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Random Access
Memory
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RTM Nagpur University,
RAM
The Random-Access Memory
• A RAM is a read/write memory in which data can be written
into or read from any selected address in any sequence.
• When a data unit is written into a given address in the RAM,
the data unit previously stored at that address is replaced by
the new data unit.
• When a data unit is read from a given address in the RAM,
the data unit remains stored and is not erased by the read
operation.
• This non destructive read operation can be viewed as copying
the content of an address while leaving the content intact.
• A RAM is typically used for short-term data storage because
it cannot retain stored data when power is turned off.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The RAM family
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The RAM Family
• SRAMs generally use latches as storage elements and can therefore
store data indefinitely as long as dc power is applied.
• DRAMs use capacitors as storage elements and cannot retain data very
long without the capacitors being recharged by a process called
refreshing.
• Both SRAMs and DRAMs will lose stored data when dc power is
removed and, therefore, are classified as volatile memories.
• Data can be read much faster from SRAMs than from DRAMs.
• However, DRAMs can store much more data than SRAMs for a given
physical size and cost because the DRAM cell is much simpler and more
cells can be crammed into a given chip area than in the SRAM.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Static/bipolar RAMs (SRAMs)
Memory Cell
• All SRAMs are characterized by latch memory cells. As
long as dc power is applied to a static memory cell, it can
retain a 1 or 0 state indefinitely.
• If power is removed, the stored data bit is lost.
A typical SRAM latch memory cell
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• a basic SRAM latch memory
cell.
• The cell is selected by an
active level on the Select line
and a data bit (1 or 0) is
written into the cell by placing
it on the Data in line.
• A data bit is read by taking it
off the Data out line.
A typical SRAM latch memory cell
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Static Memory Cell Array
Basic SRAM array
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Static Memory Cell Array
• The memory cells in a SRAM are organized in rows and
columns, for the case of an n x 4 array.
• All the cells in a row share the same Row Select line.
• Each set of Data in and Data out lines go to each cell in a
given column and are connected to a single data line that
serves as both an input and output (Data I/O) through the
data input and data output buffers.
• To write a data unit, in this case a nibble (4 bits), into a given
row of cells in the memory array, the Row Select line is taken
to its active state and four data bits are placed on the Data I/O
lines.
• The Write line is then taken to its active state, which causes
each data bit to be stored in a selected cell in the associated
column.
• To read a data unit, the Read line is taken to its active state,
which causes the four data bits stored in the selected row to
appear on the Data I/O lines.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Basic Asynchronous
SRAM Organization
• An asynchronous SRAM is
one in which the operation
is not synchronized with a
system clock.
• Figure shows the general
organization of a SRAM, a
32k * 8 bit memory is used.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• In the READ mode, the eight data bits that are stored in a selected
address appear on the data output lines.
• In the WRITE mode, the eight data bits that are applied to the data
input lines are stored at a selected address.
• The data input and data output lines (I/O 0 through I/O 7) share the
same lines.
• During READ, they act as output lines (O0 through O7) and during
WRITE they act as input lines (I0 through I7).
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Tri-state Outputs
• Tri-state buffers in a memory allow the data lines to act
as either input or output lines and connect the memory
to the data bus in a computer.
• These buffers have three output states: HIGH (1), LOW
(0), and HIGH-Z (open).
• Tri-state outputs are indicated on logic symbols by a small
inverted triangle ( ) .
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Buses
• A bus is one or more conductive paths that serve to interconnect
two or more functional components of a system or several diverse
systems.
• a bus is a collection of specified voltage levels and/or current levels
and signals that allow various devices to communicate and work
properly together.
• A microprocessor is connected to memories and input/output
devices by certain bus structures.
• An address bus allows the microprocessor to address the memories,
and a data bus provides for transfer of data between the
microprocessor, the memories, and the input/output devices such
as monitors, printers, keyboards, and modems.
• A control bus allows the microprocessor to control data transfers
and timing for the various components.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Memory Cells
• Dynamic memory cells store a data bit in a small
capacitor rather than in a latch.
• The advantage of this type of cell is that it is very simple,
thus allowing very large memory arrays to be
constructed on a chip at a lower cost per bit.
