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MRS. BABITHA K DEVU
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
SMVDCON
INTRODUCTION
Guidance & counseling are twin concepts & have
emerged as essential elements of every
educational activity. Guidance & counseling are
not synonymous term. Counseling is a part of
guidance. Guidance, in educational context,
means to indicate, point out, show the way, lead
out & direct. Counseling is a specialized service
of guidance. It is the process of helping
individuals learn more about themselves & their
present & possible future situations to make a
substantial contribution to the society.
INTRODUCTION
In nursing education and service, guidance and
counseling is an integral component of best
practice. It is essential for nurse educators
and mentors to be acquainted with the
techniques of guidance & counseling . The
main purpose of education is to help
individuals to become contributing members
of the society. If education is provided without
adequate and proper guidance and
counseling, it will become difficult to attain
the desirable personality who can be fruitful
to family and society.
DEFINITIONS OF GUIDANCE
 Guidance is that aspect of educational
programme which is concerned with helping the
pupil to become adjusted to his/her present
situation and plan his future in line with his/her
interests, abilities and social needs.
-Hamrin & Erikson
 Guidance as a process through which an
individual is able to solve their problems and
pursue a path suited to their abilities and
aspirations.
-JM Brewer
DEFINITIONS OF GUIDANCE
 Guidance is a continuous process of helping the
individual development in the maximum of their
capacity in the direction most beneficial to
himself and to society
-Stoops and Wahlquist
 Guidance is an assistance made available by a
competent counselor to an individual of any age
to help him direct his own life, develop his own
point of view, make his own decision & carry his
own burden.
-Crow and Crow
MEANING OF GUIDANCE
 Guidance is an all-round assistance given to
an individual in all aspects of development.
 It is a process of providing assistance given
to an individual to solve their problems.
 Guidance as the promotion of the growth of
the individual in self-direction.
 Guidance helps the individuals to adjust to
the environment.
 It is a continuous process.
DEFINITION OF COUNSELING
 Counseling is essentially a process in which the
counselor assists the counselee to make
interpretations of facts relating to a choice, plan
or adjustment which he needs to make.
-Glenn F. Smith
 Counseling is a series of direct contacts with the
individual which aims to offer him assistance in
changing his attitude & behaviors.
-Carl Rogers
MEANING OF COUNSELING
 It is a purposeful reciprocal relationship
between to people in which a trained person,
helps the other to change himself/herself.
 In education, counseling is a collaborative
process.
 In patient care, counseling is a method that
helps clients and health care people to use
problem solving approach to recognize and
manage stress.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND
COUNSELING
GUIDANCE COUNSELING
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
GUIDANCE COUNSELING
Guidance is broader &
comprehensive.
Counseling is in-depth &
narrow, also integral part
of guidance.
Guidance is more
external, helps a person
understand alternative
solutions available to him
& makes him understand
his personality & choose
the right solution.
Counseling helps people
understand themselves &
is an inward analysis.
Alternative solutions are
proposed to help
understand the problem at
hand.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
GUIDANCE COUNSELING
Guidance is mainly
preventive & developmental.
Counseling is remedial
as well as preventive &
developmental.
It can be done for an
individual as well as for a
group.
It is done to one
individual at a time.
Intellectual attitudes are the
raw material of guidance.
Emotional rather than
pure intellectual
attitude are raw
material of the
counseling process.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
GUIDANCE COUNSELING
It enables to solve
educational, vocational
and other personal issues.
It usually helps in solving
issues related to
emotional and mental
health.
The focus is on finding
solution and it may bring
attitude changes.
The focus is not on
solution but on
understanding the
problem.
Decision making happens
at an intellectual level.
Decision making happens
at emotional level.
It can be a It is a voluntary process.
PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
Providing the needed information &
assistance
Helping the individual to make wise choices
Improving the understanding of self
Facilitate the adjustment
Helps in adapting to the changes or new environment
PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
Making self-sufficient & independent
Efficient use of capabilities & talent
Promote the optimal personal & professional
development
Balanced physical, psychological,
emotional, social & spiritual growth
Helps in overall development & to live productive life
PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
These functions are helpful in the overall
development of an individual and living a
productive life.
 To provide optimum development & well-being for
individual.
 To help individuals adjust to themselves & the
society.
 To help people understand themselves in relation
to the world.
Other purposes/functions are as follows:
PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
 To aid individuals in efficient decision making.
 To help individuals plan for a productive life in
their social context by focusing on their assets,
skills, strengths & possibilities for further
development.
 To bring about changes in the attitude &
behavior of individuals.
Other purposes/functions are as follows:
CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDANCE
It helps every individual to help himself to recognize
and use his inner resources,
To set goals
To make plans
To work out his own problems of development.
It is a continuous process
Choice and problem points are the distinctive
concerns of guidance
Guidance is a service meant for all: It is a regular
service, which is required at every stage for every
student.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDANCE
It is assistance to the individual in the process of
development.
Aim: To develop the capacity for
Self direction
Self guidance
Self improvement
It is both generalized and a specialized service.
It enables the individuals to take decisions to
grow independently.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING
Counseling involves two individuals-one seeking
help & the other a professionally trained person who
can help the first.
There should be a relationship of mutual respect
between the two individuals.
Counseling is aimed at bringing about desired
changes in the individual for self - realization &
providing assistance to solve problems through an
intimate personal relationship.
The counselor discovers the problems of the
counselee & help him to set up realistic goals
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING
If counselee is a student, counseling helps
him to take a decision, make a choice or find
a direction in matters related to an
educational programme or career.
It helps the counselee acquire independence
& develop a sense of responsibility.
It is more than advice giving.
It involves something more than offering an
assistance to find a solution to an immediate
problems.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING
Counseling is democratic.
Counseling concerns itself with attitudes as
well as actions
Counseling is centered around the needs &
aspirations of students
SCOPE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
In ancient Indian societies, the scope of
professional guidance and counseling was
limited specifically because of the supportive
social and joint family system.
The scope of guidance and counseling is as
broad as the human existence; it is not limited
to a particular area. Guidance and counseling
assists individuals in each domain of personal,
educational and professional aspects of life.
Some broad areas of the scope of guidance
and counseling are as follows:
SCOPE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
Guidance & counseling for personal
needs/problems
• Guidance & counseling for educational
needs/problems
Guidance & counseling for physical,
emotional, social, moral & marital
problems
• Guidance & counseling for vocational,
occupational & professional needs
SCOPE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
Guidance & counseling for career
advancement
• Guidance & counseling for holistic
individual development
Guidance & counseling for situational
problems
NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
It is a basic fact that human beings need help.
Every one needs assistance at sometime in
his life, some will need it constantly while
others used in only at rare. The major
reasons for which guidance is required are:
a)Psychological reasons
b)Sociological reasons
c)Educational reasons
NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
a)Psychological reasons
A common reason where individual seek
guidance is to understand individual
differences of people. Guidance needs at
different stages of development. It enables
development of healthy personality and
ensures to make the best of available
opportunities.
NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
b)Sociological reasons
Guidance is needed for proper use of human energy. It
guides and changes the religious and moral beliefs of
individuals. Guidance thus necessitates the extension
of democracy.
c)Educational reasons
This is to support the student’s learning. It enables
learners to achieve desirable career prospectus
through prospective choices of courses. It helps
individuals to attain exceptional standard by wastage
of time, resource and manpower, etc. It helps in
vocational & professional maturity. Prepares to adapt
in changing professional situations & emerging
challenges.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
According to Crow and Crow (1960) there are 14 significant
principles for guidance they are
1) Every aspect of person’s complex personality pattern
constitutes a significant factor of his total displayed
attitudes and form of behavior. Guidance service which
are aimed at bringing about desirable adjustments in any
particular area of experience must take in to account, the
all round development of the individual.
2) Although all human beings are similar in many respect,
individual difference must be recognized and considered
in any effort aimed at providing help or guidance to a
particular child.
3) The function of the guidance is to help a person to
formulate and accept stimulating, worthwhile and
attainable goals of behavior and to apply the goals to
conduct his behavior.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
4) Existing social, economic and politic unrest is
giving rise to many maladaptive factors that
require the cooperation of experienced and
thoroughly trained guidance workers and the
individuals with the problem.
5) Guidance should be regarded as a continuing
process of service to an individual from young
childhood through adulthood.
6) Guidance service should not be limited to the
few who give observable evidence of its need,
but should be extended to the all person of all
ages who can benefit there from either directly
or indirectly.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
7) Curriculum materials and teaching procedure
should evidence a guidance point of view.
8) Parents and teachers have guidance appointed
responsibilities.
9) To administer guidance intelligently and with as
thorough knowledge of the individual as is
possible, programs of individual evaluation
should be conducted and accurate consultative
records of progress should made accessible to
guidance workers/staff.
10) An organized guidance programme should be
flexible according to the individual and social
needs.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
11) The responsibilities for administration of
guidance programme should be centered in a
personally qualified and adequately trained
person, working cooperatively with his
assistance and other community welfare and
guidance agencies.
12) Periodical appraisal should be made for
existing guidance programmes.
13) Guidance touches every phase of an
individual’s life pattern.
14) Specific guidance problems on any age level
should be referred to persons who are trained
to deal with particular areas of adjustment.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING
According to Mc Daniel and Shaftal, the counseling
process is based on some basic principles:
I. Principle of Acceptance: According to this
principle, each client must the accepted as an
individual and dealt with as such. The counselor
should give, due regard to the rights of the client.
II. Principle of Permissiveness: Counseling is such a
relationship which develops optimism and the
environment shapes according to the person. All the
thoughts accept the relative relationship of
counseling.
III. Principle of Respect for the Individual: All the
schools of thoughts of counseling advocate for the
respect of the individual i.e., respecting an
individual’s feelings must be an integral part of
counseling process.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING
IV. Principle of Thinking with the Individual: Counseling
emphasizes thinking with the individual. It is essential to
differentiate think for whom? And ‘why to think’? It is the
role of the counselor the think about all the forces
around the client to join client’s thought process and to
work collectively with the client regarding his problem.
V. Principle of Learning: All the assumptions of
counseling accept the presence of learning-elements in
the counseling process.
VI. Principle of Consistency with Ideals of Democracy:
All the principles are associated with ideals of
democracy. The ideals of democracy desire to accept a
person and want to respect the rights of others. The
process of counseling is based upon the ideals of a
person’s respect. It is a process with accepts individual
differences.
TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
Personal
Social
Educational
Vocational
Health
Recreationa
l
TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
Ingredients of guidance and counseling
services…
1.The Admission Service (Admitting the right
candidates for the right course, selecting those
candidates most likely)
2. The Orientation Service (A “welcome service”
as it is concerned with welcoming fresher's to
the world of nursing )
3. The Student Information Service (Assist the
student to obtain a realistic picture of his
abilities, interests, personality characteristics,
achievements, levels of aspiration, state of
health, etc.)
TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
Ingredients of guidance and counseling
services…
4. The Information Service (Information provide
usually related to Education, occupational &
personal-social )
5. The Counseling Service (understand what he
can do & what he should do, handle his
difficulties in a rational way, make his own
decision, etc.)
6. The Placement Service (Help students to be in
proper scholastic track, to realize their career
expectations, organize campus selection
interviews, provide information regarding current
TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
Ingredients of guidance and counseling
services…
7. The Remedial Service (it is mainly oriented
towards helping students to improve their
study habits, improve their adjustment in the
clinical area, reducing stress, etc.)
8. The follow-up Service (it is that review or
systematic evaluation which is carried out to
find out whether guidance services in
particular & educational programme in
general satisfies the needs of the students. )
TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES
Ingredients of guidance and counseling
services…
9. The Research Service (It is intended to
examine both the personnel in the college
guidance programme & the techniques of
guidance used by them so as to discover their
strong & weak points & ultimately strengthen the
whole programme.)
10. The Evaluation Service (it determines the
effectiveness & efficiency of the guidance
programme, less number of dropouts,
harmonious relationship between teachers &
students, good result, well placed passed out
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING
The four basic component of counseling
are considered to be four corners of
counseling.
Clarity and accessing information
Rapport and understanding
Deeper understanding and taking action
The doorway: Using specific therapies
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING
Basic
components
of
counseling
 Clarity and
accessing
information
Deeper
understanding
and taking
action
Rapport and
understanding
The doorway:
Using specific
therapies
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING
 Clarity and accessing
information
The intention of the counselor is to clarify and gather
information for the benefit of the client and well as
counselor.
The counselor should use the following
communication techniques for clarity and accessing
of information.
• Reflect on content & paraphrase to clarify
• Use open – ended & closed – ended questions and
summarize.
• Encourage communication, use minimal prompts
and reflect on the feelings.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING
Rapport and understanding
It is important to establish legitimate rapport
between counselee and the counselor from
the initial contact. For good rapport the
counselor must create a conducive
environment in a meaningful way. Warm
reflective time period for the counselee to
express feelings & opinions should be
provided and the counselor must understand
the concept rightly.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING
Deeper understanding and taking
action
Best remedial action can be taken only with
adequate understanding of the core issue. To
make the counselee to take responsibility &
appropriate actions, counselor must possess
challenging skills such as advanced
empathy, empathetic summarizations,
meaning and value clarification, immediacy,
self disclosure and goal setting.
BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING
The doorway: Using specific
therapies
This step involves to sort issue by
psychological defense and to use skills and
measures for therapeutic purpose. The aim is
to endeavor resolution by deep healing,
understanding and emotional release. Initially
the counselor should use the above
mentioned specific strategies and further
target on specific emotions, thoughts,
unconscious parts and body expressions.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Based on the nature of counseling associated
with the role of counselor there are three
broad types of counseling.
Directive counseling
Nondirective counseling
Eclective counseling
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Other types of counseling.
Personal/ social counseling
Educational counseling
Vocational counseling
Spiritual counseling
Informal counseling
Supportive counseling
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Directive counseling
It is also known as prescriptive counseling or counselor
–centered approach of counseling. This approach of
counseling is advocated by E.G. Williamson, a
professor at University of Minnesota. In directive
counseling, the counselor plays a leading role & uses
a variety of techniques to suggest appropriate
solutions to the counselee's problem. This approach
also known as authoritarian or psychoanalytic
approach. The counselor is active & help individuals
in making decisions & finding solution to their
problems. The counselor believes in the limited
capacity of the patient. The emphasis is on the
problem, not on the individual.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Directive counseling
There are six main steps of directive
counseling procedure (Williamson 1939; and
Darley, 1943). To address on issues related
to academic and vocational choices this
approach of counseling is better. This type of
counseling doesn’t focus as such on
personality development.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Steps of
Directive
Counseling
Gathering
information
& Analysis
Synthesis
Diagnosis
Prognosi
s
Counseling
Follow -
up
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Directive counseling
Advantages
This approach save time.
