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Integrated circuit
technologies
Characteristics of IC’s
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
• There are basically two types of semiconductor devices
Bipolar and Unipolar.
• Based on these devices digital integrated circuits have been
made which are commercially available.
• Various digital functions are being fabricated in a variety of
forms using bipolar and unipolar technologies.
• A group of compatible IC’s with the same logic levels and
supply voltages for performing various logic functions have
been fabricated using a specific circuit configuration which is
referred to as a logic family.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• Bipolar logic families The main elements of bipolar IC’s are
resistors, diodes (which are also capacitors) and transistors.
Semiconductor
devices
Bipolar
Saturated
Direct
coupled
transistor
logic DCTL
Resistor
transistor
logic RTL
High
threshold
logic HTL
Diode
transistor
logic DTL
Integrated
Injuction
logic I2L
transistor
transistor
logic TTL
Non
saturated
Scotty TTL Emittor-
coupled logic
ECL
unipolar
PMOS
NMOS
CMOS
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• When you work with digital ICs, you should be familiar not only with their
logical operation but also with such operational properties as voltage
levels, noise immunity, power dissipation, fan-out, and propagation delay
time.
The various characteristics of digital IC Used to compare performances are
• speed of operation
• power dissipation
• figure of merit
• fan out
• current and voltage parameter
• Noise
• operating temperature range
• power supply requirements
• flexibility available
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• Speed of operation -
o speed of digital circuit is specified in terms of propagation delay time.
o The input and output waveform of a logic gates are shown in figure.
o The delay times are measured between 50% voltage table of input and
output waveforms.
o There are to delay time tpHL, when the output goes from the high state to
the low state and tpLH corresponding to the output making the transition
from low State to the high State.
o Propagation delay time of the logic is taken as the average of these 2
delay times.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Power dissipation -
o Is an amount of power dissipated in an IC.
o It is determined by the current ICC that it draws from Vcc supply, and if
given by VCC into ICC, ICC the average value of ICC 0 and ICC 1.
o This power is specified in milliwatts.
o It is known as static power dissipation that is the power consumed by the
circuit when input signal can not change.
Figure of merit –
o It is defined as a product of speed and power.
o The speed is specified in terms of propagation delay time expressed in
nanoseconds.
o It is specified in Pico Joule pJ.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Fan out-
o the number of gates which can be driven by the gate.
o High fan-out is the advantageous because it reduces the need for additional
drivers to drive more gate
Current and voltage parameter -
Following currents and voltages are specified which are very useful in Design of
digital system.
o high level input voltage VIH - minimum input voltage which is recognised by
the gate as logic 1.
o low Level input voltage VIL - maximum input voltage which is recognised by
the gate as logic 0.
o high level output voltage VOH - is a minimum voltage available at the output
corresponding to logic 1
o low Level output voltage VOL - maximum voltage available at the output
corresponding to logic 0.
o high level input current IIH - this is the minimum current which is supplied by a
driving force corresponding to 1 Level voltage
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
o low level input current IIL - minimum current which must be supplied by a
driving force corresponding to 0 level voltage
o high level output current IOH - Maximum current with the gate can sink in
level 1
o low level output current IOL - Maximum current which the gate can sink in 0
level
o high level supply current ICC (1) - supply current when the output of gate is
at logic 1
o low level supply current ICC (0) - supply current when the output of the gate
is at logic 0
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
DC Supply Voltage
o The nominal value of the dc supply voltage for TTL (transistor-
transistor logic) devices is +5 V.
o TTL is also designated T2L.
o CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) devices are
available in different supply voltage categories: +5 V, +3.3 V, 2.5 V,
and 1.8 V.
o the dc supply voltage is connected to the VCC pin of an IC package,
and ground is connected to the GND pin.
o Both voltage and ground are distributed internally to all elements
within the package, as illustrated in Figure for a 14-pin package.
