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Launch	
  a	
  successful	
  LTE	
  Footprints	
  in	
  Bangladesh	
  
–	
  Challenges	
  &	
  Achievements	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Faisal	
  Mobarak	
  
	
  
Assistant	
  General	
  Manager,	
  	
  
Ollo	
  Wireless	
  Internet	
  
Internet	
  in	
  Bangladesh	
  	
  &	
  BIEL	
  4G	
  LTE	
  
BIEL	
  is	
  working	
  in	
  Bangladesh	
  since	
  2007	
  
with	
  ISP	
  license	
  having	
  one	
  of	
  the	
  Iirst	
  
and	
  biggest	
  large-­‐scale	
  deployment	
  of	
  a	
  
3.5	
  GHz	
  WiMAX	
  network.	
  
	
  
Currently,	
  it	
  covers	
  major	
  areas	
  of	
  Dhaka	
  
including	
  Uttara,	
  Gulshan,	
  Mohakhali,	
  
Dhanmondi,	
  Motijheel	
  &	
  its	
  surrounding	
  
areas.	
  
BIEL	
  has	
  been	
  granted	
  BWA	
  License	
  
according	
  to	
  the	
  BWA	
  guidelines	
  by	
  the	
  
Bangladesh	
  Telecommunication	
  
Regulatory	
  Authority	
  (BTRC)	
  in	
  Nov,	
  2013	
  
	
  
BIEL	
  has	
  compiled	
  with	
  all	
  Iinancial	
  
conditions	
  for	
  obtaining	
  BWA	
  Services	
  
License	
  successfully	
  which	
  allows	
  BIEL	
  to	
  
provide	
  BWA	
  Services	
  in	
  2.5-­‐2.6	
  MHz	
  
spectrum	
  brand.	
  
LTE	
  :	
  Long	
  Term	
  Evolution,	
  The	
  Basics	
  
IMT
- Advance
4G
CDMA2000 Evolution
2001-2005 2006
HSDPA Phase I
1.8M/3.6Mbps
HSDPA Phase II
7.2/14.4Mbps
HSUPA
2M/5.76Mbps
LTE
DL:100Mbps
UL:50Mbps
GSM/GPRS
EDGE
171/384kbps
WCDMA
R99/R4
384kbps
WCDMA Evolution
2007 2008 2009
HSPA+
DL >40Mbps
UL >10Mbps
1xEV-DO Rev. 0
DL: 2.4Mbps
UL:153.6kbps
DO Rev. B
(MC DO)
DL:46.5Mbps
UL: 27Mbps
1xEV-D0 Rev. A
DL: 3.1Mbps
UL: 1.8Mbps
CDMA 1X
153kbps
2010 2011
IEEE802.16e
70Mbps
IEEE802.16m
DL:100Mbps
UL: 50Mbps
WiMAX Evolution
IEEE802.16d
20Mbps
Broadband	
  Trend	
  in	
  Wireless	
  Technology	
  
	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  	
  
The	
  De6inition	
  
LTE,	
  an	
  acronym	
  for	
  Long-­‐Term	
  
Evolution,	
  commonly	
  marketed	
  as	
  4G	
  
LTE,	
  is	
  a	
  standard	
  for	
  wireless	
  
communication	
  of	
  high-­‐speed	
  data	
  for	
  
mobile	
  phones	
  &	
  data	
  terminals.	
  	
  
	
  
It	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  GSM/EDGE	
  and	
  
UMTS/HSPA	
  network	
  technologies,	
  
increasing	
  the	
  capacity	
  and	
  speed	
  using	
  
a	
  different	
  radio	
  interface	
  together	
  with	
  
core	
  network	
  improvements.	
  	
  
Adoption	
  of	
  LTE	
  technology	
  as	
  of	
  February	
  15,	
  2014.	
  