It emphasizes the problem & not the individual.
The counselor can see the patient more
objectively than the patient himself.
It lays more emphasis on the intellectual rather
than the emotional aspects of an individual’s
personality.
The methods used in directive counseling are
direct, persuasive & explanatory.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Directive counseling
Disadvantages
The patient does not gain any liability for self
analysis or solve new problems of adjustment
by counseling.
It makes the counselee over dependent on the
counselor.
Problems regarding emotional maladjustment
may be better solved by nondirective
counseling.
Sometimes the counselee lacks information
regarding the counselee, leads wrong
counseling.
It does not guarantee that the counselee will
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
The chief exponent of this counseling approach is
Carl Rogers. It is also known as the permissive
counseling approach where the counselor's role
is passive & the counselee’s role is active.
Hence it is a counselee-centered or patient-
centered humanistic approach.
The counselee makes the final decisions as
individuals are thoughts to have full right to
make final decisions for the self & solve their
problems. The counselor has to accept the
counselee’s capacity to make adjustment &
adapt.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
The principles of acceptance & tolerance are extremely
important in this approach.
The basic assumptions related to nondirective
counseling approach are:
Patient is given importance than the counseling
directions & investigations
Emotional aspects are more significant than
intellectual aspects.
Creation of an atmosphere where patients can work
out their understanding is more important than
cultivating self-understanding in the patient.
Counseling leads to a voluntary choice of goals & a
conscious selection of courses of action.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Carl R Rogers (1951) who is the chief proponent
of Nondirective counseling designed following
steps:
Relationship building
Problem assessment
Goal setting
Intervention
Evaluation, follow-up, termination or referral
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Relationship building
This step focuses on engaging students to explore the
issue that directly affect them. The 1st interview is
important because the student/counselee makes
inferences about the counselor and the counseling
situation.
There are certain kind of nonhelpful behaviour which
has to be avoided in the process of relationship
building like advice giving, lecturing, excessive
questioning, storytelling, asking “why”, asking “how
did that make you feel”.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Relationship building
The following steps are helpful in relationship
building for the counselor.
Self introduction
Invite counselee to be seated
Make the counselee feel comfortable
Address counselee by name
Reduce anxiety with open conversation
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Relationship building
Watch counselee’s nonverbal behaviour as a
sign of emotional state
Encourage counselee to describe the
purpose of visit
Provide enough time for the counselee to
respond
Indicate that you are interested in the
counselee
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Problem assessment
It involves the collection and classification of
information about the client’s life situation
and reasons for seeking counseling.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Goal setting
This step is to provide the counselor a focus. Goal should
be selected and defined with care. Some guidelines for
goal selection that can be used with students are:
1. Should relate to the ends sought by the students.
2. Defined in measurable terms and also feasible.
3. Within the range of the counselor’s knowledge and
skills.
4. Stated in positive terms that emphasize growth.
5. Consistent with the mission, vision and policies of
institutions.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Intervention
The counselor must help counselee to develop insight
into problems as well as available resources to
manage the problems. For this he/she can use
various approaches like person-centered approach,
behavioral approach. This step involves opening of
defenses and use of other therapeutic measures and
skills. This is aimed at encouraging deeper healing,
understanding and emotional release and resolution.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Evaluation, follow-up, termination or referral
The termination has to be conducted with
sensitivity with the client knowing that it will
have to end. Preparation for termination begins
long before. Termination is not the end of
successful relationship, but also it is considered
when it seems counseling is not being helpful.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Advantages
It is a slow but sure process to make an
individual capable of making adjustments.
No tests are used so one avoids all that is
laborious & difficult .
It removes emotional block & helps an individual
bring repressed thoughts on a conscious level
thereby reducing tension.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Nondirective counseling
Disadvantages
 It is a slow & time-consuming process.
 One cannot rely upon one’s resources, judgment &
wisdom as the patient is immature in making the
decision himself.
 It depends too much on the ability & initiative of the
patient.
 Sometime difficulty to control pace of the interview
discussion.
 This approach is individual centric, it may not
possible for counselor to attend every patient equally
well.
 It require high degree of motivation in the patient.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Eclective counseling
F.C. Throne is the chief exponent of eclectic approach in
counseling. It is synthesis of directive and nondirective
counseling.
This approach is based on the fact that all individuals are
different from one another. The techniques are elective in
nature because they have been derived from all sources
of counseling. This approach is based on selecting the
best & leaving out what is least required.
The basic assumption related to eclectic counseling
approach:
 There is objectivity & co-ordination between counselor &
the patient during the counseling experience.
 The patient is active & the counselor remains passive in
the beginning.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Eclective counseling
 The principle of low expenditure is adopted.
 The counselor makes use of all the tools &
methods in his armour.
 The counselor enjoys the freedom to resort
to directive & nondirective counseling
methods.
 The counseling relationship is built during the
counseling interview. This helps the patient
gain reassurance & confidence.
TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES
Advantages of eclectic counseling approach
 It is more cost effective & practical approach.
 It is a more flexible approach of counseling.
 It is more objective & coordinated approach of
counseling.
Limitations of eclectic counseling approach
 The role of counselor & the counselee are not
predetermined.
 It requires more skilled counselors to handle the
dynamic feature of this counseling approach.
OTHER TYPES OF COUNSELING
A)Based on length of the counseling session:
 Short-term counseling
 Long-term counseling
B) Based on number of counselees involved:
 Individual counseling
 Group counseling
C) Counseling for educational & professional
purposes:
 Student counseling
 Educational counseling
 Vocational counseling
 Career counseling
 Placement counseling
OTHER TYPES OF COUNSELING
D) Counseling for health-related purposes:
 Psychotherapeutic counseling
 Crisis counseling
 Health counseling
 Genetic counseling
E) Counseling for personal/social purposes:
 Personal counseling
 Marriage counseling
 Motivational counseling
 Developmental counseling
ORGANIZATION OF COUNSELING SERVICES
Organization means planning, coordinating and
performing certain activities systematically
within the policy framework of the institution.
The major types or forms of the organization of
counseling services in educational institutions
are:
1.Centralization counseling services: group of
trained personnel
II. Decentralization counseling services:
services is vested upon teachers
III. Combination of centralized & decentralized
counseling services: services are provided by
teachers & expert collectively.
COUNSELING PROCESS
The three – stage model of counseling process
(Kagan, Evans & Kay) are:-
Explore
Understand
Action
Establishing
Relationship
Assessment
Setting Goals
Interventions
Termination &
Follow-Up
COUNSELING PROCESS
Explore
The exploration begins with assessment. Assessment
includes evaluating whether a person will benefit from
counseling that is made available, providing sufficient
information for the client to make up his or her mind
and agreeing to timings and scheduling. Some
counselors use standardized psychological tests as a
part of assessment phase. Some others use open-
ended questionnaires.
