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Basic Memory Array
Write /Read
Operations
Dr. Priyanka V Tabhane
RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
• Memory is the portion of a computer or other system that
stores binary data.
• In a computer, memory is accessed millions of times per
second, so the requirement for speed and accuracy is
paramount.
• Very fast semiconductor memory is available today in
modules with several GB (a gigabyte is one billion bytes) of
capacity.
• These large-memory modules use exactly the same operating
principles as smaller units
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
As a rule, memories store data in units that have from one to eight
bits. The smallest unit of binary data, as you know, is the bit.
In many applications, data are handled in an 8-bit unit called a byte
or in multiples of 8-bit units.
The byte can be split into two 4-bit units that are called nibbles.
Bytes can also be grouped into words.
The term word can have two meanings in computer terminology.
In memories, it is defined as a group of bits or bytes that acts as a
single entity that can be stored in one memory location.
In assembly language, a word is specifically defined as two bytes.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Units of Binary Data: Bits, Bytes, Nibbles, and Words
• Each storage element in a memory can retain either a 1 or a 0 and is
called a cell.
• Memories are made up of arrays of cells, as illustrated in Figure using
64 cells as an example.
• Each block in the memory array represents one storage cell, and its
location can be identified by specifying a row and a column.
• The 64-cell array can be organized in several ways based on units of
data. Figure (a) shows an 8 * 8 array, which can be viewed as either a
64-bit memory or an 8-byte memory.
• Part (b) shows a 16 * 4 array, which is a 16-nibble memory, and part
(c) shows a 64 * 1 array, which is a 64-bit memory.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The Basic Memory Array
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
A memory is identified by the number of words it can store times the
word size.
For example, a 16k * 8 memory can store 16,384 words of eight bits
each.
The inconsistency here is common in memory terminology. The
actual number of words is always a power of 2, which, in this case,
is 2^14 = 16,384.
However, it is common practice to state the number to the nearest
thousand, in this case, 16k.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Memory Address and Capacity
A representation of a small 8 * 8 memory chip is shown in Figure (a).
The location of a unit of data in a memory array is called its address.
For example, in part (b), the address of a bit in the 2-dimensional array
is specified by the row and column as shown.
In part (c), the address of a byte is specified only by the row.
So, as you can see, the address depends on how the memory is
organized into units of data.
Personal computers have random access memories organized in bytes.
This means that the smallest group of bits that can be addressed is
eight.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The capacity of a memory is the total number of data units that
can be stored.
For example, in the bit-organized memory array in Figure b, the
capacity is 64 bits.
In the byte-organized memory array in Figure c, the capacity is 8
bytes, which is also 64 bits.
In this Figure, the capacity is 64 bytes.
Computer memories typically have multiple gigabytes of internal
memory.
Computers usually transfer and store data as 64-bit words, in
which case all eight bits of row five in each chip in Figure a would
be accessed.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
What is the capacity of memory in this figure??
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
In this Figure the capacity is 64 bytes.
Computer memories typically have
multiple gigabytes of internal memory.
Computers usually transfer and store
data as 64-bit words, in which case all
eight bits of row five in each chip in Figure
would be accessed.0
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Basic memory operations
Read/Write Operation
Addressing is the process of accessing a specified location in memory.
Since a memory stores binary data, data must be put into the memory
and data must be copied from the memory when needed.
The write operation puts data into a specified address in the memory,
and the read operation copies data out of a specified address in the
memory.
The addressing operation, which is part of both the write and the read
operations, selects the specified memory address.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Block diagram of a single-array memory and a multiple-array memory
showing address bus, address decoder(s), bidirectional data bus, and
read/write inputs.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Data units go into the memory during a write operation and come
out of the memory during a read operation on a set of lines called the
data bus.
As indicated in Figure, the data bus is bidirectional, which means
that data can go in either direction (into the memory or out of the
memory).
For a write or a read operation, an address is selected by placing a
binary code representing the desired address on a set of lines called
the address bus.
The address code is decoded internally, and the appropriate address
is selected.
In the case of the multiple-array memory in Figure (b) there are two
decoders, one for the rows and one for the columns.
The number of lines in the address bus depends on the capacity of the
memory.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
For example :
A 15-bit address code can select 32,768 locations (215) in the
memory, a 16-bit address code can select 65,536 locations (216) in
the memory, and so on.