	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Countries	
  and	
  regions	
  with	
  commercial	
  LTE	
  service	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Countries	
  and	
  regions	
  with	
  commercial	
  LTE	
  network	
  deployment	
  on-­‐going	
  or	
  
planned	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Countries	
  and	
  regions	
  with	
  LTE	
  trial	
  systems	
  (pre-­‐commitment)	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  ARCHITECTURE	
  
EPS	
  Network	
  Elements	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  ARCHITECTURE	
  
EPS	
  Node	
  Functionality	
  
An	
  IP	
  packet	
  for	
  a	
  UE	
  is	
  encapsulated	
  in	
  an	
  EPC-­‐speci6ic	
  protocol	
  and	
  tunneled	
  between	
  the	
  P-­‐GW	
  and	
  eNodeB	
  
for	
  transmission	
  to	
  the	
  UE.	
  Different	
  tunneling	
  protocols	
  are	
  used	
  across	
  different	
  interfaces.	
  A	
  3GPP-­‐speci6ic	
  
tunneling	
  protocol	
  called	
  the	
  GPRS	
  Tunneling	
  Protocol	
  (GTP)	
  is	
  used	
  over	
  the	
  CN	
  interfaces,	
  S1	
  &	
  S5/S8.	
  
	
  	
  
The	
  E-­‐UTRAN	
  user	
  plane	
  protocol	
  stack	
  is	
  shown	
  as	
  blue	
  in	
  above	
  6igure,	
  consisting	
  of	
  the	
  Packet	
  Data	
  
Convergence	
  Protocol	
  (PDCP),	
  Radio	
  Link	
  Control	
  (RLC)	
  and	
  Medium	
  Access	
  Control	
  (MAC)	
  sub	
  layers	
  that	
  are	
  
terminated	
  in	
  the	
  eNodeB	
  on	
  the	
  network	
  side.	
  	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  PROTOCOL	
  ARCHITECTURE	
  
User	
  plane	
  protocol	
  stack	
  
The	
  protocol	
  stack	
  for	
  the	
  control	
  plane	
  between	
  the	
  UE	
  and	
  MME	
  is	
  shown	
  in	
  above	
  Figure.	
  	
  
The	
  blue	
  region	
  of	
  the	
  stack	
  indicates	
  the	
  AS	
  protocols.	
  The	
  lower	
  layers	
  perform	
  the	
  same	
  
functions	
  as	
  for	
  the	
  user	
  plane	
  with	
  the	
  exception	
  that	
  there	
  is	
  no	
  header	
  compression	
  
function	
  for	
  the	
  control	
  plane.	
  
	
  
The	
  Radio	
  Resource	
  Control	
  (RRC)	
  protocol	
  is	
  known	
  as	
  “layer	
  3”	
  in	
  the	
  AS	
  protocol	
  stack.	
  It	
  is	
  
the	
  main	
  controlling	
  function	
  in	
  the	
  AS,	
  being	
  responsible	
  for	
  establishing	
  the	
  radio	
  bearers	
  
and	
  con6iguring	
  all	
  the	
  lower	
  layers	
  using	
  RRC	
  signaling	
  between	
  the	
  eNodeB	
  and	
  the	
  UE.	
  	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  PROTOCOL	
  ARCHITECTURE	
  
Control	
  plane	
  protocol	
  stack	
  
There	
  are	
  two	
  major	
  differences	
  between	
  TD-­‐LTE	
  and	
  LTE	
  FDD:	
  how	
  data	
  
is	
  uploaded	
  and	
  downloaded,	
  and	
  what	
  frequency	
  spectra	
  the	
  networks	
  
are	
  deployed	
  in.	
  While	
  LTE	
  FDD	
  uses	
  paired	
  frequencies	
  to	
  upload	
  and	
  
download	
  data,	
  TD-­‐LTE	
  uses	
  a	
  single	
  frequency,	
  alternating	
  between	
  
uploading	
  and	
  downloading	
  data	
  through	
  time.	
  The	
  ratio	
  between	
  uploads	
  
&	
  downloads	
  on	
  a	
  TD-­‐LTE	
  network	
  can	
  be	
  changed	
  dynamically,	
  
depending	
  on	
  whether	
  more	
  data	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  sent	
  or	
  received.	
  	