This is followed by establishing the therapeutic
relationship with the client. The counselor need to
possess certain skills to facilitate establishing the
therapeutic relationship in counseling process.
COUNSELING PROCESS
Explore
Skills are as follows:
 Listening: In counseling listening is an active
process. Here the counselor has to go beyond
attending and receiving the message and extend to
communicating to the counselee that the facts and
feelings have been heard and that the person is
understood.
 Paraphrasing: It is to reflect the thoughts and
feelings and summaries in a way by which nurse
counselors can indicate that they understood, accept
and empathized.
 Reflection: It is a form of paraphrasing that is
generally limited to the feelings.
COUNSELING PROCESS
Understand
This process of counseling deals with
enhancing the awareness of the problem by
discussing it in details which enables them to
set realistic goals that they can go on to
achieve.
Skills Required:
Listening
Therapeutic touch
Self-disclosure
COUNSELING PROCESS
Understand
The realistic goal set should be:-
Concrete or specific, rather than vague
Clear and easy to recognize when they have
been reached
Within personal scope and capabilities
Within person’s values
Attainable over a reasonable period of time.
COUNSELING PROCESS
Understand
Techniques for setting goal:
Problem reduction: this is thinking through
process. The general goal is identified & then
questions are asked to encourage the person
to split it into more specific and concrete
goals. Then it is further split into specific
actions that can be carried over.
Laddering: Process of growing goal
hierarchies and is useful when we want to
clarify why a particular goal is important.
COUNSELING PROCESS
Action
It is making the person move toward positive
direction in order to solve the problem
encountered or the goal to be achieved which
has been set in previous phase.
Techniques:
 Brainstorming: one or more persons think about
ideas without rejecting any of it.
 Force field analysis: to take an overall look at
what helps/hinders the progress towards a goal.
 Self-awareness: it is essential as it interferes
with our ability to help others in way that are
nonintrusive as possible.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
In studying and appraising the individual, data
and information pertaining to all aspect of life
are required. A variety of tools and
techniques are used for this purpose. They
can be classified into:
Testing Techniques
Non testing Techniques
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
Testing Techniques
General ability tests
Personality tests
Achievement tests
Interest inventories
Diagnosing learning difficulties
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
Testing Techniques
These are done as a means to gather information. A
single test is not enough to make a decision in G & C.
Purposes:
o To determine individual’s achievement level &
progress
o To identify the attitude
o To find the need
o To improve instructions
o To understand counselee’s self-concept, personality
& attitude
o For social judgment
o To recognize under and over achievers
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
Testing Techniques
General ability tests: Aptitude of the individual
and general intellectual development are
measured by intelligence and aptitude test.
Personality tests: They are designed to
measure attitudes, interpersonal relations,
motivation and emotional adjustment of an
individual.
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
Testing Techniques
Achievement tests: These are intended to measure
what has been learned from school, i.e knowledge &
skills.
Interest inventories: It assess the likes and dislikes of
an individual.
Diagnosing learning difficulties: It is helpful in finding
out learning difficulties of students through a
systematic method and to help the learner to
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
Non testing Techniques
These techniques are also known as nonstandardized
techniques. These techniques provide subjective
approach to gather data and interpreting it for clients.
Interview
Observation
Case study
Cumulative record
Sociometric techniques
Questionnaire
Rating scale
Anecdotal record
Autobiography
TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING
Non testing Techniques
Interview
Observation
Case study
Cumulative record
Sociometric techniques
Questionnaire
Rating scale
Anecdotal record
Autobiography
ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING
Respect for the right & dignity of the client
Competence
Responsibility
Integrity
Fidelity
Autonomy
Beneficence
Nonmaleficence
Justice
ETHICAL ISSUES OF COUNSELING
Some of the ethical aspects involved are
Informed consent
Confidentiality
Privileged communication
Certain situations in which the counselor should report
the information legally are:
 A minor client who is a victim of rape, incest, abuse
or some other crime.
 A client who need hospitalization.
 When a client request to release their record to them
or to a third party.
 Information need to be disclosed in the court of law.
ROLE & PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR
The word counselor is derived from counseling
and means ‘a person who performs counseling’.
D. W. Lefeuer states that a counselor will be one
who devotes half or more of his time to
guidance. The success of the counseling
process primarily depends on the vision and
planning of the counselor. The role &
responsibility of counselor include:
1.Advice 2. Reassurance 3. Communication
4. Release of emotional tension
5. Clarified thinking.
ROLE & PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR
Qualities of a Good Counselor:
G – Good
technical
Knowledge
O – Obtaining
appropriate
info. from
client
O – Objectively
answering
questions
D –
C – Confidentiality
O – Observant
U – Unbiased
N – Nonjudgmental
S – Sensitive to the needs of client
E – Empathetic
L – Listener
O – Open communicator
R – Respect the right & dignity of
client
PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR
Educational background & Experience:
Pretraining attributes:
 Self awareness & understanding
 Good psychological health
 Sensitivity
 Open mindedness
 Objectivity
 Trustworthiness
PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR
Skills required for the counselor
Non verbal communication skills
Verbal communication skills
ISSUES OF COUNSELING IN NURSING
Personal
Personal values
Lack of objectivity
Lack of physical facilities and other
resources
Managing disciplinary problems
Preventive Disciplinary Corrective/Supportive Disciplinary
•Hot stove rules
ISSUES OF COUNSELING IN NURSING
Managing disciplinary problems
Preventive Disciplinary
Social
skills
instructio
n
Positive
Behavio
ur Mgt
•Unified
Discipline
approach
•Shared
expectation
s for
socially
competent
behaviour
ISSUES OF COUNSELING IN NURSING
Managing disciplinary problems
Corrective/Supportive Disciplinary
(Classical conditioning or operant
conditioning)
•Hot stove rules
All students must be aware of
rules & consequences of breaking
it.
Administer discipline immediately
when the rule is broken.
Maintain impartiality in discipline
administration
CRISIS & REFERRAL
Definition:
Crisis is a sudden event in one’s life that disturbs
homeostasis, during which the individual’s usual
coping mechanism cannot resolve the problem.
_____ Largerquist
Characteristics:
 Occurs to all individuals.
 Precipitated by specific identifiable events.
 Personal by nature.
 Is acute, not chronic.
 This situation is potential for psychological growth or
deterioration.
CRISIS & REFERRAL
Types:
Situational crisis
Adventitious crisis
Maturational crisis
CRISIS & REFERRAL
Crisis Intervention:
The methods used to offer short – term
immediate help to individuals who have
experienced an event that produces mental,
physical, emotional & behavioral distress.
Goals:-
• Mitigate the impact of an event.
• Facilitate a normal recovery process.
• Restore adaptive functioning.
CRISIS & REFERRAL
Crisis Intervention:
Principles:- (Jeffrey H Mitchell)
1) Simplicity
2) Innovation
3) Pragmatism
4) Immediacy
5) Expectancy
CRISIS & REFERRAL
Crisis Intervention:
Six step Model:- (Gilliland)
CRISIS & REFERRAL
Crisis Intervention:
Techniques:-
Catharsis
Clarification
Suggestion
Reinforcement of behavior
Support of defense mechanisms
Raising self esteem
Exploration of solutions
CONCLUSION
During the journey from novice to expert, students
and faculty in educational institutes benefit from
ongoing guidance and counseling. It not only
helps them to understand themselves and their
circumstances, but also to make right decisions
and right choices in their personal and
professional life.
