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Read Only
Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read Only Memory - ROM
• A ROM contains permanently or semi-permanently stored data, which
can be read from the memory but either cannot be changed at all or
cannot be changed without specialized equipment.
• A ROM stores data that are used repeatedly in system applications,
such as tables, conversions, or programmed instructions for system
initialization and operation.
• ROMs retain stored data when the power is off and are therefore non-
volatile memories.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
permanently
stored
electrically
stored by
the user
erasable
erased by
exposure to
ultraviolet
light
electrically
erasable
PROM
The Mask ROM
• The mask ROM is usually referred to simply as a ROM.
• It is permanently programmed during the manufacturing
process to provide widely used standard functions, such as
popular conversions, or to provide user-specified functions.
• Once the memory is programmed, it cannot be changed.
• Most IC ROMs utilize the presence or absence of a
transistor connection at a row/column junction to represent
a 1 or a 0.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• The presence of a connection from a row line to the gate of a transistor
represents a 1 at that location because when the row line is taken
HIGH, all transistors with a gate connection to that row line turn on
and connect the HIGH (1) to the associated column lines.
• At row/column junctions where there are no gate connections, the
column lines remain LOW (0) when the row is addressed.
• The blue squares represent stored 1s, and the gray squares represent
stored 0s.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka TabhaneMOS ROM cells
The basic read operation is as follows -
• When a binary address code is applied to the address input lines,
the corresponding row line goes HIGH.
• This HIGH is connected to the column lines through the
transistors at each junction (cell) where a 1 is stored.
• At each cell where a 0 is stored, the column line stays LOW
because of the terminating resistor.
• The column lines form the data output.
• The eight data bits stored in the selected row appear on the output
lines.
• As you can see, the example ROM in Figure is organized into 16
addresses, each of which stores 8 data bits.
• Thus, it is a 16 * 8 (16-by-8) ROM, and its total capacity is 128 bits
or 16 bytes
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
A representation of a 16 * 8-bit ROM array.
Example
Determine the Gray code output when a 4 bit binary code is applied
to the address input lines.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Solution-
Binary to gray conversion can be done as:
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
From the above conversion the Memory
array can be figured as
ROM Organization
• When any one of 256 binary codes (eight bits) is applied to the
address lines, four data bits appear on the outputs if the chip select
inputs are LOW (256 addresses require eight address lines)
• Although the 256 * 4 organization of this device implies that there are
256 rows and 4 columns in the memory array, this is not actually the
case, the memory cell array is actually a 32 * 32 matrix (32 rows and
32 columns)
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
A 256 * 4 ROM logic symbol.
The Ao-255 designator means
that the 8-bit address code
selects addresses 0 through
255.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Working of ROM
• Five of the eight address lines (A0 through A4) are decoded by the row
decoder (often called the Y decoder) to select one of the 32 rows. Three of
the eight address lines (A5 through A7) are decoded by the column
decoder (often called the X decoder) to select four of the 32 columns.
• The column decoder consists of four 1-of-8 decoders (data selectors)
• The result of this structure is that when an 8-bit address code (A0
through A7) is applied, a 4-bit data word appears on the data outputs
when the chip select lines (CS0 and CS1) are LOW to enable the
output buffers.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
ROM Access Time
• The access time, ta, of a ROM is the time from the application
of a valid address code on the input lines until the
appearance of valid output data.
• Access time can also be measured from the activation of the
chip select (CS) input to the occurrence of valid output data
when a valid address is already on the input lines.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Programmable ROMs PROMs
• Programmable ROMs (PROMs) are basically the same as mask ROMs
once they have been programmed.
• The difference is that PROMs come from the manufacturer un-
programmed and are custom programmed in the field to meet the user’s
needs.
• A PROM uses some type of fusing process to store bits, in which a
memory link is burned open or left intact to represent a 0 or a 1.
• The fusing process is irreversible; once a PROM is programmed, it
cannot be changed.
• The fusible links are manufactured into the PROM between the source
of each cell’s transistor and its column line.
• In the programming process, a sufficient current is injected through the
fusible link to burn it open to create a stored 0, the link is left intact for a
stored 1.
• Three basic fuse technologies used in PROMs are metal links, silicon
links, and pn junctions.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
A MOS PROM array with fusible links.
1. Metal links are made of a material such as nichrome.
• Each bit in the memory array is represented by a separate
link.
• During programming, the link is either “blown” open a
sufficient amount of current through the link to cause it to
open.
2. Silicon links are formed by narrow, notched strips of
polycrystalline silicon.
• Programming of these fuses requires melting of the links by
passing a sufficient amount of current through them.
• This amount of current causes a high temperature at the
fuse location that oxidizes the silicon and forms an
insulation around the now-open link.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
3. Shorted junction, or avalanche-induced migration,
technology consists basically of two pn junctions arranged
back-to-back.
• During programming, one of the diode junctions is
avalanched, and the resulting voltage and heat cause
aluminum ions to migrate and short the junction.
• The remaining junction is then used as a forward biased
diode to represent a data bit.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
EPROMs
• An EPROM is an erasable PROM. Unlike an ordinary
PROM, an EPROM can be reprogrammed if an existing
program in the memory array is erased first.