  
	
  
TD-­‐LTE	
  and	
  LTE	
  FDD	
  also	
  operate	
  on	
  different	
  frequency	
  bands,	
  with	
  TD-­‐
LTE	
  working	
  better	
  at	
  higher	
  frequencies,	
  and	
  LTE	
  FDD	
  working	
  better	
  at	
  
lower	
  frequencies.	
  Frequencies	
  used	
  for	
  TD-­‐LTE	
  range	
  from	
  1850	
  MHz	
  to	
  
3800	
  MHz,	
  with	
  several	
  different	
  bands	
  being	
  used.	
  The	
  TD-­‐LTE	
  spectrum	
  
is	
  generally	
  cheaper	
  to	
  access,	
  and	
  has	
  less	
  traf6ic.	
  Further,	
  the	
  bands	
  for	
  
TD-­‐LTE	
  overlap	
  with	
  those	
  used	
  for	
  WiMAX,	
  which	
  can	
  easily	
  be	
  upgraded	
  
to	
  support	
  TD-­‐LTE.	
  
	
  
FDD	
  is	
  still	
  leading	
  the	
  game,	
  however.	
  Most	
  commercial	
  LTE	
  networks	
  are	
  
based	
  on	
  FDD	
  because	
  the	
  FDD	
  ecosystem	
  is	
  more	
  mature	
  and	
  is	
  still	
  
where	
  most	
  of	
  the	
  spectrum	
  allocation	
  is	
  done.	
  All	
  major	
  operators	
  around	
  
the	
  world	
  are	
  already	
  acquiring	
  wide	
  bands	
  of	
  FDD	
  spectrum	
  for	
  their	
  4G	
  
LTE	
  networks,	
  which	
  is	
  well	
  suited	
  for	
  voice	
  because	
  it	
  is	
  inherently	
  
symmetric	
  in	
  the	
  UL	
  and	
  DL.	
  In	
  addition,	
  FDD	
  can	
  provide	
  better	
  coverage	
  
of	
  a	
  larger	
  area	
  due	
  to	
  the	
  6ixed	
  DL/UL	
  on	
  different	
  frequencies.	
  	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  PROTOCOL	
  ARCHITECTURE	
  
LTE-­‐FDD	
  vs	
  LTE-­‐TDD	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Deployment	
  :	
  Challenges	
  
Problem	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  DEPLOYMENT	
  :	
  CHALLENGES	
  
WiMAX	
  to	
  LTE	
  	
  Migration	
  
Mitigation	
  
Hot Swap
Easy Migration Mode
No Regulatory Issue
Existing Customer
New Rollout
CAPEX
Dual Mode
Minimum CAPEX
No Regulatory Issue
Capacity Reduce
Complex Network
Coexistence
Smooth Migration
No Customer Trouble
Regulatory Issue
OPEX
4G	
  LTE	
  DEPLOYMENT	
  :	
  CHALLENGES	
  
WiMAX	
  to	
  LTE	
  	
  Migration	
  
WiMAX 4G LTE
WiMAX
4G LTE
WiMAX 4G LTE
WiMAX 4G LTEWiMAX
Problem	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  DEPLOYMENT	
  :	
  CHALLENGES	
  
Coding	
  scheme	
  &	
  bitrate	
  
Mitigation	
  
Problem	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  DEPLOYMENT	
  :	
  CHALLENGES	
  
QoS	
  
Mitigation	
  
Problem	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  DEPLOYMENT	
  :	
  CHALLENGES	
  
CPE	
  Price	
  
Mitigation	
  
0	
  
20	
  
40	
  
60	
  
80	
  
100	
  
120	
  
140	
  
2011	
   2012	
   2013	
   2014	
   2015	
   2016	
   2017	
   2018	
  
Price	
  in	
  USD	
  
Wimax	
  	
   LTE	
  
Use	
  of	
  SIM	
  
FDD-­‐LTE	
  
2.6	
  GHz	
  
Economies	
  of	
  Scale	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Deployment	
  :	
  Testing	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Methodologies	
  
	
  
Ø  Protocol	
  and	
  Functional	
  testing	
  
Ø  Load	
  and	
  Stress	
  testing	
  
Ø  Result	
  Checklist	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Methodologies	
  