Hence, guidance and counseling services must
be a part of every nursing educational
institutions as it can help the student and
teachers to overcome various professional
challenges.
Notes guidance & counseling

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Notes guidance & counseling

  • 1. MRS. BABITHA K DEVU ASSISTANT PROFESSOR SMVDCON
  • 2. INTRODUCTION Guidance & counseling are twin concepts & have emerged as essential elements of every educational activity. Guidance & counseling are not synonymous term. Counseling is a part of guidance. Guidance, in educational context, means to indicate, point out, show the way, lead out & direct. Counseling is a specialized service of guidance. It is the process of helping individuals learn more about themselves & their present & possible future situations to make a substantial contribution to the society.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION In nursing education and service, guidance and counseling is an integral component of best practice. It is essential for nurse educators and mentors to be acquainted with the techniques of guidance & counseling . The main purpose of education is to help individuals to become contributing members of the society. If education is provided without adequate and proper guidance and counseling, it will become difficult to attain the desirable personality who can be fruitful to family and society.
  • 4. DEFINITIONS OF GUIDANCE  Guidance is that aspect of educational programme which is concerned with helping the pupil to become adjusted to his/her present situation and plan his future in line with his/her interests, abilities and social needs. -Hamrin & Erikson  Guidance as a process through which an individual is able to solve their problems and pursue a path suited to their abilities and aspirations. -JM Brewer
  • 5. DEFINITIONS OF GUIDANCE  Guidance is a continuous process of helping the individual development in the maximum of their capacity in the direction most beneficial to himself and to society -Stoops and Wahlquist  Guidance is an assistance made available by a competent counselor to an individual of any age to help him direct his own life, develop his own point of view, make his own decision & carry his own burden. -Crow and Crow
  • 6. MEANING OF GUIDANCE  Guidance is an all-round assistance given to an individual in all aspects of development.  It is a process of providing assistance given to an individual to solve their problems.  Guidance as the promotion of the growth of the individual in self-direction.  Guidance helps the individuals to adjust to the environment.  It is a continuous process.
  • 7. DEFINITION OF COUNSELING  Counseling is essentially a process in which the counselor assists the counselee to make interpretations of facts relating to a choice, plan or adjustment which he needs to make. -Glenn F. Smith  Counseling is a series of direct contacts with the individual which aims to offer him assistance in changing his attitude & behaviors. -Carl Rogers
  • 8. MEANING OF COUNSELING  It is a purposeful reciprocal relationship between to people in which a trained person, helps the other to change himself/herself.  In education, counseling is a collaborative process.  In patient care, counseling is a method that helps clients and health care people to use problem solving approach to recognize and manage stress.
  • 9. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING GUIDANCE COUNSELING
  • 10. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING GUIDANCE COUNSELING Guidance is broader & comprehensive. Counseling is in-depth & narrow, also integral part of guidance. Guidance is more external, helps a person understand alternative solutions available to him & makes him understand his personality & choose the right solution. Counseling helps people understand themselves & is an inward analysis. Alternative solutions are proposed to help understand the problem at hand.
  • 11. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING GUIDANCE COUNSELING Guidance is mainly preventive & developmental. Counseling is remedial as well as preventive & developmental. It can be done for an individual as well as for a group. It is done to one individual at a time. Intellectual attitudes are the raw material of guidance. Emotional rather than pure intellectual attitude are raw material of the counseling process.
  • 12. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING GUIDANCE COUNSELING It enables to solve educational, vocational and other personal issues. It usually helps in solving issues related to emotional and mental health. The focus is on finding solution and it may bring attitude changes. The focus is not on solution but on understanding the problem. Decision making happens at an intellectual level. Decision making happens at emotional level. It can be a It is a voluntary process.
  • 13. PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Providing the needed information & assistance Helping the individual to make wise choices Improving the understanding of self Facilitate the adjustment Helps in adapting to the changes or new environment
  • 14. PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING Making self-sufficient & independent Efficient use of capabilities & talent Promote the optimal personal & professional development Balanced physical, psychological, emotional, social & spiritual growth Helps in overall development & to live productive life
  • 15. PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING These functions are helpful in the overall development of an individual and living a productive life.  To provide optimum development & well-being for individual.  To help individuals adjust to themselves & the society.  To help people understand themselves in relation to the world. Other purposes/functions are as follows:
  • 16. PURPOSES OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING  To aid individuals in efficient decision making.  To help individuals plan for a productive life in their social context by focusing on their assets, skills, strengths & possibilities for further development.  To bring about changes in the attitude & behavior of individuals. Other purposes/functions are as follows:
  • 17. CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDANCE It helps every individual to help himself to recognize and use his inner resources, To set goals To make plans To work out his own problems of development. It is a continuous process Choice and problem points are the distinctive concerns of guidance Guidance is a service meant for all: It is a regular service, which is required at every stage for every student.
  • 18. CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDANCE It is assistance to the individual in the process of development. Aim: To develop the capacity for Self direction Self guidance Self improvement It is both generalized and a specialized service. It enables the individuals to take decisions to grow independently.
  • 19. CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING Counseling involves two individuals-one seeking help & the other a professionally trained person who can help the first. There should be a relationship of mutual respect between the two individuals. Counseling is aimed at bringing about desired changes in the individual for self - realization & providing assistance to solve problems through an intimate personal relationship. The counselor discovers the problems of the counselee & help him to set up realistic goals
  • 20. CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING If counselee is a student, counseling helps him to take a decision, make a choice or find a direction in matters related to an educational programme or career. It helps the counselee acquire independence & develop a sense of responsibility. It is more than advice giving. It involves something more than offering an assistance to find a solution to an immediate problems.
  • 21. CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELING Counseling is democratic. Counseling concerns itself with attitudes as well as actions Counseling is centered around the needs & aspirations of students
  • 22. SCOPE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING In ancient Indian societies, the scope of professional guidance and counseling was limited specifically because of the supportive social and joint family system. The scope of guidance and counseling is as broad as the human existence; it is not limited to a particular area. Guidance and counseling assists individuals in each domain of personal, educational and professional aspects of life. Some broad areas of the scope of guidance and counseling are as follows:
  • 23. SCOPE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING Guidance & counseling for personal needs/problems • Guidance & counseling for educational needs/problems Guidance & counseling for physical, emotional, social, moral & marital problems • Guidance & counseling for vocational, occupational & professional needs
  • 24. SCOPE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING Guidance & counseling for career advancement • Guidance & counseling for holistic individual development Guidance & counseling for situational problems
  • 25. NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING It is a basic fact that human beings need help. Every one needs assistance at sometime in his life, some will need it constantly while others used in only at rare. The major reasons for which guidance is required are: a)Psychological reasons b)Sociological reasons c)Educational reasons
  • 26. NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING a)Psychological reasons A common reason where individual seek guidance is to understand individual differences of people. Guidance needs at different stages of development. It enables development of healthy personality and ensures to make the best of available opportunities.
