC’s of men/mammalsarecircular,bioconcave & non nucleated (camels are exceptions) • Birds, fish&reptilesRBC’s areoval& nucleated • RBC’s contains – 65%water – 35 %Solid » Of which33% ishemoglobin » 2%mixture of protein, blood group,cholesteroletc
  • 3. Application of Blood Group in Forensic Toxicology & Forensic Serology 3 • The applicationof blood group determination for medico legalproblems isdone for following purpose – Disputed paternityandmaternity – Todeterminepossiblesource of blood staine.g. murder, rape etc – Inheritance claim – Rh hazard – Transfusion error
  • 4. Basic GeneticPrincipal 5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology 4 • Genes the hereditary factor present in every cell • Genes present inpairsknow alleles/Allelomorphs – Alleles are pairof contrasting genesone from eachparent – Iftwo genesidentical-homozygous – iftwo genesdifferent-heterozygous • Organismjudgedbycharacter- Phenotype e.g.Blood GroupA • Organismgeneticmakeup-genotype e.g.GroupA maybe AO/AA
  • 5. Blood Group As Hereditary Factor 5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology 5 • The various blood group system (ABO,MN,Rh etc) its inheritance based on two principal – First: the groupand its characteristics develop atearlyage, specificto individual&unchangedthroughout life – Second: the characteristic of antigeninheritedas per Mendel’s Laws ofHereditary
  • 6. ABO System and Paternity Toxicology & Forensic Serology 6 • AgglutinogenA (A1,A2) or Bcannot appearinchild until present inboth or one of theparents • An O parent canthaveAB childandvice versa • Iftwo both parents of genotypeAO , achildmay born with O group
  • 7. Exclusion of paternity on theABO system Toxicology & Forensic Serology 7
  • 8. M N Blood System Toxicology & Forensic Serology 8 • The MN blood group system is under the control of an autosomal locus found on chromosome 4, with two alleles designated LM and LN. The blood-type is due to a glycoprotein present on the surface of red blood cells, which behaves as a native antigen. • AgglutinogenMor N alwaysappearinbloodofchild • TwoMparentscanthaveN childandviceversa • Ifone parentistype Mandother TypeN thenallchildren aretypeMN • Ifone parentishomozygous(Mor N) andother heterozygous thenallchildren having50,50ratioto parental types • IfbothparentsareMNtype thenchildrenof allthree types possible
  • 9. Rh System Toxicology & Forensic Serology 9 • Rh negativeparents cannot produce Rhpositive child • Rhpositive homozygous parents canthaveaRh negative children • Rhpositive heterozygous parents canproduce both Rh positive andRhnegative parents
  • 10. Other bloodcomponent 1 0 5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology • Groupingbasedonbloodprotein – Haptoglobin(Haptoglobin is an acute phase protein capable of binding hemoglobin, thus preventing iron loss and renal damage. Haptoglobin also acts as an antioxidant, has antibacterial activity and plays a role in modulating many aspects of the acute phase response) – Hemoglobintypesetc • Groupingbasedonenzymes – Phosphoglucomutase(Phosphoglucomutase(PGM)(EC5.4.2.21)isanevolutionarily conservedandwellcharacterizedenzymethatcatalyzestheinterconversionofglucose1- phosphateandglucose6-phosphateviaaglucose1,6-diphosphateintermediate,makingita keyenzymeinbothglycolysisandgluconeogenesis). • Groupingbasedonwhitecellantigen • Humanleucocytes antigen (HLA)
  • 11. Efficacy of DifferentSystem 1 1 5/22/2021 Toxicology & Forensic Serology Group • ABO grouping system • MN system • Rhsub groups • HLA system • DNA profiling Exclusion of Paternity 16 % 33 % 50% 90 % 100 %
  • 12. Case of Disputed paternity 1 2 Toxicology & Forensic Serology • Alleged father AB, mother O, Child O, what isyour thoughtsof paternity? • Alleged FatherA, mother O, Child AB, isthat issue of paternity or maternity?
  • 13. Reference 1 3 Toxicology & Forensic Serology • Text book of MedicalJurisprudence,ForensicmedicineandToxicology,BV SubrahmanymSeventhedition.