End-­‐to-­‐end	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Topology	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Methodologies	
  
Protocol	
  and	
  Functional	
  testing	
  
Protocol	
  and	
  functional	
  testing	
  involves	
  verifying	
  the	
  operation	
  of	
  elementary	
  procedures	
  de6ined	
  
in	
  the	
  3GPP	
  speci6ications,	
  possibly	
  for	
  each	
  protocol	
  layer	
  individually,	
  or	
  the	
  complete	
  protocol	
  
stack	
  as	
  a	
  whole.	
  For	
  example,	
  we	
  wanted	
  to	
  test	
  the	
  “Attach”	
  procedure	
  by	
  itself,	
  using	
  one	
  User	
  
Equipment	
  (UE),	
  or	
  test	
  the	
  Tracking	
  Area	
  Update	
  (TAU)	
  procedure.	
  Each	
  and	
  every	
  step	
  of	
  the	
  
procedure	
  analyzed	
  for	
  correctness	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  the	
  signaling	
  6low	
  and	
  content	
  of	
  each	
  of	
  the	
  
message	
  Information	
  Elements	
  (IEs).	
  	
  
	
  
Where	
  the	
  attach	
  procedure	
  fails,	
  additional	
  paths	
  were	
  considered.	
  Here,	
  we	
  conducted	
  “negative	
  
testing”	
  in	
  which	
  conditions	
  are	
  generated	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  trigger	
  different	
  types	
  of	
  reactions.	
  	
  
	
  
The	
  failure	
  response	
  is	
  usually	
  a	
  rejected	
  procedure	
  with	
  an	
  appropriate	
  failure	
  code.	
  Examples	
  are	
  
attach	
  attempts	
  with	
  missing	
  IEs,	
  or	
  in	
  the	
  improper	
  sequence.	
  We	
  executed	
  Protocol	
  and	
  
functional	
  tests	
  during	
  the	
  network	
  design	
  and	
  early	
  QA	
  phases	
  of	
  LTE	
  deployment.	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Methodologies	
  
Load	
  and	
  Stress	
  testing	
  
Stress	
  testing	
  involves	
  simulating	
  large	
  amounts	
  of	
  traf6ic	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  measure	
  performance,	
  
capacity,	
  and	
  key	
  performance	
  indicators	
  (KPI)	
  for	
  quality	
  of	
  service	
  (QoS)	
  under	
  load	
  conditions.	
  	
  	
  
	
  
Its	
  objective	
  was	
  to	
  stress	
  the	
  Test	
  User	
  Equipment	
  (UE)	
  for	
  both	
  performance	
  and	
  capacity.	
  	
  
Stress	
  dimensions	
  are	
  varied	
  including:	
  	
  
•	
  	
  User	
  plane	
  traf6ic	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Control	
  plane	
  traf6ic	
  	
  
	
  
The	
  use	
  of	
  control	
  and	
  user	
  plane	
  traf6ic,	
  or	
  a	
  combination	
  of	
  both,	
  depends	
  on	
  the	
  UE.	
  	
  An	
  MME	
  or	
  
Home	
  Subscriber	
  Server	
  (HSS)	
  demands	
  a	
  control	
  plane	
  load,	
  while	
  the	
  serving	
  gateway	
  (SGW)	
  and	
  
packet	
  data	
  network	
  gateway	
  (PGW)	
  require	
  a	
  user	
  plane	
  load.	
  	
  
	
  
However,	
  since	
  the	
  SGW	
  and	
  PGW	
  are	
  responsible	
  for	
  both	
  user	
  and	
  control	
  plane	
  traf6ic,	
  we	
  used	
  a	
  
mix	
  of	
  both	
  in	
  order	
  to	
  execute	
  a	
  realistic	
  test.	
  	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Methodologies	
  
Load	
  and	
  Stress	
  testing	
  
Control	
  Plane	
  Events	
  
The	
  events,	
  performed	
  by	
  a	
  subscriber,	
  that	
  
generate	
  control	
  plane	
  signaling.	
  The	
  most	
  	
  
signi6icant	
  control	
  plane	
  events	
  include:	
  	
  
	
  
•	
  	
  Attach	
  
•	
  	
  Authentication	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Session	
  establishment	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Dedicated	
  bearer	
  establishment	
  and	
  deletion	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Tracking	
  Area	
  Update	
  (TAU)	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Service	
  request	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Handover	
  
•	
  	
  Detach	
  
User	
  Plane	
  TrafIic	
  	
  
These	
  events	
  determine	
  which	
  type	
  of	
  user	
  plane	
  
traf6ic	
  will	
  6low	
  through	
  the	
  network	
  under	
  test.	
  	