• The disadvantage is that the storage capacitor cannot
hold its charge over an extended period of time and will
lose the stored data bit unless its charge is refreshed
periodically.
• To refresh requires additional memory circuitry and
complicates the operation of the DRAM.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Figure shows a typical DRAM cell consisting of a
single MOS transistor (MOSFET) and a capacitor.
In this type of cell, the transistor acts as a switch.
• A LOW on the R/W line (WRITE
mode) enables the tri-state input
buffer and disables the output
buffer.
• For a 1 to be written into the cell,
the DIN line must be HIGH, and
the transistor must be turned on
by a HIGH on the row line.
• The transistor acts as a closed
switch connecting the capacitor to
the bit line.
• This connection allows the
capacitor to charge to a positive
voltage.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Writing a 1 into the memory cell
Simplified operation of cell
• When a 0 is to be stored, a LOW is
applied to the DIN line.
• If the capacitor is storing a 0, it
remains uncharged, or if it is
storing a 1, it discharges.
• When the row line is taken back
LOW, the transistor turns off and
disconnects the capacitor from the
bit line, thus “trapping” the charge
(1 or 0) on the capacitor
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Writing a 0 into the memory cell
• To read from the cell, the R/W
(Read/Write) line is HIGH,
enabling the output buffer and
disabling the input buffer.
• When the row line is taken
HIGH, the transistor turns on
and connects the capacitor to the
bit line and thus to the output
buffer (sense amplifier),so the
data bit appears on the data-
output line (DOUT).
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Reading a 1 from the memory cell
• For refreshing the memory cell,
the R/W line is HIGH, the row line
is HIGH, and the refresh line is
HIGH.
• The transistor turns on,
connecting the capacitor to the bit
line.
• The output buffer is enabled, and
the stored data bit is applied to
the input of the refresh buffer,
which is enabled by the HIGH on
the refresh input.
• This produces a voltage on the bit
line corresponding to the stored
bit, thus replenishing the
capacitor.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Refreshing a stored 1
DRAM Organization
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• The major application of DRAMs is in the main memory of
computers.
• The difference between DRAMs and SRAMs is the type of memory
cell.
• DRAM memory cell consists of one transistor and a capacitor and is
much simpler than the SRAM cell.
• This allows much greater densities in DRAMs and results in greater
bit capacities for a given chip area, although much slower access
time.
• As charge stored in a capacitor will leak off, the DRAM cell requires
a frequent refresh operation to preserve the stored data bit.
• This requirement results in more complex circuitry than in a SRAM.
Address Multiplexing
• DRAMs use a technique called address multiplexing to reduce the
number of address lines.
• The ten address lines are time multiplexed at the beginning of a
memory cycle by the row address select (RAS) and the column address
select (CAS) into two separate 10-bit address fields.
• First, the 10-bit row address is latched into the row address register.
• Next, the 10-bit column address is latched into the column address
register.
• The row address and the column address are decoded to select one
of the 1,048,576 addresses (2^20 = 1,048,576) in the memory array.
• The basic timing for the address multiplexing operation is shown in
Figure.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Read and Write Cycles
• At the beginning of each read or write memory cycle,
RAS and CAS go active (LOW) to multiplex the row and
column addresses into the registers, and decoders.
• For a read cycle, the R/W input is HIGH. For a write cycle,
the R/W input is LOW.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
DRAM with a 1M * 1 organization.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Fast Page Mode
• In the normal read or write cycle described previously, the row address
for a particular memory location is first loaded by an active-LOW RAS
and then the column address for that location is loaded by an active-LOW
CAS.
• The next location is selected by another RAS followed by a CAS, and so on.
• A “page” is a section of memory available at a single row address and
consists of all the columns in a row.
• Fast page mode allows fast successive read or write operations at each
column address in a selected row.
• A row address is first loaded by RAS going LOW and remaining LOW
while CAS is toggled between HIGH and LOW.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• A single row address is selected and remains selected while RAS is
active.
• Each successive CAS selects another column in the selected row.
• So, after a fast page mode cycle, all of the addresses in the selected
row have been read from or written into, depending on R/W.
• For example, a fast page mode cycle for the DRAM in Figure requires
CAS to go active 1024 times for each row selected by RAS.