  • 27. NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING b)Sociological reasons Guidance is needed for proper use of human energy. It guides and changes the religious and moral beliefs of individuals. Guidance thus necessitates the extension of democracy. c)Educational reasons This is to support the student’s learning. It enables learners to achieve desirable career prospectus through prospective choices of courses. It helps individuals to attain exceptional standard by wastage of time, resource and manpower, etc. It helps in vocational & professional maturity. Prepares to adapt in changing professional situations & emerging challenges.
  • 28. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE According to Crow and Crow (1960) there are 14 significant principles for guidance they are 1) Every aspect of person’s complex personality pattern constitutes a significant factor of his total displayed attitudes and form of behavior. Guidance service which are aimed at bringing about desirable adjustments in any particular area of experience must take in to account, the all round development of the individual. 2) Although all human beings are similar in many respect, individual difference must be recognized and considered in any effort aimed at providing help or guidance to a particular child. 3) The function of the guidance is to help a person to formulate and accept stimulating, worthwhile and attainable goals of behavior and to apply the goals to conduct his behavior.
  • 29. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE 4) Existing social, economic and politic unrest is giving rise to many maladaptive factors that require the cooperation of experienced and thoroughly trained guidance workers and the individuals with the problem. 5) Guidance should be regarded as a continuing process of service to an individual from young childhood through adulthood. 6) Guidance service should not be limited to the few who give observable evidence of its need, but should be extended to the all person of all ages who can benefit there from either directly or indirectly.
  • 30. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE 7) Curriculum materials and teaching procedure should evidence a guidance point of view. 8) Parents and teachers have guidance appointed responsibilities. 9) To administer guidance intelligently and with as thorough knowledge of the individual as is possible, programs of individual evaluation should be conducted and accurate consultative records of progress should made accessible to guidance workers/staff. 10) An organized guidance programme should be flexible according to the individual and social needs.
  • 31. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE 11) The responsibilities for administration of guidance programme should be centered in a personally qualified and adequately trained person, working cooperatively with his assistance and other community welfare and guidance agencies. 12) Periodical appraisal should be made for existing guidance programmes. 13) Guidance touches every phase of an individual’s life pattern. 14) Specific guidance problems on any age level should be referred to persons who are trained to deal with particular areas of adjustment.
  • 32. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING According to Mc Daniel and Shaftal, the counseling process is based on some basic principles: I. Principle of Acceptance: According to this principle, each client must the accepted as an individual and dealt with as such. The counselor should give, due regard to the rights of the client. II. Principle of Permissiveness: Counseling is such a relationship which develops optimism and the environment shapes according to the person. All the thoughts accept the relative relationship of counseling. III. Principle of Respect for the Individual: All the schools of thoughts of counseling advocate for the respect of the individual i.e., respecting an individual’s feelings must be an integral part of counseling process.
  • 33. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING IV. Principle of Thinking with the Individual: Counseling emphasizes thinking with the individual. It is essential to differentiate think for whom? And ‘why to think’? It is the role of the counselor the think about all the forces around the client to join client’s thought process and to work collectively with the client regarding his problem. V. Principle of Learning: All the assumptions of counseling accept the presence of learning-elements in the counseling process. VI. Principle of Consistency with Ideals of Democracy: All the principles are associated with ideals of democracy. The ideals of democracy desire to accept a person and want to respect the rights of others. The process of counseling is based upon the ideals of a person’s respect. It is a process with accepts individual differences.
  • 34. TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES Personal Social Educational Vocational Health Recreationa l
  • 36. TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES Ingredients of guidance and counseling services… 1.The Admission Service (Admitting the right candidates for the right course, selecting those candidates most likely) 2. The Orientation Service (A “welcome service” as it is concerned with welcoming fresher's to the world of nursing ) 3. The Student Information Service (Assist the student to obtain a realistic picture of his abilities, interests, personality characteristics, achievements, levels of aspiration, state of health, etc.)
  • 37. TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES Ingredients of guidance and counseling services… 4. The Information Service (Information provide usually related to Education, occupational & personal-social ) 5. The Counseling Service (understand what he can do & what he should do, handle his difficulties in a rational way, make his own decision, etc.) 6. The Placement Service (Help students to be in proper scholastic track, to realize their career expectations, organize campus selection interviews, provide information regarding current
  • 38. TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES Ingredients of guidance and counseling services… 7. The Remedial Service (it is mainly oriented towards helping students to improve their study habits, improve their adjustment in the clinical area, reducing stress, etc.) 8. The follow-up Service (it is that review or systematic evaluation which is carried out to find out whether guidance services in particular & educational programme in general satisfies the needs of the students. )
  • 39. TYPES/AREAS OF GUIDANCE SERVICES Ingredients of guidance and counseling services… 9. The Research Service (It is intended to examine both the personnel in the college guidance programme & the techniques of guidance used by them so as to discover their strong & weak points & ultimately strengthen the whole programme.) 10. The Evaluation Service (it determines the effectiveness & efficiency of the guidance programme, less number of dropouts, harmonious relationship between teachers & students, good result, well placed passed out
  • 40. BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING The four basic component of counseling are considered to be four corners of counseling. Clarity and accessing information Rapport and understanding Deeper understanding and taking action The doorway: Using specific therapies
  • 41. BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING Basic components of counseling  Clarity and accessing information Deeper understanding and taking action Rapport and understanding The doorway: Using specific therapies
  • 42. BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING  Clarity and accessing information The intention of the counselor is to clarify and gather information for the benefit of the client and well as counselor. The counselor should use the following communication techniques for clarity and accessing of information. • Reflect on content & paraphrase to clarify • Use open – ended & closed – ended questions and summarize. • Encourage communication, use minimal prompts and reflect on the feelings.
  • 43. BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING Rapport and understanding It is important to establish legitimate rapport between counselee and the counselor from the initial contact. For good rapport the counselor must create a conducive environment in a meaningful way. Warm reflective time period for the counselee to express feelings & opinions should be provided and the counselor must understand the concept rightly.
  • 44. BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING Deeper understanding and taking action Best remedial action can be taken only with adequate understanding of the core issue. To make the counselee to take responsibility & appropriate actions, counselor must possess challenging skills such as advanced empathy, empathetic summarizations, meaning and value clarification, immediacy, self disclosure and goal setting.
  • 45. BASIC COMPONENTS OF COUNSELING The doorway: Using specific therapies This step involves to sort issue by psychological defense and to use skills and measures for therapeutic purpose. The aim is to endeavor resolution by deep healing, understanding and emotional release. Initially the counselor should use the above mentioned specific strategies and further target on specific emotions, thoughts, unconscious parts and body expressions.
  • 46. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Based on the nature of counseling associated with the role of counselor there are three broad types of counseling. Directive counseling Nondirective counseling Eclective counseling
  • 47. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Other types of counseling. Personal/ social counseling Educational counseling Vocational counseling Spiritual counseling Informal counseling Supportive counseling
  • 48. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Directive counseling It is also known as prescriptive counseling or counselor –centered approach of counseling. This approach of counseling is advocated by E.G. Williamson, a professor at University of Minnesota. In directive counseling, the counselor plays a leading role & uses a variety of techniques to suggest appropriate solutions to the counselee's problem. This approach also known as authoritarian or psychoanalytic approach. The counselor is active & help individuals in making decisions & finding solution to their problems. The counselor believes in the limited capacity of the patient. The emphasis is on the problem, not on the individual.
  • 49. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Directive counseling There are six main steps of directive counseling procedure (Williamson 1939; and Darley, 1943). To address on issues related to academic and vocational choices this approach of counseling is better. This type of counseling doesn’t focus as such on personality development.
  • 50. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Steps of Directive Counseling Gathering information & Analysis Synthesis Diagnosis Prognosi s Counseling Follow - up
  • 51. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Directive counseling Advantages This approach save time. It emphasizes the problem & not the individual. The counselor can see the patient more objectively than the patient himself. It lays more emphasis on the intellectual rather than the emotional aspects of an individual’s personality. The methods used in directive counseling are direct, persuasive & explanatory.
  • 52. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Directive counseling Disadvantages The patient does not gain any liability for self analysis or solve new problems of adjustment by counseling. It makes the counselee over dependent on the counselor. Problems regarding emotional maladjustment may be better solved by nondirective counseling. Sometimes the counselee lacks information regarding the counselee, leads wrong counseling. It does not guarantee that the counselee will
  • 53. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling The chief exponent of this counseling approach is Carl Rogers. It is also known as the permissive counseling approach where the counselor's role is passive & the counselee’s role is active. Hence it is a counselee-centered or patient- centered humanistic approach. The counselee makes the final decisions as individuals are thoughts to have full right to make final decisions for the self & solve their problems. The counselor has to accept the counselee’s capacity to make adjustment & adapt.
  • 54. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling The principles of acceptance & tolerance are extremely important in this approach. The basic assumptions related to nondirective counseling approach are: Patient is given importance than the counseling directions & investigations Emotional aspects are more significant than intellectual aspects. Creation of an atmosphere where patients can work out their understanding is more important than cultivating self-understanding in the patient. Counseling leads to a voluntary choice of goals & a conscious selection of courses of action.
  • 55. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Carl R Rogers (1951) who is the chief proponent of Nondirective counseling designed following steps: Relationship building Problem assessment Goal setting Intervention Evaluation, follow-up, termination or referral
  • 56. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Relationship building This step focuses on engaging students to explore the issue that directly affect them. The 1st interview is important because the student/counselee makes inferences about the counselor and the counseling situation. There are certain kind of nonhelpful behaviour which has to be avoided in the process of relationship building like advice giving, lecturing, excessive questioning, storytelling, asking “why”, asking “how did that make you feel”.
  • 57. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Relationship building The following steps are helpful in relationship building for the counselor. Self introduction Invite counselee to be seated Make the counselee feel comfortable Address counselee by name Reduce anxiety with open conversation
  • 58. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Relationship building Watch counselee’s nonverbal behaviour as a sign of emotional state Encourage counselee to describe the purpose of visit Provide enough time for the counselee to respond Indicate that you are interested in the counselee
  • 59. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Problem assessment It involves the collection and classification of information about the client’s life situation and reasons for seeking counseling.
  • 60. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Goal setting This step is to provide the counselor a focus. Goal should be selected and defined with care. Some guidelines for goal selection that can be used with students are: 1. Should relate to the ends sought by the students. 2. Defined in measurable terms and also feasible. 3. Within the range of the counselor’s knowledge and skills. 4. Stated in positive terms that emphasize growth. 5. Consistent with the mission, vision and policies of institutions.
  • 61. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Intervention The counselor must help counselee to develop insight into problems as well as available resources to manage the problems. For this he/she can use various approaches like person-centered approach, behavioral approach. This step involves opening of defenses and use of other therapeutic measures and skills. This is aimed at encouraging deeper healing, understanding and emotional release and resolution.
  • 62. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Evaluation, follow-up, termination or referral The termination has to be conducted with sensitivity with the client knowing that it will have to end. Preparation for termination begins long before. Termination is not the end of successful relationship, but also it is considered when it seems counseling is not being helpful.
  • 63. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Advantages It is a slow but sure process to make an individual capable of making adjustments. No tests are used so one avoids all that is laborious & difficult . It removes emotional block & helps an individual bring repressed thoughts on a conscious level thereby reducing tension.
  • 64. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Nondirective counseling Disadvantages  It is a slow & time-consuming process.  One cannot rely upon one’s resources, judgment & wisdom as the patient is immature in making the decision himself.  It depends too much on the ability & initiative of the patient.  Sometime difficulty to control pace of the interview discussion.  This approach is individual centric, it may not possible for counselor to attend every patient equally well.  It require high degree of motivation in the patient.
  • 65. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Eclective counseling F.C. Throne is the chief exponent of eclectic approach in counseling. It is synthesis of directive and nondirective counseling. This approach is based on the fact that all individuals are different from one another. The techniques are elective in nature because they have been derived from all sources of counseling. This approach is based on selecting the best & leaving out what is least required. The basic assumption related to eclectic counseling approach:  There is objectivity & co-ordination between counselor & the patient during the counseling experience.  The patient is active & the counselor remains passive in the beginning.
  • 66. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Eclective counseling  The principle of low expenditure is adopted.  The counselor makes use of all the tools & methods in his armour.  The counselor enjoys the freedom to resort to directive & nondirective counseling methods.  The counseling relationship is built during the counseling interview. This helps the patient gain reassurance & confidence.
  • 67. TYPES OF COUNSELING APPROACHES Advantages of eclectic counseling approach  It is more cost effective & practical approach.  It is a more flexible approach of counseling.  It is more objective & coordinated approach of counseling. Limitations of eclectic counseling approach  The role of counselor & the counselee are not predetermined.  It requires more skilled counselors to handle the dynamic feature of this counseling approach.
  • 68. OTHER TYPES OF COUNSELING A)Based on length of the counseling session:  Short-term counseling  Long-term counseling B) Based on number of counselees involved:  Individual counseling  Group counseling C) Counseling for educational & professional purposes:  Student counseling  Educational counseling  Vocational counseling  Career counseling  Placement counseling
  • 69. OTHER TYPES OF COUNSELING D) Counseling for health-related purposes:  Psychotherapeutic counseling  Crisis counseling  Health counseling  Genetic counseling E) Counseling for personal/social purposes:  Personal counseling  Marriage counseling  Motivational counseling  Developmental counseling
  • 70. ORGANIZATION OF COUNSELING SERVICES Organization means planning, coordinating and performing certain activities systematically within the policy framework of the institution. The major types or forms of the organization of counseling services in educational institutions are: 1.Centralization counseling services: group of trained personnel II. Decentralization counseling services: services is vested upon teachers III. Combination of centralized & decentralized counseling services: services are provided by teachers & expert collectively.
  • 71. COUNSELING PROCESS The three – stage model of counseling process (Kagan, Evans & Kay) are:- Explore Understand Action Establishing Relationship Assessment Setting Goals Interventions Termination & Follow-Up
  • 72. COUNSELING PROCESS Explore The exploration begins with assessment. Assessment includes evaluating whether a person will benefit from counseling that is made available, providing sufficient information for the client to make up his or her mind and agreeing to timings and scheduling. Some counselors use standardized psychological tests as a part of assessment phase. Some others use open- ended questionnaires. This is followed by establishing the therapeutic relationship with the client. The counselor need to possess certain skills to facilitate establishing the therapeutic relationship in counseling process.