  
The	
  most	
  common	
  types	
  of	
  user	
  plane	
  traf6ic	
  are:	
  
	
  	
  
•	
  	
  http:	
  to	
  simulate	
  web	
  browsing,	
  Facebook,	
  etc	
  	
  
•	
  	
  ftp:	
  for	
  6ile	
  transfers	
  	
  
•	
  	
  OTT	
  video:	
  to	
  simulate	
  OTT	
  services	
  like	
  YouTube	
  	
  
•	
  	
  On	
  demand	
  video	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Conversational	
  video	
  
•	
  	
  DNS	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Email:	
  IMAP,	
  POP3	
  and	
  SMTP	
  	
  
•	
  	
  Instant	
  messaging	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  Test	
  Methodologies	
  
Result	
  Checklist	
  
q  Application	
  QoS	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Download	
  times	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Dedicated	
  bearer	
  vs	
  best	
  effort	
  traf6ic	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  GBR	
  vs	
  non-­‐GBR	
  traf6ic	
  	
  
q  Control	
  plane	
  latencies	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Attach	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Session	
  establishment	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Handover	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Dedicated	
  bearer	
  establishment	
  	
  
q  Packet	
  forwarding	
  performance	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Latencies	
  
	
  •	
  	
  TCP	
  connection	
  resets	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  TCP	
  retries	
  and	
  retransmissions	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Lost	
  packets	
  	
  
q  Throughput	
  	
  
q  Capacity	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Amount	
  of	
  active	
  UEs	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Amount	
  of	
  active	
  bearers	
  	
  
q  Policy	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Application	
  of	
  rules	
  	
  
q  DNS	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Query	
  rates	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Query	
  failures	
  	
  
q  Service	
  availability	
  
q  Errors	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Handover	
  failures	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Session	
  establishment	
  failures	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Dedicated	
  bearer	
  establishment	
  failures	
  	
  
	
  •	
  	
  Policy	
  installation	
  failures	
  	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  :	
  Achievements	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  :	
  ACHIEVEMENTS	
  
More	
  Devices	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  :	
  ACHIEVEMENTS	
  
More	
  Speed	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  :	
  ACHIEVEMENTS	
  
More	
  Throughput	
  
4G	
  LTE	
  :	
  ACHIEVEMENTS	
  
More	
  Coverage	
  
600k	
   60k	
   50k	
   30k	
   30k	
  80k	
  150k	
  
Please	
  send	
  your	
  feedback	
  to	
  -­‐	
  	
  
faisal.mobarak@ollo.com.bd	
  

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Launch a Successful LTE Footprints in Bangladesh