(a) Single gate (b) IC dual in-line package
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
CMOS Logic Levels
o There are four different logic-level specifications: VIL, VIH, VOL, and VOH.
o For CMOS circuits, the ranges of input voltages (VIL) that can represent an
acceptable LOW (logic 0) are from 0 V to 1.5 V for the +5 V logic and 0 V to
0.8 V for the 3.3 V logic.
o The ranges of input voltages (VIH) that can represent an acceptable HIGH
(logic 1) are from 3.5 V to 5 V for the 5 V logic and 2 V to 3.3 V for the 3.3
V logic, as indicated in Figure.
o The ranges of values from 1.5 V to 3.5 V for 5 V logic and 0.8 V to 2 V for
3.3 V logic are regions of unpredictable performance, and values in these
ranges are unacceptable.
o When an input voltage is in one of these ranges, it can be interpreted as
either a HIGH or a LOW by the logic circuit.
o Therefore, CMOS gates cannot be operated reliably when the input
voltages are in these unacceptable ranges.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Fig 1: Input and
output logic
levels for
CMOS.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
o The ranges of CMOS output voltages (VOL and VOH) for both 5 V and 3.3 V
logic are also shown in Figure.
o Notice that the minimum HIGH output voltage, VOH(min), is greater than the
minimum HIGH input voltage, VIH(min).
o Also, notice that the maximum LOW output voltage, VOL(max), is less than
the maximum LOW input voltage, VIL(max).
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
TTL Logic Levels
o The input and output logic levels for TTL are given in Figure.
o Just as for CMOS, there are four different logic level specifications: VIL, VIH,
VOL, and VOH.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Fig 2: Input and output logic levels for TTL
Example
Determine the HIGH-level and LOW-level noise margins for CMOS and for TTL
by using the information in Figures 1 and 2.
Solution
For 5 V CMOS
VIH(min) = 3.5 V VIL(max) = 1.5 V VOH(min) = 4.4 V VOL(max) = 0.33 V
VNH = VOH(min) - VIH(min) = 4.4 V - 3.5 V = 0.9 V
VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) = 1.5 V - 0.33 V = 1.17 V
For TTL
VIH(min) = 2 V VIL(max) = 0.8 V VOH(min) = 2.4 V VOL(max) = 0.4 V
VNH = VOH(min) - VIH(min) = 2.4 V - 2 V = 0.4 V
VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) = 0.8 V - 0.4 V = 0.4 V
A TTL gate is immune to up to 0.4 V of noise for both the HIGH and LOW input
states.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Noise Immunity
o Noise is unwanted voltage that is induced in electrical circuits
and can present a threat to the proper operation of the
circuit.
o Wires and other conductors within a system can pick up stray
high-frequency electromagnetic radiation from adjacent
conductors in which currents are changing rapidly or from
many other sources external to the system.
o In order not to be adversely affected by noise, a logic circuit
must have a certain amount of noise immunity.
o This is the ability to tolerate a certain amount of unwanted
voltage fluctuation on its inputs without changing its output
state.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
o For example, if noise voltage causes the input of a 5 V CMOS
gate to drop below 3.5 V in the HIGH state, the input is in the
unacceptable region and operation is unpredictable (see
Figure).
o Thus, the gate may interpret the fluctuation below 3.5 V as a
LOW level, as illustrated in Figure (a).
o Similarly, if noise causes a gate input to go above 1.5 V in the
LOW state, an uncertain condition is created, as illustrated in
part (b).
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
the effects of input noise on gate operation.
Power Dissipation
o A logic gate draws current from the dc supply voltage source,
as indicated in Figure.
o When the gate is in the HIGH output state, an amount of
current designated by ICCH is drawn; and in the LOW output
state, a different amount of current, ICCL, is drawn.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Currents from the dc supply. Conventional current direction is shown.
Electron flow notation is opposite.
• As an example, if ICCH is specified as 1.5 mA when VCC is 5 V and
if the gate is in a static (non changing) HIGH output state, the
power dissipation (PD) of the gate is
PD = VCC xICCH = (5 V)(1.5 mA) = 7.5 mW
• When a gate is pulsed, its output switches back and forth
between HIGH and LOW, and the amount of supply current
varies between ICCH and ICCL.
• The average power dissipation depends on the duty cycle and
is usually specified for a duty cycle of 50%.
• When the duty cycle is 50%, the output is HIGH half the time
and LOW the other half.
• The average supply current is therefore
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
The average power dissipation is
• Power dissipation in a TTL circuit is essentially constant over its
range of operating frequencies.
• Power dissipation in CMOS is frequency dependent.
• It is extremely low under static (dc) conditions and increases as
the frequency increases.
• These characteristics are shown in the general curves of Figure.
• For example, the power dissipation of a low-power Schottky (LS)
TTL gate is a constant 2.2 mW.
• The power dissipation of an HCMOS (high density CMOS) gate is
2.75 mW under static conditions and 170 mW at 100 kHz.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Power-versus frequency
curves for TTL and
CMOS.