  • 73. COUNSELING PROCESS Explore Skills are as follows:  Listening: In counseling listening is an active process. Here the counselor has to go beyond attending and receiving the message and extend to communicating to the counselee that the facts and feelings have been heard and that the person is understood.  Paraphrasing: It is to reflect the thoughts and feelings and summaries in a way by which nurse counselors can indicate that they understood, accept and empathized.  Reflection: It is a form of paraphrasing that is generally limited to the feelings.
  • 74. COUNSELING PROCESS Understand This process of counseling deals with enhancing the awareness of the problem by discussing it in details which enables them to set realistic goals that they can go on to achieve. Skills Required: Listening Therapeutic touch Self-disclosure
  • 75. COUNSELING PROCESS Understand The realistic goal set should be:- Concrete or specific, rather than vague Clear and easy to recognize when they have been reached Within personal scope and capabilities Within person’s values Attainable over a reasonable period of time.
  • 76. COUNSELING PROCESS Understand Techniques for setting goal: Problem reduction: this is thinking through process. The general goal is identified & then questions are asked to encourage the person to split it into more specific and concrete goals. Then it is further split into specific actions that can be carried over. Laddering: Process of growing goal hierarchies and is useful when we want to clarify why a particular goal is important.
  • 77. COUNSELING PROCESS Action It is making the person move toward positive direction in order to solve the problem encountered or the goal to be achieved which has been set in previous phase. Techniques:  Brainstorming: one or more persons think about ideas without rejecting any of it.  Force field analysis: to take an overall look at what helps/hinders the progress towards a goal.  Self-awareness: it is essential as it interferes with our ability to help others in way that are nonintrusive as possible.
  • 78. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING In studying and appraising the individual, data and information pertaining to all aspect of life are required. A variety of tools and techniques are used for this purpose. They can be classified into: Testing Techniques Non testing Techniques
  • 79. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Testing Techniques General ability tests Personality tests Achievement tests Interest inventories Diagnosing learning difficulties
  • 80. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Testing Techniques These are done as a means to gather information. A single test is not enough to make a decision in G & C. Purposes: o To determine individual’s achievement level & progress o To identify the attitude o To find the need o To improve instructions o To understand counselee’s self-concept, personality & attitude o For social judgment o To recognize under and over achievers
  • 81. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Testing Techniques General ability tests: Aptitude of the individual and general intellectual development are measured by intelligence and aptitude test. Personality tests: They are designed to measure attitudes, interpersonal relations, motivation and emotional adjustment of an individual.
  • 82. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Testing Techniques Achievement tests: These are intended to measure what has been learned from school, i.e knowledge & skills. Interest inventories: It assess the likes and dislikes of an individual. Diagnosing learning difficulties: It is helpful in finding out learning difficulties of students through a systematic method and to help the learner to
  • 83. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Non testing Techniques These techniques are also known as nonstandardized techniques. These techniques provide subjective approach to gather data and interpreting it for clients. Interview Observation Case study Cumulative record Sociometric techniques Questionnaire Rating scale Anecdotal record Autobiography
  • 84. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE & COUNSELING Non testing Techniques Interview Observation Case study Cumulative record Sociometric techniques Questionnaire Rating scale Anecdotal record Autobiography
  • 85. ETHICAL PRINCIPLES OF COUNSELING Respect for the right & dignity of the client Competence Responsibility Integrity Fidelity Autonomy Beneficence Nonmaleficence Justice
  • 86. ETHICAL ISSUES OF COUNSELING Some of the ethical aspects involved are Informed consent Confidentiality Privileged communication Certain situations in which the counselor should report the information legally are:  A minor client who is a victim of rape, incest, abuse or some other crime.  A client who need hospitalization.  When a client request to release their record to them or to a third party.  Information need to be disclosed in the court of law.
  • 87. ROLE & PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR The word counselor is derived from counseling and means ‘a person who performs counseling’. D. W. Lefeuer states that a counselor will be one who devotes half or more of his time to guidance. The success of the counseling process primarily depends on the vision and planning of the counselor. The role & responsibility of counselor include: 1.Advice 2. Reassurance 3. Communication 4. Release of emotional tension 5. Clarified thinking.
  • 88. ROLE & PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR Qualities of a Good Counselor: G – Good technical Knowledge O – Obtaining appropriate info. from client O – Objectively answering questions D – C – Confidentiality O – Observant U – Unbiased N – Nonjudgmental S – Sensitive to the needs of client E – Empathetic L – Listener O – Open communicator R – Respect the right & dignity of client
  • 89. PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR Educational background & Experience: Pretraining attributes:  Self awareness & understanding  Good psychological health  Sensitivity  Open mindedness  Objectivity  Trustworthiness
  • 90. PREPARATION OF THE COUNSELOR Skills required for the counselor Non verbal communication skills Verbal communication skills
  • 91. ISSUES OF COUNSELING IN NURSING Personal Personal values Lack of objectivity Lack of physical facilities and other resources Managing disciplinary problems Preventive Disciplinary Corrective/Supportive Disciplinary •Hot stove rules
  • 92. ISSUES OF COUNSELING IN NURSING Managing disciplinary problems Preventive Disciplinary Social skills instructio n Positive Behavio ur Mgt •Unified Discipline approach •Shared expectation s for socially competent behaviour
  • 93. ISSUES OF COUNSELING IN NURSING Managing disciplinary problems Corrective/Supportive Disciplinary (Classical conditioning or operant conditioning) •Hot stove rules All students must be aware of rules & consequences of breaking it. Administer discipline immediately when the rule is broken. Maintain impartiality in discipline administration
  • 94. CRISIS & REFERRAL Definition: Crisis is a sudden event in one’s life that disturbs homeostasis, during which the individual’s usual coping mechanism cannot resolve the problem. _____ Largerquist Characteristics:  Occurs to all individuals.  Precipitated by specific identifiable events.  Personal by nature.  Is acute, not chronic.  This situation is potential for psychological growth or deterioration.
  • 95. CRISIS & REFERRAL Types: Situational crisis Adventitious crisis Maturational crisis
  • 96. CRISIS & REFERRAL Crisis Intervention: The methods used to offer short – term immediate help to individuals who have experienced an event that produces mental, physical, emotional & behavioral distress. Goals:- • Mitigate the impact of an event. • Facilitate a normal recovery process. • Restore adaptive functioning.
  • 97. CRISIS & REFERRAL Crisis Intervention: Principles:- (Jeffrey H Mitchell) 1) Simplicity 2) Innovation 3) Pragmatism 4) Immediacy 5) Expectancy
  • 98. CRISIS & REFERRAL Crisis Intervention: Six step Model:- (Gilliland)
  • 99. CRISIS & REFERRAL Crisis Intervention: Techniques:- Catharsis Clarification Suggestion Reinforcement of behavior Support of defense mechanisms Raising self esteem Exploration of solutions
  • 100. CONCLUSION During the journey from novice to expert, students and faculty in educational institutes benefit from ongoing guidance and counseling. It not only helps them to understand themselves and their circumstances, but also to make right decisions and right choices in their personal and professional life. Hence, guidance and counseling services must be a part of every nursing educational institutions as it can help the student and teachers to overcome various professional challenges.