In personal computers a 32-bit address bus can select
4,294,967,296 locations (232).
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Illustration of the write operation
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The Write Operation
A simplified write operation is illustrated in Figure.
To store a byte of data in the memory, a code held in the address
register is placed on the address bus.
Once the address code is on the bus, the address decoder decodes
the address and selects the specified location in the memory.
The memory then gets a write command, and the data byte held in
the data register is placed on the data bus and stored in the selected
memory address, thus completing the write operation.
When a new data byte is written into a memory address, the current
data byte stored at that address is overwritten (replaced with a new
data byte).
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Illustration of the read operation
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
The Read Operation
A simplified read operation is illustrated in Figure.
Again, a code held in the address register is placed on the address bus.
Once the address code is on the bus, the address decoder decodes the
address and selects the specified location in the memory.
The memory then gets a read command, and a “copy” of the data byte
that is stored in the selected memory address is placed on the data bus
and loaded into the data register, thus completing the read operation.
When a data byte is read from a memory address, it also remains
stored at that address.
This is called non destructive read.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
RAMs and ROMs
The two major categories of semiconductor memories are the RAM and the
ROM.
RAM (random-access memory) is a type of memory in which all addresses
are accessible in an equal amount of time and can be selected in any order
for a read or write operation.
All RAMs have both read and write capability. Because RAMs lose stored
data when the power is turned off, they are volatile memories.
ROM (read-only memory) is a type of memory in which data are stored
permanently or semi permanently.
Data can be read from a ROM, but there is no write operation as in the
RAM.
The ROM, like the RAM, is a random-access memory but the term RAM
traditionally means a random-access read/write memory.
Because ROMs retain stored data even if power is turned off, they
are non-volatile memories.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Assignment 1
1. What is the smallest unit of data that can be stored in a
memory?
2. What is the bit capacity of a memory that can store 256 bytes
of data?
3. What is a write operation?
4. What is a read operation?
5. How is a given unit of data located in a memory?
6. Describe the difference between a RAM and a ROM.
7. Define bit, byte, nibbles.
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
Thank you!!
Memory Array, Write/Read Operations
Dr. Priyanka Tabhane

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Lec 1 digital electroinics - memory array, write read operations

  • 1. Basic Memory Array Write /Read Operations Dr. Priyanka V Tabhane RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur
  • 2. • Memory is the portion of a computer or other system that stores binary data. • In a computer, memory is accessed millions of times per second, so the requirement for speed and accuracy is paramount. • Very fast semiconductor memory is available today in modules with several GB (a gigabyte is one billion bytes) of capacity. • These large-memory modules use exactly the same operating principles as smaller units Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 3. As a rule, memories store data in units that have from one to eight bits. The smallest unit of binary data, as you know, is the bit. In many applications, data are handled in an 8-bit unit called a byte or in multiples of 8-bit units. The byte can be split into two 4-bit units that are called nibbles. Bytes can also be grouped into words. The term word can have two meanings in computer terminology. In memories, it is defined as a group of bits or bytes that acts as a single entity that can be stored in one memory location. In assembly language, a word is specifically defined as two bytes. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane Units of Binary Data: Bits, Bytes, Nibbles, and Words
  • 4. • Each storage element in a memory can retain either a 1 or a 0 and is called a cell. • Memories are made up of arrays of cells, as illustrated in Figure using 64 cells as an example. • Each block in the memory array represents one storage cell, and its location can be identified by specifying a row and a column. • The 64-cell array can be organized in several ways based on units of data. Figure (a) shows an 8 * 8 array, which can be viewed as either a 64-bit memory or an 8-byte memory. • Part (b) shows a 16 * 4 array, which is a 16-nibble memory, and part (c) shows a 64 * 1 array, which is a 64-bit memory. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane The Basic Memory Array
  • 5. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 6. A memory is identified by the number of words it can store times the word size. For example, a 16k * 8 memory can store 16,384 words of eight bits each. The inconsistency here is common in memory terminology. The actual number of words is always a power of 2, which, in this case, is 2^14 = 16,384. However, it is common practice to state the number to the nearest thousand, in this case, 16k. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 7. Memory Address and Capacity A representation of a small 8 * 8 memory chip is shown in Figure (a). The location of a unit of data in a memory array is called its address. For example, in part (b), the address of a bit in the 2-dimensional array is specified by the row and column as shown. In part (c), the address of a byte is specified only by the row. So, as you can see, the address depends on how the memory is organized into units of data. Personal computers have random access memories organized in bytes. This means that the smallest group of bits that can be addressed is eight. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 8. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 9. The capacity of a memory is the total number of data units that can be stored. For example, in the bit-organized memory array in Figure b, the capacity is 64 bits. In the byte-organized memory array in Figure c, the capacity is 8 bytes, which is also 64 bits. In this Figure, the capacity is 64 bytes. Computer memories typically have multiple gigabytes of internal memory. Computers usually transfer and store data as 64-bit words, in which case all eight bits of row five in each chip in Figure a would be accessed. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 10. What is the capacity of memory in this figure?? Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 11. In this Figure the capacity is 64 bytes. Computer memories typically have multiple gigabytes of internal memory. Computers usually transfer and store data as 64-bit words, in which case all eight bits of row five in each chip in Figure would be accessed.0 Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 12. Basic memory operations Read/Write Operation Addressing is the process of accessing a specified location in memory. Since a memory stores binary data, data must be put into the memory and data must be copied from the memory when needed. The write operation puts data into a specified address in the memory, and the read operation copies data out of a specified address in the memory. The addressing operation, which is part of both the write and the read operations, selects the specified memory address. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 13. Block diagram of a single-array memory and a multiple-array memory showing address bus, address decoder(s), bidirectional data bus, and read/write inputs. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 14. Data units go into the memory during a write operation and come out of the memory during a read operation on a set of lines called the data bus. As indicated in Figure, the data bus is bidirectional, which means that data can go in either direction (into the memory or out of the memory). For a write or a read operation, an address is selected by placing a binary code representing the desired address on a set of lines called the address bus. The address code is decoded internally, and the appropriate address is selected. In the case of the multiple-array memory in Figure (b) there are two decoders, one for the rows and one for the columns. The number of lines in the address bus depends on the capacity of the memory. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 15. For example : A 15-bit address code can select 32,768 locations (215) in the memory, a 16-bit address code can select 65,536 locations (216) in the memory, and so on. In personal computers a 32-bit address bus can select 4,294,967,296 locations (232). Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 16. Illustration of the write operation Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 17. The Write Operation A simplified write operation is illustrated in Figure. To store a byte of data in the memory, a code held in the address register is placed on the address bus. Once the address code is on the bus, the address decoder decodes the address and selects the specified location in the memory. The memory then gets a write command, and the data byte held in the data register is placed on the data bus and stored in the selected memory address, thus completing the write operation. When a new data byte is written into a memory address, the current data byte stored at that address is overwritten (replaced with a new data byte). Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 18. Illustration of the read operation Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 19. The Read Operation A simplified read operation is illustrated in Figure. Again, a code held in the address register is placed on the address bus. Once the address code is on the bus, the address decoder decodes the address and selects the specified location in the memory. The memory then gets a read command, and a “copy” of the data byte that is stored in the selected memory address is placed on the data bus and loaded into the data register, thus completing the read operation. When a data byte is read from a memory address, it also remains stored at that address. This is called non destructive read. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 20. RAMs and ROMs The two major categories of semiconductor memories are the RAM and the ROM. RAM (random-access memory) is a type of memory in which all addresses are accessible in an equal amount of time and can be selected in any order for a read or write operation. All RAMs have both read and write capability. Because RAMs lose stored data when the power is turned off, they are volatile memories. ROM (read-only memory) is a type of memory in which data are stored permanently or semi permanently. Data can be read from a ROM, but there is no write operation as in the RAM. The ROM, like the RAM, is a random-access memory but the term RAM traditionally means a random-access read/write memory. Because ROMs retain stored data even if power is turned off, they are non-volatile memories. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 21. Assignment 1 1. What is the smallest unit of data that can be stored in a memory? 2. What is the bit capacity of a memory that can store 256 bytes of data? 3. What is a write operation? 4. What is a read operation? 5. How is a given unit of data located in a memory? 6. Describe the difference between a RAM and a ROM. 7. Define bit, byte, nibbles. Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane
  • 22. Thank you!! Memory Array, Write/Read Operations Dr. Priyanka Tabhane