  • 1. Launch  a  successful  LTE  Footprints  in  Bangladesh   –  Challenges  &  Achievements         Faisal  Mobarak     Assistant  General  Manager,     Ollo  Wireless  Internet  
  • 2.
  • 3. Internet  in  Bangladesh    &  BIEL  4G  LTE  
  • 4.
  • 5. BIEL  is  working  in  Bangladesh  since  2007   with  ISP  license  having  one  of  the  Iirst   and  biggest  large-­‐scale  deployment  of  a   3.5  GHz  WiMAX  network.     Currently,  it  covers  major  areas  of  Dhaka   including  Uttara,  Gulshan,  Mohakhali,   Dhanmondi,  Motijheel  &  its  surrounding   areas.   BIEL  has  been  granted  BWA  License   according  to  the  BWA  guidelines  by  the   Bangladesh  Telecommunication   Regulatory  Authority  (BTRC)  in  Nov,  2013     BIEL  has  compiled  with  all  Iinancial   conditions  for  obtaining  BWA  Services   License  successfully  which  allows  BIEL  to   provide  BWA  Services  in  2.5-­‐2.6  MHz   spectrum  brand.  
  • 6. LTE  :  Long  Term  Evolution,  The  Basics  
  • 7. IMT - Advance 4G CDMA2000 Evolution 2001-2005 2006 HSDPA Phase I 1.8M/3.6Mbps HSDPA Phase II 7.2/14.4Mbps HSUPA 2M/5.76Mbps LTE DL:100Mbps UL:50Mbps GSM/GPRS EDGE 171/384kbps WCDMA R99/R4 384kbps WCDMA Evolution 2007 2008 2009 HSPA+ DL >40Mbps UL >10Mbps 1xEV-DO Rev. 0 DL: 2.4Mbps UL:153.6kbps DO Rev. B (MC DO) DL:46.5Mbps UL: 27Mbps 1xEV-D0 Rev. A DL: 3.1Mbps UL: 1.8Mbps CDMA 1X 153kbps 2010 2011 IEEE802.16e 70Mbps IEEE802.16m DL:100Mbps UL: 50Mbps WiMAX Evolution IEEE802.16d 20Mbps Broadband  Trend  in  Wireless  Technology    
  • 8. 4G  LTE     The  De6inition   LTE,  an  acronym  for  Long-­‐Term   Evolution,  commonly  marketed  as  4G   LTE,  is  a  standard  for  wireless   communication  of  high-­‐speed  data  for   mobile  phones  &  data  terminals.       It  is  based  on  the  GSM/EDGE  and   UMTS/HSPA  network  technologies,   increasing  the  capacity  and  speed  using   a  different  radio  interface  together  with   core  network  improvements.     Adoption  of  LTE  technology  as  of  February  15,  2014.              Countries  and  regions  with  commercial  LTE  service            Countries  and  regions  with  commercial  LTE  network  deployment  on-­‐going  or   planned            Countries  and  regions  with  LTE  trial  systems  (pre-­‐commitment)  
  • 9. 4G  LTE  ARCHITECTURE   EPS  Network  Elements  
  • 10. 4G  LTE  ARCHITECTURE   EPS  Node  Functionality  
  • 11. An  IP  packet  for  a  UE  is  encapsulated  in  an  EPC-­‐speci6ic  protocol  and  tunneled  between  the  P-­‐GW  and  eNodeB   for  transmission  to  the  UE.  Different  tunneling  protocols  are  used  across  different  interfaces.  A  3GPP-­‐speci6ic   tunneling  protocol  called  the  GPRS  Tunneling  Protocol  (GTP)  is  used  over  the  CN  interfaces,  S1  &  S5/S8.       The  E-­‐UTRAN  user  plane  protocol  stack  is  shown  as  blue  in  above  6igure,  consisting  of  the  Packet  Data   Convergence  Protocol  (PDCP),  Radio  Link  Control  (RLC)  and  Medium  Access  Control  (MAC)  sub  layers  that  are   terminated  in  the  eNodeB  on  the  network  side.     4G  LTE  PROTOCOL  ARCHITECTURE   User  plane  protocol  stack  
  • 12. The  protocol  stack  for  the  control  plane  between  the  UE  and  MME  is  shown  in  above  Figure.     The  blue  region  of  the  stack  indicates  the  AS  protocols.  The  lower  layers  perform  the  same   functions  as  for  the  user  plane  with  the  exception  that  there  is  no  header  compression   function  for  the  control  plane.     The  Radio  Resource  Control  (RRC)  protocol  is  known  as  “layer  3”  in  the  AS  protocol  stack.  It  is   the  main  controlling  function  in  the  AS,  being  responsible  for  establishing  the  radio  bearers   and  con6iguring  all  the  lower  layers  using  RRC  signaling  between  the  eNodeB  and  the  UE.     4G  LTE  PROTOCOL  ARCHITECTURE   Control  plane  protocol  stack  