• Fast page mode operation for read is illustrated by the timing
diagram
• When CAS goes to its non asserted state (HIGH), it disables the data
outputs.
• Therefore, the transition of CAS to HIGH must occur only after valid
data are latched by the external system.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
(a) Read cycle
(b) Write cycle
Refresh Cycles
• DRAMs are based on capacitor charge storage for each bit in the
memory array.
• This charge degrades (leaks off) with time and temperature, so each bit
must be periodically refreshed (recharged) to maintain the correct bit
state.
• A DRAM must be refreshed every several milliseconds.
• A read operation automatically refreshes all the addresses in the
selected row.
• you cannot always predict how often there will be a read cycle, and so
you cannot depend on a read cycle to occur frequently enough to
prevent data loss.
• Therefore, special refresh cycles must be implemented in DRAM
systems.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
• The two types of refresh operations are RAS only refresh and CAS before
RAS refresh.
• RAS-only refresh consists of a RAS transition to the LOW (active) state,
which latches the address of the row to be refreshed while CAS remains
HIGH (inactive) throughout the cycle.
• An external counter is used to provide the row addresses for this type
of operation.
• The CAS before RAS refresh is initiated by CAS going LOW before RAS goes
LOW.
• This sequence activates an internal refresh counter that generates the
row address to be refreshed.
• This address is switched by the data selector into the row decoder.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Types of DRAMs
• Fast Page Mode (FPM) DRAM
• the Extended Data Out (EDO) DRAM,
• the Burst Extended Data Out (BEDO) DRAM,
• the Synchronous (S) DRAM.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
FPM DRAM
• Fast page mode operation - a page in memory is all of the column
addresses contained within one row address.
• Addresses to be accessed are in the same row (on the same page).
• FPM saves time over pure random accessing because in FPM the
row address is specified only once for access to several successive
column addresses whereas for pure random accessing, a row
address is specified for each column address.
• the CAS signal has to wait until the valid data from a given address are
accepted (latched) by the external system (CPU) before it can go to
its non asserted state.
• When CAS goes to its non asserted state, the data outputs are disabled.
• This means that the next column address cannot occur until after
the data from the current column address are transferred to the
CPU.
• This limits the rate at which the columns within a page can be
addressed.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
EDO DRAM
• The Extended Data Out DRAM, sometimes called hyper
page mode DRAM, is similar to the FPM DRAM.
• The key difference is that the CAS signal in the EDO
DRAM does not disable the output data when it goes to
its non asserted state because the valid data from the
current address can be held until CAS is asserted again.
• This means that the next column address can be accessed
before the external system accepts the current valid data.
• The idea is to speed up the access time.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
BEDO DRAM
• The Burst Extended Data Out DRAM is an EDO DRAM
with address burst capability.
• the address burst allows up to four addresses to be
internally generated from a single external address,
which saves some access time.
• This same concept applies to the BEDO DRAM.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
SDRAM
• Faster DRAMs are needed to keep up with the ever-increasing
speed of microprocessors.
• The Synchronous DRAM is one way to accomplish this.
• the operation of the SDRAM is synchronized with the system
clock, which also runs the microprocessor in a computer system.
• With asynchronous memories, the microprocessor must wait for the
DRAM to complete its internal operations.
• However, with synchronous operation, the DRAM latches
addresses, data, and control information from the processor under
control of the system clock.
• This allows the processor to handle other tasks while the memory
read/write operations are in progress, rather than having to wait for
the memory to do its thing as is the case in asynchronous systems.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
DDR SDRAM
• DDR stands for double data rate.
• A DDR SDRAM is clocked on both edges of a clock pulse,
whereas a SDRAM is clocked on only one edge.
• Because of the double clocking, a DDR SDRAM is
theoretically twice as fast as an SDRAM.
• Sometimes the SDRAM is referred to as an SDR SDRAM
(single data rate SDRAM) for contrast with the DDR
SDRAM.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Assignment
• List two types of SRAM.
• Explain how SRAMs and DRAMs differ.
• Explain basic organization of SRAM
• Explain operation in DRAM.
• Describe the refresh operation in a DRAM.
• List four types of DRAM.
• What are tri state outputs ?
• Write a note on FPM DRAM.
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Thank you!!
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane

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Lec 2 digital electronics - random access memory

  • 1. Random Access Memory Dr. Priyanka Tabhane RTM Nagpur University,
  • 2. RAM The Random-Access Memory • A RAM is a read/write memory in which data can be written into or read from any selected address in any sequence. • When a data unit is written into a given address in the RAM, the data unit previously stored at that address is replaced by the new data unit. • When a data unit is read from a given address in the RAM, the data unit remains stored and is not erased by the read operation. • This non destructive read operation can be viewed as copying the content of an address while leaving the content intact. • A RAM is typically used for short-term data storage because it cannot retain stored data when power is turned off. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 3. The RAM family RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 4. The RAM Family • SRAMs generally use latches as storage elements and can therefore store data indefinitely as long as dc power is applied. • DRAMs use capacitors as storage elements and cannot retain data very long without the capacitors being recharged by a process called refreshing. • Both SRAMs and DRAMs will lose stored data when dc power is removed and, therefore, are classified as volatile memories. • Data can be read much faster from SRAMs than from DRAMs. • However, DRAMs can store much more data than SRAMs for a given physical size and cost because the DRAM cell is much simpler and more cells can be crammed into a given chip area than in the SRAM. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 5. Static/bipolar RAMs (SRAMs) Memory Cell • All SRAMs are characterized by latch memory cells. As long as dc power is applied to a static memory cell, it can retain a 1 or 0 state indefinitely. • If power is removed, the stored data bit is lost. A typical SRAM latch memory cell RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 6. • a basic SRAM latch memory cell. • The cell is selected by an active level on the Select line and a data bit (1 or 0) is written into the cell by placing it on the Data in line. • A data bit is read by taking it off the Data out line. A typical SRAM latch memory cell RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 7. Static Memory Cell Array Basic SRAM array RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 8. Static Memory Cell Array • The memory cells in a SRAM are organized in rows and columns, for the case of an n x 4 array. • All the cells in a row share the same Row Select line. • Each set of Data in and Data out lines go to each cell in a given column and are connected to a single data line that serves as both an input and output (Data I/O) through the data input and data output buffers. • To write a data unit, in this case a nibble (4 bits), into a given row of cells in the memory array, the Row Select line is taken to its active state and four data bits are placed on the Data I/O lines. • The Write line is then taken to its active state, which causes each data bit to be stored in a selected cell in the associated column. • To read a data unit, the Read line is taken to its active state, which causes the four data bits stored in the selected row to appear on the Data I/O lines. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 9. Basic Asynchronous SRAM Organization • An asynchronous SRAM is one in which the operation is not synchronized with a system clock. • Figure shows the general organization of a SRAM, a 32k * 8 bit memory is used. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 10. • In the READ mode, the eight data bits that are stored in a selected address appear on the data output lines. • In the WRITE mode, the eight data bits that are applied to the data input lines are stored at a selected address. • The data input and data output lines (I/O 0 through I/O 7) share the same lines. • During READ, they act as output lines (O0 through O7) and during WRITE they act as input lines (I0 through I7). RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 11. Tri-state Outputs • Tri-state buffers in a memory allow the data lines to act as either input or output lines and connect the memory to the data bus in a computer. • These buffers have three output states: HIGH (1), LOW (0), and HIGH-Z (open). • Tri-state outputs are indicated on logic symbols by a small inverted triangle ( ) . RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 12. Buses • A bus is one or more conductive paths that serve to interconnect two or more functional components of a system or several diverse systems. • a bus is a collection of specified voltage levels and/or current levels and signals that allow various devices to communicate and work properly together. • A microprocessor is connected to memories and input/output devices by certain bus structures. • An address bus allows the microprocessor to address the memories, and a data bus provides for transfer of data between the microprocessor, the memories, and the input/output devices such as monitors, printers, keyboards, and modems. • A control bus allows the microprocessor to control data transfers and timing for the various components. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 13. Dynamic RAM (DRAM) Memory Cells • Dynamic memory cells store a data bit in a small capacitor rather than in a latch. • The advantage of this type of cell is that it is very simple, thus allowing very large memory arrays to be constructed on a chip at a lower cost per bit. • The disadvantage is that the storage capacitor cannot hold its charge over an extended period of time and will lose the stored data bit unless its charge is refreshed periodically. • To refresh requires additional memory circuitry and complicates the operation of the DRAM. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 14. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Figure shows a typical DRAM cell consisting of a single MOS transistor (MOSFET) and a capacitor. In this type of cell, the transistor acts as a switch.
  • 15. • A LOW on the R/W line (WRITE mode) enables the tri-state input buffer and disables the output buffer. • For a 1 to be written into the cell, the DIN line must be HIGH, and the transistor must be turned on by a HIGH on the row line. • The transistor acts as a closed switch connecting the capacitor to the bit line. • This connection allows the capacitor to charge to a positive voltage. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Writing a 1 into the memory cell Simplified operation of cell
  • 16. • When a 0 is to be stored, a LOW is applied to the DIN line. • If the capacitor is storing a 0, it remains uncharged, or if it is storing a 1, it discharges. • When the row line is taken back LOW, the transistor turns off and disconnects the capacitor from the bit line, thus “trapping” the charge (1 or 0) on the capacitor RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Writing a 0 into the memory cell
  • 17. • To read from the cell, the R/W (Read/Write) line is HIGH, enabling the output buffer and disabling the input buffer. • When the row line is taken HIGH, the transistor turns on and connects the capacitor to the bit line and thus to the output buffer (sense amplifier),so the data bit appears on the data- output line (DOUT). RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Reading a 1 from the memory cell
  • 18. • For refreshing the memory cell, the R/W line is HIGH, the row line is HIGH, and the refresh line is HIGH. • The transistor turns on, connecting the capacitor to the bit line. • The output buffer is enabled, and the stored data bit is applied to the input of the refresh buffer, which is enabled by the HIGH on the refresh input. • This produces a voltage on the bit line corresponding to the stored bit, thus replenishing the capacitor. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Refreshing a stored 1
  • 19. DRAM Organization RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane • The major application of DRAMs is in the main memory of computers. • The difference between DRAMs and SRAMs is the type of memory cell. • DRAM memory cell consists of one transistor and a capacitor and is much simpler than the SRAM cell. • This allows much greater densities in DRAMs and results in greater bit capacities for a given chip area, although much slower access time. • As charge stored in a capacitor will leak off, the DRAM cell requires a frequent refresh operation to preserve the stored data bit. • This requirement results in more complex circuitry than in a SRAM.
  • 20. Address Multiplexing • DRAMs use a technique called address multiplexing to reduce the number of address lines. • The ten address lines are time multiplexed at the beginning of a memory cycle by the row address select (RAS) and the column address select (CAS) into two separate 10-bit address fields. • First, the 10-bit row address is latched into the row address register. • Next, the 10-bit column address is latched into the column address register. • The row address and the column address are decoded to select one of the 1,048,576 addresses (2^20 = 1,048,576) in the memory array. • The basic timing for the address multiplexing operation is shown in Figure. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 21. Read and Write Cycles • At the beginning of each read or write memory cycle, RAS and CAS go active (LOW) to multiplex the row and column addresses into the registers, and decoders. • For a read cycle, the R/W input is HIGH. For a write cycle, the R/W input is LOW. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 22. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane DRAM with a 1M * 1 organization.