• An EPROM uses an NMOSFET array with an isolated-gate
structure.
• The isolated transistor gate has no electrical connections
and can store an electrical charge for indefinite periods of
time.
• The data bits in this type of array are represented by the
presence or absence of a stored gate charge.
• Erasure of a data bit is a process that removes the gate
charge.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• A typical EPROM is represented in Figure by a logic
diagram.
• Its operation is representative of that of other typical
EPROMs of various sizes.
• As the logic symbol shows, this device has 2048
addresses (211 = 2048), each with eight bits.
• Notice that the eight outputs are tri-state (§).
• To read from the memory, the output enable input (OE)
must be LOW and the power down/program (CE/PGM)
input LOW.
• To program or write to the device, a high dc voltage is
applied to VPP and OE is HIGH.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• The eight data bits to be programmed into a given
address are applied to the outputs (O0 through O7), and
the address is selected on inputs A0 through A10.
• Next, a HIGH level pulse is applied to the CE/PGM
input. These signals are normally produced by an
EPROM programmer.
• Two basic types of erasable PROMs are, the electrically
erasable PROM (EEPROM)and the ultraviolet erasable
PROM (UV EPROM).
• The UV EPROM is much less used than the EEPROM.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
A logic diagram
of A typical
EPROM
EEPROMs
• An electrically erasable PROM can be both erased and
programmed with electrical pulses.
• Since it can be both electrically written into and electrically
erased, the EEPROM can be rapidly programmed and
erased in-circuit for reprogramming.
• Two types of EEPROMs are the floating-gate MOS and the
metal nitride-oxide silicon (MNOS).
• The application of a voltage on the control gate in the
floating-gate structure permits the storage and removal of
charge from the floating gate.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
UV EPROMs
• You can recognize the UV EPROM device by the UV
transparent window on the package.
• The isolated gate in the FET of an ultraviolet EPROM is
“floating” within an oxide insulating material.
• The programming process causes electrons to be removed
from the floating gate.
• Erasure is done by exposure of the memory array chip to
high-intensity ultraviolet radiation through the UV
window on top of the package.
• The positive charge stored on the gate is neutralized after
several minutes to an hour of exposure time.
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Assignment
1. What is the bit storage capacity of a ROM with a 512 * 8
organization?
2. List the types of read-only memories.
3. How many address bits are required for a 2048-bit
memory organized as a 256 * 8 memory?
4. How do PROMs differ from ROMs?
5. What represents a data bit in an EPROM?
6. What is the normal mode of operation for a PROM?
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Thank you!!
Read Only Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane

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Lec 3 digital electronics- read only memory

  • 1. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
  • 2. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Read Only Memory - ROM • A ROM contains permanently or semi-permanently stored data, which can be read from the memory but either cannot be changed at all or cannot be changed without specialized equipment. • A ROM stores data that are used repeatedly in system applications, such as tables, conversions, or programmed instructions for system initialization and operation. • ROMs retain stored data when the power is off and are therefore non- volatile memories.
  • 3. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane permanently stored electrically stored by the user erasable erased by exposure to ultraviolet light electrically erasable PROM
  • 4. The Mask ROM • The mask ROM is usually referred to simply as a ROM. • It is permanently programmed during the manufacturing process to provide widely used standard functions, such as popular conversions, or to provide user-specified functions. • Once the memory is programmed, it cannot be changed. • Most IC ROMs utilize the presence or absence of a transistor connection at a row/column junction to represent a 1 or a 0. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 5. • The presence of a connection from a row line to the gate of a transistor represents a 1 at that location because when the row line is taken HIGH, all transistors with a gate connection to that row line turn on and connect the HIGH (1) to the associated column lines. • At row/column junctions where there are no gate connections, the column lines remain LOW (0) when the row is addressed. • The blue squares represent stored 1s, and the gray squares represent stored 0s. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka TabhaneMOS ROM cells
  • 6. The basic read operation is as follows - • When a binary address code is applied to the address input lines, the corresponding row line goes HIGH. • This HIGH is connected to the column lines through the transistors at each junction (cell) where a 1 is stored. • At each cell where a 0 is stored, the column line stays LOW because of the terminating resistor. • The column lines form the data output. • The eight data bits stored in the selected row appear on the output lines. • As you can see, the example ROM in Figure is organized into 16 addresses, each of which stores 8 data bits. • Thus, it is a 16 * 8 (16-by-8) ROM, and its total capacity is 128 bits or 16 bytes Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 7. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane A representation of a 16 * 8-bit ROM array.
  • 8. Example Determine the Gray code output when a 4 bit binary code is applied to the address input lines. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 9. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Solution- Binary to gray conversion can be done as:
  • 10. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane From the above conversion the Memory array can be figured as
  • 11. ROM Organization • When any one of 256 binary codes (eight bits) is applied to the address lines, four data bits appear on the outputs if the chip select inputs are LOW (256 addresses require eight address lines) • Although the 256 * 4 organization of this device implies that there are 256 rows and 4 columns in the memory array, this is not actually the case, the memory cell array is actually a 32 * 32 matrix (32 rows and 32 columns) Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 12. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane A 256 * 4 ROM logic symbol. The Ao-255 designator means that the 8-bit address code selects addresses 0 through 255.