Example -
• A certain gate draws 2 mA when its output is
HIGH and 3.6 mA when its output is LOW.
What is its average power dissipation if VCC is 5
V and the gate is operated on a 50% duty
cycle?
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Solution -
The average ICC is
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The average power dissipation is
Propagation Delay Time
• When a signal passes (propagates) through a logic circuit, it always
experiences a time delay.
• A change in the output level always occurs a short time, called the
propagation delay time, later than the change in the input level that caused
it.
• There are two propagation delay times specified for logic gates:
tPHL: The time between a designated point on the input pulse and the
corresponding point on the output pulse when the output is changing from
HIGH to LOW.
tPLH: The time between a designated point on the input pulse and the
corresponding point on the output pulse when the output is changing from
LOW to HIGH.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
A basic illustration
of propagation
delay time.
• These propagation delay times are illustrated in Figure, with the 50%
points on the pulse edges used as references.
• The propagation delay time of a gate limits the frequency at which it can
be operated.
• The greater the propagation delay time, the lower the maximum
frequency.
• Thus, a higher speed circuit is one that has a smaller propagation delay
time.
• For example, a gate with a delay of 3 ns is faster than one with a 10 ns
delay.
•
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Propagation
delay times
Speed-Power Product –
• The speed-power product provides a basis for the comparison of logic
circuits when both propagation delay time and power dissipation are
important considerations in the selection of the type of logic to be used in
a certain application.
• The lower the speed-power product, the better.
• The unit of speed-power product is the picojoule (pJ).
• For example, HCMOS has a speed-power product of 1.2 pJ at 100 kHz
while LS TTL has a value of 22 pJ.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Loading and Fan-Out
• When the output of a logic gate is connected to one or more
inputs of other gates, a load on the driving gate is created, as
shown in Figure.
• There is a limit to the number of load gate inputs that a given
gate can drive.
• This limit is called the fan-out of the gate.
• Fan-out is expressed as unit loads.
• One gate input represents a unit load to a driving gate of the
same logic family.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Loading a gate
output with gate inputs.
CMOS Loading
• Loading in CMOS differs from that in TTL because the type of
transistors used in CMOS logic present a predominantly
capacitive load to the driving gate, as illustrated in Figure.
• In this case, the limitations are the charging and discharging
times associated with the output resistance of the driving gate
and the input capacitance of the load gates.
• When the output of the driving gate is HIGH, the input
capacitance of the load gate is charging through the output
resistance of the driving gate.
• When the output of the driving gate is LOW, the capacitance is
discharging, as indicated in Figure
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Capacitive loading of a CMOS gate
• When more load gate inputs are added to the driving gate
output, the total capacitance increases because the input
capacitances effectively appear in parallel.
• This increase in capacitance increases the charging and
discharging times, thus reducing the maximum frequency at
which the gate can be operated.
• Therefore, the fan-out of a CMOS gate depends on the
frequency of operation. The fewer the load gate inputs, the
greater the maximum frequency.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Capacitive loading of a CMOS gate
TTL Loading
• A TTL driving gate sources current to a load gate input in the
HIGH state (IIH) and sinks current from the load gate in the
LOW state (IIL).
• Current sourcing and current sinking are illustrated in
simplified form in Figure, where the resistors represent the
internal input and output resistance of the gate for the two
conditions.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Basic illustration of current sourcing and current sinking in logic gates
• As more load gates are connected to the driving gate, the
loading on the driving gate increases.
• The total source current increases with each load gate input
that is added, as illustrated in Figure.
• As this current increases, the internal voltage drop of the
driving gate increases, causing the output, VOH, to decrease.
• If an excessive number of load gate inputs are connected, VOH
drops below VOH(min), and the HIGH - level noise margin is
reduced, thus compromising the circuit operation.
• Also, as the total source current increases, the power
dissipation of the driving gate increases.
• The fan-out is the maximum number of load gate inputs that
can be connected without adversely affecting the specified
operational characteristics of the gate.
• For example, low power Schottky (LS) TTL has a fan-out of 20
unit loads.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• The total sink current also increases with each load gate input that
is added, as shown in Figure.
• As this current increases, the internal voltage drop of the driving
gate increases, causing VOL to increase.
• If an excessive number of loads are added, VOL exceeds VOL(max), and
the LOW - level noise margin is reduced.
• In TTL, the current-sinking capability (LOW output state) is the
limiting factor in determining the fan-out.
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
HIGH-state TTL loading
LOW-stage TTL loading
Thank you!!
Integrated Circuit Technologies
Characteristics of IC's
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane

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Lec 4 digital electronics - interated circuit technology -characteristics of ic's

  • 1. Integrated circuit technologies Characteristics of IC’s Dr. Priyanka Tabhane RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
  • 2. • There are basically two types of semiconductor devices Bipolar and Unipolar. • Based on these devices digital integrated circuits have been made which are commercially available. • Various digital functions are being fabricated in a variety of forms using bipolar and unipolar technologies. • A group of compatible IC’s with the same logic levels and supply voltages for performing various logic functions have been fabricated using a specific circuit configuration which is referred to as a logic family. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 3. • Bipolar logic families The main elements of bipolar IC’s are resistors, diodes (which are also capacitors) and transistors. Semiconductor devices Bipolar Saturated Direct coupled transistor logic DCTL Resistor transistor logic RTL High threshold logic HTL Diode transistor logic DTL Integrated Injuction logic I2L transistor transistor logic TTL Non saturated Scotty TTL Emittor- coupled logic ECL unipolar PMOS NMOS CMOS Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 4. • When you work with digital ICs, you should be familiar not only with their logical operation but also with such operational properties as voltage levels, noise immunity, power dissipation, fan-out, and propagation delay time. The various characteristics of digital IC Used to compare performances are • speed of operation • power dissipation • figure of merit • fan out • current and voltage parameter • Noise • operating temperature range • power supply requirements • flexibility available Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 5. • Speed of operation - o speed of digital circuit is specified in terms of propagation delay time. o The input and output waveform of a logic gates are shown in figure. o The delay times are measured between 50% voltage table of input and output waveforms. o There are to delay time tpHL, when the output goes from the high state to the low state and tpLH corresponding to the output making the transition from low State to the high State. o Propagation delay time of the logic is taken as the average of these 2 delay times. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 6. Power dissipation - o Is an amount of power dissipated in an IC. o It is determined by the current ICC that it draws from Vcc supply, and if given by VCC into ICC, ICC the average value of ICC 0 and ICC 1. o This power is specified in milliwatts. o It is known as static power dissipation that is the power consumed by the circuit when input signal can not change. Figure of merit – o It is defined as a product of speed and power. o The speed is specified in terms of propagation delay time expressed in nanoseconds. o It is specified in Pico Joule pJ. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 7. Fan out- o the number of gates which can be driven by the gate. o High fan-out is the advantageous because it reduces the need for additional drivers to drive more gate Current and voltage parameter - Following currents and voltages are specified which are very useful in Design of digital system. o high level input voltage VIH - minimum input voltage which is recognised by the gate as logic 1. o low Level input voltage VIL - maximum input voltage which is recognised by the gate as logic 0. o high level output voltage VOH - is a minimum voltage available at the output corresponding to logic 1 o low Level output voltage VOL - maximum voltage available at the output corresponding to logic 0. o high level input current IIH - this is the minimum current which is supplied by a driving force corresponding to 1 Level voltage Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 8. o low level input current IIL - minimum current which must be supplied by a driving force corresponding to 0 level voltage o high level output current IOH - Maximum current with the gate can sink in level 1 o low level output current IOL - Maximum current which the gate can sink in 0 level o high level supply current ICC (1) - supply current when the output of gate is at logic 1 o low level supply current ICC (0) - supply current when the output of the gate is at logic 0 Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 9. DC Supply Voltage o The nominal value of the dc supply voltage for TTL (transistor- transistor logic) devices is +5 V. o TTL is also designated T2L. o CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) devices are available in different supply voltage categories: +5 V, +3.3 V, 2.5 V, and 1.8 V. o the dc supply voltage is connected to the VCC pin of an IC package, and ground is connected to the GND pin. o Both voltage and ground are distributed internally to all elements within the package, as illustrated in Figure for a 14-pin package. (a) Single gate (b) IC dual in-line package Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 10. CMOS Logic Levels o There are four different logic-level specifications: VIL, VIH, VOL, and VOH. o For CMOS circuits, the ranges of input voltages (VIL) that can represent an acceptable LOW (logic 0) are from 0 V to 1.5 V for the +5 V logic and 0 V to 0.8 V for the 3.3 V logic. o The ranges of input voltages (VIH) that can represent an acceptable HIGH (logic 1) are from 3.5 V to 5 V for the 5 V logic and 2 V to 3.3 V for the 3.3 V logic, as indicated in Figure. o The ranges of values from 1.5 V to 3.5 V for 5 V logic and 0.8 V to 2 V for 3.3 V logic are regions of unpredictable performance, and values in these ranges are unacceptable. o When an input voltage is in one of these ranges, it can be interpreted as either a HIGH or a LOW by the logic circuit. o Therefore, CMOS gates cannot be operated reliably when the input voltages are in these unacceptable ranges. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 11. Fig 1: Input and output logic levels for CMOS. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's
  • 12. o The ranges of CMOS output voltages (VOL and VOH) for both 5 V and 3.3 V logic are also shown in Figure. o Notice that the minimum HIGH output voltage, VOH(min), is greater than the minimum HIGH input voltage, VIH(min). o Also, notice that the maximum LOW output voltage, VOL(max), is less than the maximum LOW input voltage, VIL(max). Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 13. TTL Logic Levels o The input and output logic levels for TTL are given in Figure. o Just as for CMOS, there are four different logic level specifications: VIL, VIH, VOL, and VOH. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Fig 2: Input and output logic levels for TTL
  • 14. Example Determine the HIGH-level and LOW-level noise margins for CMOS and for TTL by using the information in Figures 1 and 2. Solution For 5 V CMOS VIH(min) = 3.5 V VIL(max) = 1.5 V VOH(min) = 4.4 V VOL(max) = 0.33 V VNH = VOH(min) - VIH(min) = 4.4 V - 3.5 V = 0.9 V VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) = 1.5 V - 0.33 V = 1.17 V For TTL VIH(min) = 2 V VIL(max) = 0.8 V VOH(min) = 2.4 V VOL(max) = 0.4 V VNH = VOH(min) - VIH(min) = 2.4 V - 2 V = 0.4 V VNL = VIL(max) - VOL(max) = 0.8 V - 0.4 V = 0.4 V A TTL gate is immune to up to 0.4 V of noise for both the HIGH and LOW input states. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 15. Noise Immunity o Noise is unwanted voltage that is induced in electrical circuits and can present a threat to the proper operation of the circuit. o Wires and other conductors within a system can pick up stray high-frequency electromagnetic radiation from adjacent conductors in which currents are changing rapidly or from many other sources external to the system. o In order not to be adversely affected by noise, a logic circuit must have a certain amount of noise immunity. o This is the ability to tolerate a certain amount of unwanted voltage fluctuation on its inputs without changing its output state. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 16. o For example, if noise voltage causes the input of a 5 V CMOS gate to drop below 3.5 V in the HIGH state, the input is in the unacceptable region and operation is unpredictable (see Figure). o Thus, the gate may interpret the fluctuation below 3.5 V as a LOW level, as illustrated in Figure (a). o Similarly, if noise causes a gate input to go above 1.5 V in the LOW state, an uncertain condition is created, as illustrated in part (b). Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 17. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane the effects of input noise on gate operation.
  • 18. Power Dissipation o A logic gate draws current from the dc supply voltage source, as indicated in Figure. o When the gate is in the HIGH output state, an amount of current designated by ICCH is drawn; and in the LOW output state, a different amount of current, ICCL, is drawn. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Currents from the dc supply. Conventional current direction is shown. Electron flow notation is opposite.
  • 19. • As an example, if ICCH is specified as 1.5 mA when VCC is 5 V and if the gate is in a static (non changing) HIGH output state, the power dissipation (PD) of the gate is PD = VCC xICCH = (5 V)(1.5 mA) = 7.5 mW • When a gate is pulsed, its output switches back and forth between HIGH and LOW, and the amount of supply current varies between ICCH and ICCL. • The average power dissipation depends on the duty cycle and is usually specified for a duty cycle of 50%. • When the duty cycle is 50%, the output is HIGH half the time and LOW the other half. • The average supply current is therefore Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's The average power dissipation is
  • 20. • Power dissipation in a TTL circuit is essentially constant over its range of operating frequencies. • Power dissipation in CMOS is frequency dependent. • It is extremely low under static (dc) conditions and increases as the frequency increases. • These characteristics are shown in the general curves of Figure. • For example, the power dissipation of a low-power Schottky (LS) TTL gate is a constant 2.2 mW. • The power dissipation of an HCMOS (high density CMOS) gate is 2.75 mW under static conditions and 170 mW at 100 kHz. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Power-versus frequency curves for TTL and CMOS.