  • 13. There  are  two  major  differences  between  TD-­‐LTE  and  LTE  FDD:  how  data   is  uploaded  and  downloaded,  and  what  frequency  spectra  the  networks   are  deployed  in.  While  LTE  FDD  uses  paired  frequencies  to  upload  and   download  data,  TD-­‐LTE  uses  a  single  frequency,  alternating  between   uploading  and  downloading  data  through  time.  The  ratio  between  uploads   &  downloads  on  a  TD-­‐LTE  network  can  be  changed  dynamically,   depending  on  whether  more  data  needs  to  be  sent  or  received.       TD-­‐LTE  and  LTE  FDD  also  operate  on  different  frequency  bands,  with  TD-­‐ LTE  working  better  at  higher  frequencies,  and  LTE  FDD  working  better  at   lower  frequencies.  Frequencies  used  for  TD-­‐LTE  range  from  1850  MHz  to   3800  MHz,  with  several  different  bands  being  used.  The  TD-­‐LTE  spectrum   is  generally  cheaper  to  access,  and  has  less  traf6ic.  Further,  the  bands  for   TD-­‐LTE  overlap  with  those  used  for  WiMAX,  which  can  easily  be  upgraded   to  support  TD-­‐LTE.     FDD  is  still  leading  the  game,  however.  Most  commercial  LTE  networks  are   based  on  FDD  because  the  FDD  ecosystem  is  more  mature  and  is  still   where  most  of  the  spectrum  allocation  is  done.  All  major  operators  around   the  world  are  already  acquiring  wide  bands  of  FDD  spectrum  for  their  4G   LTE  networks,  which  is  well  suited  for  voice  because  it  is  inherently   symmetric  in  the  UL  and  DL.  In  addition,  FDD  can  provide  better  coverage   of  a  larger  area  due  to  the  6ixed  DL/UL  on  different  frequencies.     4G  LTE  PROTOCOL  ARCHITECTURE   LTE-­‐FDD  vs  LTE-­‐TDD  
  • 14. 4G  LTE  Deployment  :  Challenges  
  • 15. Problem   4G  LTE  DEPLOYMENT  :  CHALLENGES   WiMAX  to  LTE    Migration   Mitigation   Hot Swap Easy Migration Mode No Regulatory Issue Existing Customer New Rollout CAPEX Dual Mode Minimum CAPEX No Regulatory Issue Capacity Reduce Complex Network Coexistence Smooth Migration No Customer Trouble Regulatory Issue OPEX
  • 16. 4G  LTE  DEPLOYMENT  :  CHALLENGES   WiMAX  to  LTE    Migration   WiMAX 4G LTE WiMAX 4G LTE WiMAX 4G LTE WiMAX 4G LTEWiMAX
  • 17. Problem   4G  LTE  DEPLOYMENT  :  CHALLENGES   Coding  scheme  &  bitrate   Mitigation  
  • 18. Problem   4G  LTE  DEPLOYMENT  :  CHALLENGES   QoS   Mitigation  
  • 19. Problem   4G  LTE  DEPLOYMENT  :  CHALLENGES   CPE  Price   Mitigation   0   20   40   60   80   100   120   140   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   2016   2017   2018   Price  in  USD   Wimax     LTE   Use  of  SIM   FDD-­‐LTE   2.6  GHz   Economies  of  Scale  
  • 20. 4G  LTE  Deployment  :  Testing  
  • 21. 4G  LTE  Test  Methodologies     Ø  Protocol  and  Functional  testing   Ø  Load  and  Stress  testing   Ø  Result  Checklist  
  • 22. 4G  LTE  Test  Methodologies   End-­‐to-­‐end  LTE  Test  Topology  
  • 23. 4G  LTE  Test  Methodologies   Protocol  and  Functional  testing   Protocol  and  functional  testing  involves  verifying  the  operation  of  elementary  procedures  de6ined   in  the  3GPP  speci6ications,  possibly  for  each  protocol  layer  individually,  or  the  complete  protocol   stack  as  a  whole.  For  example,  we  wanted  to  test  the  “Attach”  procedure  by  itself,  using  one  User   Equipment  (UE),  or  test  the  Tracking  Area  Update  (TAU)  procedure.  Each  and  every  step  of  the   procedure  analyzed  for  correctness  in  terms  of  the  signaling  6low  and  content  of  each  of  the   message  Information  Elements  (IEs).       Where  the  attach  procedure  fails,  additional  paths  were  considered.  Here,  we  conducted  “negative   testing”  in  which  conditions  are  generated  in  order  to  trigger  different  types  of  reactions.       The  failure  response  is  usually  a  rejected  procedure  with  an  appropriate  failure  code.  Examples  are   attach  attempts  with  missing  IEs,  or  in  the  improper  sequence.  We  executed  Protocol  and   functional  tests  during  the  network  design  and  early  QA  phases  of  LTE  deployment.  