  • 23. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 24. Fast Page Mode • In the normal read or write cycle described previously, the row address for a particular memory location is first loaded by an active-LOW RAS and then the column address for that location is loaded by an active-LOW CAS. • The next location is selected by another RAS followed by a CAS, and so on. • A “page” is a section of memory available at a single row address and consists of all the columns in a row. • Fast page mode allows fast successive read or write operations at each column address in a selected row. • A row address is first loaded by RAS going LOW and remaining LOW while CAS is toggled between HIGH and LOW. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 25. • A single row address is selected and remains selected while RAS is active. • Each successive CAS selects another column in the selected row. • So, after a fast page mode cycle, all of the addresses in the selected row have been read from or written into, depending on R/W. • For example, a fast page mode cycle for the DRAM in Figure requires CAS to go active 1024 times for each row selected by RAS. • Fast page mode operation for read is illustrated by the timing diagram • When CAS goes to its non asserted state (HIGH), it disables the data outputs. • Therefore, the transition of CAS to HIGH must occur only after valid data are latched by the external system. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 26. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane (a) Read cycle (b) Write cycle
  • 27. Refresh Cycles • DRAMs are based on capacitor charge storage for each bit in the memory array. • This charge degrades (leaks off) with time and temperature, so each bit must be periodically refreshed (recharged) to maintain the correct bit state. • A DRAM must be refreshed every several milliseconds. • A read operation automatically refreshes all the addresses in the selected row. • you cannot always predict how often there will be a read cycle, and so you cannot depend on a read cycle to occur frequently enough to prevent data loss. • Therefore, special refresh cycles must be implemented in DRAM systems. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 28. • The two types of refresh operations are RAS only refresh and CAS before RAS refresh. • RAS-only refresh consists of a RAS transition to the LOW (active) state, which latches the address of the row to be refreshed while CAS remains HIGH (inactive) throughout the cycle. • An external counter is used to provide the row addresses for this type of operation. • The CAS before RAS refresh is initiated by CAS going LOW before RAS goes LOW. • This sequence activates an internal refresh counter that generates the row address to be refreshed. • This address is switched by the data selector into the row decoder. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 29. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 30. Types of DRAMs • Fast Page Mode (FPM) DRAM • the Extended Data Out (EDO) DRAM, • the Burst Extended Data Out (BEDO) DRAM, • the Synchronous (S) DRAM. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 31. FPM DRAM • Fast page mode operation - a page in memory is all of the column addresses contained within one row address. • Addresses to be accessed are in the same row (on the same page). • FPM saves time over pure random accessing because in FPM the row address is specified only once for access to several successive column addresses whereas for pure random accessing, a row address is specified for each column address. • the CAS signal has to wait until the valid data from a given address are accepted (latched) by the external system (CPU) before it can go to its non asserted state. • When CAS goes to its non asserted state, the data outputs are disabled. • This means that the next column address cannot occur until after the data from the current column address are transferred to the CPU. • This limits the rate at which the columns within a page can be addressed. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 32. EDO DRAM • The Extended Data Out DRAM, sometimes called hyper page mode DRAM, is similar to the FPM DRAM. • The key difference is that the CAS signal in the EDO DRAM does not disable the output data when it goes to its non asserted state because the valid data from the current address can be held until CAS is asserted again. • This means that the next column address can be accessed before the external system accepts the current valid data. • The idea is to speed up the access time. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 33. BEDO DRAM • The Burst Extended Data Out DRAM is an EDO DRAM with address burst capability. • the address burst allows up to four addresses to be internally generated from a single external address, which saves some access time. • This same concept applies to the BEDO DRAM. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 34. SDRAM • Faster DRAMs are needed to keep up with the ever-increasing speed of microprocessors. • The Synchronous DRAM is one way to accomplish this. • the operation of the SDRAM is synchronized with the system clock, which also runs the microprocessor in a computer system. • With asynchronous memories, the microprocessor must wait for the DRAM to complete its internal operations. • However, with synchronous operation, the DRAM latches addresses, data, and control information from the processor under control of the system clock. • This allows the processor to handle other tasks while the memory read/write operations are in progress, rather than having to wait for the memory to do its thing as is the case in asynchronous systems. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 35. DDR SDRAM • DDR stands for double data rate. • A DDR SDRAM is clocked on both edges of a clock pulse, whereas a SDRAM is clocked on only one edge. • Because of the double clocking, a DDR SDRAM is theoretically twice as fast as an SDRAM. • Sometimes the SDRAM is referred to as an SDR SDRAM (single data rate SDRAM) for contrast with the DDR SDRAM. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 36. Assignment • List two types of SRAM. • Explain how SRAMs and DRAMs differ. • Explain basic organization of SRAM • Explain operation in DRAM. • Describe the refresh operation in a DRAM. • List four types of DRAM. • What are tri state outputs ? • Write a note on FPM DRAM. RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 37. Thank you!! RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY Dr. Priyanka Tabhane