  • 21. Example - • A certain gate draws 2 mA when its output is HIGH and 3.6 mA when its output is LOW. What is its average power dissipation if VCC is 5 V and the gate is operated on a 50% duty cycle? Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 22. Solution - The average ICC is Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane The average power dissipation is
  • 23. Propagation Delay Time • When a signal passes (propagates) through a logic circuit, it always experiences a time delay. • A change in the output level always occurs a short time, called the propagation delay time, later than the change in the input level that caused it. • There are two propagation delay times specified for logic gates: tPHL: The time between a designated point on the input pulse and the corresponding point on the output pulse when the output is changing from HIGH to LOW. tPLH: The time between a designated point on the input pulse and the corresponding point on the output pulse when the output is changing from LOW to HIGH. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane A basic illustration of propagation delay time.
  • 24. • These propagation delay times are illustrated in Figure, with the 50% points on the pulse edges used as references. • The propagation delay time of a gate limits the frequency at which it can be operated. • The greater the propagation delay time, the lower the maximum frequency. • Thus, a higher speed circuit is one that has a smaller propagation delay time. • For example, a gate with a delay of 3 ns is faster than one with a 10 ns delay. • Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Propagation delay times
  • 25. Speed-Power Product – • The speed-power product provides a basis for the comparison of logic circuits when both propagation delay time and power dissipation are important considerations in the selection of the type of logic to be used in a certain application. • The lower the speed-power product, the better. • The unit of speed-power product is the picojoule (pJ). • For example, HCMOS has a speed-power product of 1.2 pJ at 100 kHz while LS TTL has a value of 22 pJ. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 26. Loading and Fan-Out • When the output of a logic gate is connected to one or more inputs of other gates, a load on the driving gate is created, as shown in Figure. • There is a limit to the number of load gate inputs that a given gate can drive. • This limit is called the fan-out of the gate. • Fan-out is expressed as unit loads. • One gate input represents a unit load to a driving gate of the same logic family. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Loading a gate output with gate inputs.
  • 27. CMOS Loading • Loading in CMOS differs from that in TTL because the type of transistors used in CMOS logic present a predominantly capacitive load to the driving gate, as illustrated in Figure. • In this case, the limitations are the charging and discharging times associated with the output resistance of the driving gate and the input capacitance of the load gates. • When the output of the driving gate is HIGH, the input capacitance of the load gate is charging through the output resistance of the driving gate. • When the output of the driving gate is LOW, the capacitance is discharging, as indicated in Figure Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Capacitive loading of a CMOS gate
  • 28. • When more load gate inputs are added to the driving gate output, the total capacitance increases because the input capacitances effectively appear in parallel. • This increase in capacitance increases the charging and discharging times, thus reducing the maximum frequency at which the gate can be operated. • Therefore, the fan-out of a CMOS gate depends on the frequency of operation. The fewer the load gate inputs, the greater the maximum frequency. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Capacitive loading of a CMOS gate
  • 29. TTL Loading • A TTL driving gate sources current to a load gate input in the HIGH state (IIH) and sinks current from the load gate in the LOW state (IIL). • Current sourcing and current sinking are illustrated in simplified form in Figure, where the resistors represent the internal input and output resistance of the gate for the two conditions. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Basic illustration of current sourcing and current sinking in logic gates
  • 30. • As more load gates are connected to the driving gate, the loading on the driving gate increases. • The total source current increases with each load gate input that is added, as illustrated in Figure. • As this current increases, the internal voltage drop of the driving gate increases, causing the output, VOH, to decrease. • If an excessive number of load gate inputs are connected, VOH drops below VOH(min), and the HIGH - level noise margin is reduced, thus compromising the circuit operation. • Also, as the total source current increases, the power dissipation of the driving gate increases. • The fan-out is the maximum number of load gate inputs that can be connected without adversely affecting the specified operational characteristics of the gate. • For example, low power Schottky (LS) TTL has a fan-out of 20 unit loads. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 31. • The total sink current also increases with each load gate input that is added, as shown in Figure. • As this current increases, the internal voltage drop of the driving gate increases, causing VOL to increase. • If an excessive number of loads are added, VOL exceeds VOL(max), and the LOW - level noise margin is reduced. • In TTL, the current-sinking capability (LOW output state) is the limiting factor in determining the fan-out. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 32. Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane HIGH-state TTL loading LOW-stage TTL loading
  • 33. Thank you!! Integrated Circuit Technologies Characteristics of IC's Dr. Priyanka Tabhane

Editor's Notes

  1. For example