  • 24. 4G  LTE  Test  Methodologies   Load  and  Stress  testing   Stress  testing  involves  simulating  large  amounts  of  traf6ic  in  order  to  measure  performance,   capacity,  and  key  performance  indicators  (KPI)  for  quality  of  service  (QoS)  under  load  conditions.         Its  objective  was  to  stress  the  Test  User  Equipment  (UE)  for  both  performance  and  capacity.     Stress  dimensions  are  varied  including:     •    User  plane  traf6ic     •    Control  plane  traf6ic       The  use  of  control  and  user  plane  traf6ic,  or  a  combination  of  both,  depends  on  the  UE.    An  MME  or   Home  Subscriber  Server  (HSS)  demands  a  control  plane  load,  while  the  serving  gateway  (SGW)  and   packet  data  network  gateway  (PGW)  require  a  user  plane  load.       However,  since  the  SGW  and  PGW  are  responsible  for  both  user  and  control  plane  traf6ic,  we  used  a   mix  of  both  in  order  to  execute  a  realistic  test.    
  • 25. 4G  LTE  Test  Methodologies   Load  and  Stress  testing   Control  Plane  Events   The  events,  performed  by  a  subscriber,  that   generate  control  plane  signaling.  The  most     signi6icant  control  plane  events  include:       •    Attach   •    Authentication     •    Session  establishment     •    Dedicated  bearer  establishment  and  deletion     •    Tracking  Area  Update  (TAU)     •    Service  request     •    Handover   •    Detach   User  Plane  TrafIic     These  events  determine  which  type  of  user  plane   traf6ic  will  6low  through  the  network  under  test.     The  most  common  types  of  user  plane  traf6ic  are:       •    http:  to  simulate  web  browsing,  Facebook,  etc     •    ftp:  for  6ile  transfers     •    OTT  video:  to  simulate  OTT  services  like  YouTube     •    On  demand  video     •    Conversational  video   •    DNS     •    Email:  IMAP,  POP3  and  SMTP     •    Instant  messaging  
  • 26. 4G  LTE  Test  Methodologies   Result  Checklist   q  Application  QoS      •    Download  times    •    Dedicated  bearer  vs  best  effort  traf6ic      •    GBR  vs  non-­‐GBR  traf6ic     q  Control  plane  latencies      •    Attach      •    Session  establishment      •    Handover      •    Dedicated  bearer  establishment     q  Packet  forwarding  performance      •    Latencies    •    TCP  connection  resets      •    TCP  retries  and  retransmissions      •    Lost  packets     q  Throughput     q  Capacity      •    Amount  of  active  UEs      •    Amount  of  active  bearers     q  Policy      •    Application  of  rules     q  DNS      •    Query  rates      •    Query  failures     q  Service  availability   q  Errors      •    Handover  failures    •    Session  establishment  failures      •    Dedicated  bearer  establishment  failures      •    Policy  installation  failures    
  • 27. 4G  LTE  :  Achievements  
  • 28. 4G  LTE  :  ACHIEVEMENTS   More  Devices  
  • 29. 4G  LTE  :  ACHIEVEMENTS   More  Speed  
  • 30. 4G  LTE  :  ACHIEVEMENTS   More  Throughput  
  • 31. 4G  LTE  :  ACHIEVEMENTS   More  Coverage   600k   60k   50k   30k   30k  80k  150k  
  • 32.
  • 33. Please  send  your  feedback  to  -­‐     faisal.mobarak@ollo.com.bd