  • 13. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 14. Working of ROM • Five of the eight address lines (A0 through A4) are decoded by the row decoder (often called the Y decoder) to select one of the 32 rows. Three of the eight address lines (A5 through A7) are decoded by the column decoder (often called the X decoder) to select four of the 32 columns. • The column decoder consists of four 1-of-8 decoders (data selectors) • The result of this structure is that when an 8-bit address code (A0 through A7) is applied, a 4-bit data word appears on the data outputs when the chip select lines (CS0 and CS1) are LOW to enable the output buffers. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 15. ROM Access Time • The access time, ta, of a ROM is the time from the application of a valid address code on the input lines until the appearance of valid output data. • Access time can also be measured from the activation of the chip select (CS) input to the occurrence of valid output data when a valid address is already on the input lines. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 16. Programmable ROMs PROMs • Programmable ROMs (PROMs) are basically the same as mask ROMs once they have been programmed. • The difference is that PROMs come from the manufacturer un- programmed and are custom programmed in the field to meet the user’s needs. • A PROM uses some type of fusing process to store bits, in which a memory link is burned open or left intact to represent a 0 or a 1. • The fusing process is irreversible; once a PROM is programmed, it cannot be changed. • The fusible links are manufactured into the PROM between the source of each cell’s transistor and its column line. • In the programming process, a sufficient current is injected through the fusible link to burn it open to create a stored 0, the link is left intact for a stored 1. • Three basic fuse technologies used in PROMs are metal links, silicon links, and pn junctions. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 17. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane A MOS PROM array with fusible links.
  • 18. 1. Metal links are made of a material such as nichrome. • Each bit in the memory array is represented by a separate link. • During programming, the link is either “blown” open a sufficient amount of current through the link to cause it to open. 2. Silicon links are formed by narrow, notched strips of polycrystalline silicon. • Programming of these fuses requires melting of the links by passing a sufficient amount of current through them. • This amount of current causes a high temperature at the fuse location that oxidizes the silicon and forms an insulation around the now-open link. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 19. 3. Shorted junction, or avalanche-induced migration, technology consists basically of two pn junctions arranged back-to-back. • During programming, one of the diode junctions is avalanched, and the resulting voltage and heat cause aluminum ions to migrate and short the junction. • The remaining junction is then used as a forward biased diode to represent a data bit. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 20. EPROMs • An EPROM is an erasable PROM. Unlike an ordinary PROM, an EPROM can be reprogrammed if an existing program in the memory array is erased first. • An EPROM uses an NMOSFET array with an isolated-gate structure. • The isolated transistor gate has no electrical connections and can store an electrical charge for indefinite periods of time. • The data bits in this type of array are represented by the presence or absence of a stored gate charge. • Erasure of a data bit is a process that removes the gate charge. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 21. • A typical EPROM is represented in Figure by a logic diagram. • Its operation is representative of that of other typical EPROMs of various sizes. • As the logic symbol shows, this device has 2048 addresses (211 = 2048), each with eight bits. • Notice that the eight outputs are tri-state (§). • To read from the memory, the output enable input (OE) must be LOW and the power down/program (CE/PGM) input LOW. • To program or write to the device, a high dc voltage is applied to VPP and OE is HIGH. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 22. • The eight data bits to be programmed into a given address are applied to the outputs (O0 through O7), and the address is selected on inputs A0 through A10. • Next, a HIGH level pulse is applied to the CE/PGM input. These signals are normally produced by an EPROM programmer. • Two basic types of erasable PROMs are, the electrically erasable PROM (EEPROM)and the ultraviolet erasable PROM (UV EPROM). • The UV EPROM is much less used than the EEPROM. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 23. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane A logic diagram of A typical EPROM
  • 24. EEPROMs • An electrically erasable PROM can be both erased and programmed with electrical pulses. • Since it can be both electrically written into and electrically erased, the EEPROM can be rapidly programmed and erased in-circuit for reprogramming. • Two types of EEPROMs are the floating-gate MOS and the metal nitride-oxide silicon (MNOS). • The application of a voltage on the control gate in the floating-gate structure permits the storage and removal of charge from the floating gate. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 25. UV EPROMs • You can recognize the UV EPROM device by the UV transparent window on the package. • The isolated gate in the FET of an ultraviolet EPROM is “floating” within an oxide insulating material. • The programming process causes electrons to be removed from the floating gate. • Erasure is done by exposure of the memory array chip to high-intensity ultraviolet radiation through the UV window on top of the package. • The positive charge stored on the gate is neutralized after several minutes to an hour of exposure time. Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 26. Assignment 1. What is the bit storage capacity of a ROM with a 512 * 8 organization? 2. List the types of read-only memories. 3. How many address bits are required for a 2048-bit memory organized as a 256 * 8 memory? 4. How do PROMs differ from ROMs? 5. What represents a data bit in an EPROM? 6. What is the normal mode of operation for a PROM? Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 27. Thank you!! Read Only Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane