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Human Reproduction
Battle of the sexes!!! 
Are males and 
females all that 
different? 
Well….. 
Yes 
And 
No!
Anatomy 
Male Female
Similarities 
2 pouches 
Testicles 
Ovaries 
Start out inside body 
Testicles “descend” before birth 
Fetus begins with “starter parts” that 
could develop into either gender.
Around 7th Week… 
Baby’s body is “told” by DNA to become 
either male or female. 
“Unused” parts disintegrate 
“Used” parts continue development 
(see overhead)
Male or Female??? 
DNA determines baby’s gender 
XX = Female 
XY = Male 
Depends on which egg & sperm get 
together. 
Father determines baby’s gender.
Anatomy – similarities 
Function – VERY different! 
Male 
Uncomplicated 
Produce sperm 
2-4 MILLION 
every day 
Female 
Very Complicated! 
One egg 
Once a month 
Careful coordination 
of hormones & body 
Timing perfect!
Females 
Ovaries 
2 pouches 
Contain ova 
Born with all of her eggs (~ 400,000) 
Use up ~500 
Won’t run out! 
Ovulation 
One egg released from ovary to oviduct 
(fallopian tube)
Human reproduction
After Ovulation 
Egg pushed along by cilia 
Few days travel time to arrive in uterus 
Cervix – Opening between uterus & vagina 
Normally tiny 
At birth – muscles pull open (dilation) cervix to 
allow baby to pass through = Labor
Menstrual Cycle 
Complex combination of 10-12 
chemicals (hormones) 
Usually one egg once a month 
All about timing!!! 
Uterus must be ready when egg gets there 
in case it was fertilized 
If no fertilization, tear down lining of uterus 
and rebuild for next month
28-Day Cycle (average) 
Three Stages 
1. Tear Down 
2. Rebuild 
3. Extra nutrients/blood for potential baby 
No Baby? 
Back to #1
Chemicals (hormones) 
Regulate events in the body 
Estrogen 
Progesterone 
LH (leuteinizing hormone) 
FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) 
Many others
Day 1 
First menstrual blood & tissue 
No baby = breaks down lining of uterus 
5-7 days of blood/tissue exits body 
Pre-Ovulation
~Day 14 
Ovulation = Egg released 
Temp spikes slightly 
Most fertile in next few days! 
Able to get pregnant 
Egg gets fertilized while traveling through 
oviduct. 
Post-Ovulation
Human reproduction
If fertilized… 
Zygote begins to divide as it travels 
through oviduct 
Implants into lining of uterus
If not fertilized… 
Egg travels through oviduct to uterus 
Exits body with blood and tissues 
during menstruation
Birth Control Pills 
“Trick” body into thinking it’s pregnant 
Extra hormones 
No ovulation occurs 
No ovulation = no egg = no fertilization = no baby! 
No hormones taken for 7 days = menstruation
Male 
Testes 
Produce 2-4 million sperm every day 
Outside body – why? 
Sperm like temps 1-2° cooler than body temp 
Vas Deferens 
Tube sperm travel through 
Vasectomy 
Cut/tie off tube – sperm can’t get out!
Semen 
Contains 
300-500 million sperm 
Sperm food 
pH buffers 
Allows sperm to survive for a couple of 
days inside female’s body (hostile 
environment)
What is sperm? 
Then… 
Used to think it was a tiny human 
inside each cell 
Spermists vs. Ovists
Now… 
Contains Several 
Parts: 
Head 
Chemical to dissolve 
egg goo 
Dad’s genetic 
information (DNA) 
Mitochondria 
Energy 
Tail Swimming
Prostate Gland 
Adds non-sperm stuff to semen 
pH buffers 
Nourishment 
Cancer very common 
Slower-growing (usually) 
Surgery for removal
Bulbourethral gland 
Adds lubricant to aid travel of semen 
through the urethra
Conception/Fertilization
Conception/Fertilization 
Ejaculation 
Release of 300-500 million sperm 
Egg needs to be in oviduct 
Sperm to egg, not an easy task 
Go wrong direction : 2 paths – only 1 leads to an 
egg 
Get attacked by female’s white blood cells 
Acidic environment 
Current
Once egg is located… 
Dissolve protective goo surrounding 
egg 
One gets through – enters egg 
Instant biochemical change in zygote 
No more sperm allowed in
Zygote begins development 
Time Lapse 
Development
Implants in uterine lining 
Endometrium= outer lining of uterus 
Becomes placenta 
Uses mother’s nutrients 
Continues development
Fetal Development 
Anmion 
Membrane surrounding baby 
Contains amniotic fluid 
Breaks just before birth = “water broke” 
Amniotic Fluid 
The “water” – surrounding baby 
Buoyant cradle for baby 
Protection 
Free movement
Human reproduction
Fetal Dev (cont’d) 
Umbilical Cord 
Blood vessels from placenta to baby 
Mom’s & baby’s blood do not circulate 
together! 
Can have 2 different blood types 
Diffusion
Human reproduction
Ancient beliefs 
Wak Wak tree
Birth 
Labor – muscles used to open cervix 
Baby flips upside down 
Head first! 
Feet first = Breech (bad) 
Cesarian Section (“C-section”) surgical removal 
of baby 
After baby is born mom delivers 
placenta (“afterbirth”) that detaches 
from uterus
Breastfeeding 
Most nutritious option for baby 
Milk changes as baby grows 
Antibodies from mom create immunity 
for baby 
Studies have shown correlation 
between breastfeeding and higher 
intelligence in baby. 
Bond w/baby is stronger
Twins/Multiple Births 
Two types 
Monozygotic 
From one egg 
Identical 
Dizygotic 
From two eggs 
Fraternal 
Not identical
Identical twins 
One zygote 
Splits in 2 
No one knows why! 
Completely random = 
does NOT run in families 
Same exact DNA 
Nature’s clones
Fraternal Twins 
2 separate eggs get fertilized 
with 2 different sperm cells 
More than one egg got released 
during ovulation 
Siblings 
Can be sisters 
Brothers 
Brother and sister 
Tends to run in families
Conjoined Twins 
Used to be called “Siamese” twins 
First well known case was in Siam 
Identical twins that never completely 
separated during development 
Sometimes can be separated, 
depending on what is shared.
Human reproduction

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Human reproduction

  • 2. Battle of the sexes!!! Are males and females all that different? Well….. Yes And No!
  • 4. Similarities 2 pouches Testicles Ovaries Start out inside body Testicles “descend” before birth Fetus begins with “starter parts” that could develop into either gender.
  • 5. Around 7th Week… Baby’s body is “told” by DNA to become either male or female. “Unused” parts disintegrate “Used” parts continue development (see overhead)
  • 6. Male or Female??? DNA determines baby’s gender XX = Female XY = Male Depends on which egg & sperm get together. Father determines baby’s gender.
  • 7. Anatomy – similarities Function – VERY different! Male Uncomplicated Produce sperm 2-4 MILLION every day Female Very Complicated! One egg Once a month Careful coordination of hormones & body Timing perfect!
  • 8. Females Ovaries 2 pouches Contain ova Born with all of her eggs (~ 400,000) Use up ~500 Won’t run out! Ovulation One egg released from ovary to oviduct (fallopian tube)
  • 10. After Ovulation Egg pushed along by cilia Few days travel time to arrive in uterus Cervix – Opening between uterus & vagina Normally tiny At birth – muscles pull open (dilation) cervix to allow baby to pass through = Labor
  • 11. Menstrual Cycle Complex combination of 10-12 chemicals (hormones) Usually one egg once a month All about timing!!! Uterus must be ready when egg gets there in case it was fertilized If no fertilization, tear down lining of uterus and rebuild for next month
  • 12. 28-Day Cycle (average) Three Stages 1. Tear Down 2. Rebuild 3. Extra nutrients/blood for potential baby No Baby? Back to #1
  • 13. Chemicals (hormones) Regulate events in the body Estrogen Progesterone LH (leuteinizing hormone) FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) Many others
  • 14. Day 1 First menstrual blood & tissue No baby = breaks down lining of uterus 5-7 days of blood/tissue exits body Pre-Ovulation
  • 15. ~Day 14 Ovulation = Egg released Temp spikes slightly Most fertile in next few days! Able to get pregnant Egg gets fertilized while traveling through oviduct. Post-Ovulation
  • 17. If fertilized… Zygote begins to divide as it travels through oviduct Implants into lining of uterus
  • 18. If not fertilized… Egg travels through oviduct to uterus Exits body with blood and tissues during menstruation
  • 19. Birth Control Pills “Trick” body into thinking it’s pregnant Extra hormones No ovulation occurs No ovulation = no egg = no fertilization = no baby! No hormones taken for 7 days = menstruation
  • 20. Male Testes Produce 2-4 million sperm every day Outside body – why? Sperm like temps 1-2° cooler than body temp Vas Deferens Tube sperm travel through Vasectomy Cut/tie off tube – sperm can’t get out!
  • 21. Semen Contains 300-500 million sperm Sperm food pH buffers Allows sperm to survive for a couple of days inside female’s body (hostile environment)
  • 22. What is sperm? Then… Used to think it was a tiny human inside each cell Spermists vs. Ovists
  • 23. Now… Contains Several Parts: Head Chemical to dissolve egg goo Dad’s genetic information (DNA) Mitochondria Energy Tail Swimming
  • 24. Prostate Gland Adds non-sperm stuff to semen pH buffers Nourishment Cancer very common Slower-growing (usually) Surgery for removal
  • 25. Bulbourethral gland Adds lubricant to aid travel of semen through the urethra
  • 27. Conception/Fertilization Ejaculation Release of 300-500 million sperm Egg needs to be in oviduct Sperm to egg, not an easy task Go wrong direction : 2 paths – only 1 leads to an egg Get attacked by female’s white blood cells Acidic environment Current
  • 28. Once egg is located… Dissolve protective goo surrounding egg One gets through – enters egg Instant biochemical change in zygote No more sperm allowed in
  • 29. Zygote begins development Time Lapse Development
  • 30. Implants in uterine lining Endometrium= outer lining of uterus Becomes placenta Uses mother’s nutrients Continues development
  • 31. Fetal Development Anmion Membrane surrounding baby Contains amniotic fluid Breaks just before birth = “water broke” Amniotic Fluid The “water” – surrounding baby Buoyant cradle for baby Protection Free movement
  • 33. Fetal Dev (cont’d) Umbilical Cord Blood vessels from placenta to baby Mom’s & baby’s blood do not circulate together! Can have 2 different blood types Diffusion
  • 36. Birth Labor – muscles used to open cervix Baby flips upside down Head first! Feet first = Breech (bad) Cesarian Section (“C-section”) surgical removal of baby After baby is born mom delivers placenta (“afterbirth”) that detaches from uterus
  • 37. Breastfeeding Most nutritious option for baby Milk changes as baby grows Antibodies from mom create immunity for baby Studies have shown correlation between breastfeeding and higher intelligence in baby. Bond w/baby is stronger
  • 38. Twins/Multiple Births Two types Monozygotic From one egg Identical Dizygotic From two eggs Fraternal Not identical
  • 39. Identical twins One zygote Splits in 2 No one knows why! Completely random = does NOT run in families Same exact DNA Nature’s clones
  • 40. Fraternal Twins 2 separate eggs get fertilized with 2 different sperm cells More than one egg got released during ovulation Siblings Can be sisters Brothers Brother and sister Tends to run in families
  • 41. Conjoined Twins Used to be called “Siamese” twins First well known case was in Siam Identical twins that never completely separated during development Sometimes can be separated, depending on what is shared.