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MMeetthhooddss ooff 
RReepprroodduuccttiioonn 
SSeexxuuaall aanndd AAsseexxuuaall 
RReepprroodduuccttiioonn
AAsseexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn:: 
requires only 1 parent and the offspring are an 
exact copy of the parent---a clone
AAsseexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn:: 
• Organisms that reproduce asexually cannot 
develop much variety, because they are 
“copying” the original organism exactly.
Methods of asexual reproduction: 
Binary fission 
Budding 
Fragmentation 
Parthenogenesis
Binary fission 
Single-celled organisms 
(Amoeba, paramecium, 
euglena) which use asexual 
reproduction can do so 
simply by dividing into two 
equal halves. 
This is called binary fission.
• When conditions are good, such as plenty 
of water, food, right temperatures, etc., 
binary fission is a very effective way of 
producing many, many offspring. 
• For example, the cell of a Paramecium 
can divide, grow, and divide again in the 
space of 8 hours.
Budding- an offspring grows out 
of the body of the parent. 
Hydra Budding 
offspring 
Cactus Budding
Yeast - budding 
Budding 
In yeasts the cell does 
not divide equally in 
two halves; instead, 
there is a large mother 
cell and a smaller 
daughter cell.
Fragmentation 
In this form, the body of the parent breaks 
into distinct pieces, each of which can 
produce an offspring. 
Pieces of coral broken off in storms 
can grow into new colonies. 
A new starfish can grow from 
one detached arm.
Fragmentation- plant cuttings 
Some plants can grow from cutting them 
up and replanting them.
Green plants are quite sophisticated in 
their methods of asexual reproduction. 
Offspring may be produced by runners, 
bulbs, rhizomes or tubers.
Parthenogenesis 
Parthenogenesis iiss aa ffoorrmm ooff aasseexxuuaall 
rreepprroodduuccttiioonn iinn wwhhiicchh ffeemmaalleess pprroodduuccee eeggggss tthhaatt 
ddeevveelloopp wwiitthhoouutt ffeerrttiilliizzaattiioonn.. PPaarrtthheennooggeenneessiiss iiss 
sseeeenn ttoo ooccccuurr nnaattuurraallllyy iinn ssoommee iinnvveerrtteebbrraatteess,, 
aalloonngg wwiitthh sseevveerraall ffiisshh,, aammpphhiibbiiaannss,, aanndd rreeppttiilleess 
aass wweellll aass iinn mmaannyy ppllaannttss.. 
TThheerree aarree nnoo kknnoowwnn ccaasseess ooff ppaarrtthheennooggeenneessiiss iinn 
mmaammmmaallss..
What is sexual reproduction? 
• Requiring 2 parents 
– male and female (egg & sperm) 
• The egg and sperm join (zygote) to form an 
entirely new organism 
• Offspring are different from the parent 
organism because
SSeexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn:: 
Requiring 2 parents (egg & sperm) 
Combining different genetic material
Methods of sexual reproduction: 
Pollination 
External Fertilization 
Internal Fertilization
Pollen is produced in 
the male organs of the 
flowers - anthers. 
Pollination occurs 
when pollen is 
transferred from the 
anthers to the female 
organs by wind or by 
animals. If the female 
stigma is receptive to a 
pollen grain, the pollen 
produces a pollen tube, 
which grows through 
the female tissue to the 
egg, where 
fertilization takes 
place by the sperm 
nucleus. 
SSeexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn 
iinn FFlloowweerriinngg PPllaannttss
External Fertilization 
• External fertilization usually requires a 
medium such as water, which the sperms 
can use to swim towards the egg cell. 
External fertilization usually occur in fish 
and amphibians. 
• The females lay the eggs in the water and 
the male squirts the sperm 
in the same area.
Internal Fertilization 
• Fertilization occurs within the female. 
• Internal fertilization occurs in mammals, 
insects, birds, reptiles. 
– Mammals (gorillas, lions, elephants, rats, 
zebras, and dolphins have live births) 
– Insects, birds, reptiles lay eggs
Sexual Reproduction 
• Sexual reproduction produces a greater 
chance of variation within a species than 
asexual reproduction would. 
• This variation improves the chances that a 
species will adapt to his environment and 
survive.
Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction 
• Asexual reproduction results in offspring 
that are genetically identical to the parent 
organism. 
• Sexual reproduction results in offspring that 
are genetically different from the parent 
organisms.

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Asexual and sexual_reproduction

  • 1. MMeetthhooddss ooff RReepprroodduuccttiioonn SSeexxuuaall aanndd AAsseexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn
  • 2. AAsseexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn:: requires only 1 parent and the offspring are an exact copy of the parent---a clone
  • 3. AAsseexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn:: • Organisms that reproduce asexually cannot develop much variety, because they are “copying” the original organism exactly.
  • 4. Methods of asexual reproduction: Binary fission Budding Fragmentation Parthenogenesis
  • 5. Binary fission Single-celled organisms (Amoeba, paramecium, euglena) which use asexual reproduction can do so simply by dividing into two equal halves. This is called binary fission.
  • 6. • When conditions are good, such as plenty of water, food, right temperatures, etc., binary fission is a very effective way of producing many, many offspring. • For example, the cell of a Paramecium can divide, grow, and divide again in the space of 8 hours.
  • 7. Budding- an offspring grows out of the body of the parent. Hydra Budding offspring Cactus Budding
  • 8. Yeast - budding Budding In yeasts the cell does not divide equally in two halves; instead, there is a large mother cell and a smaller daughter cell.
  • 9. Fragmentation In this form, the body of the parent breaks into distinct pieces, each of which can produce an offspring. Pieces of coral broken off in storms can grow into new colonies. A new starfish can grow from one detached arm.
  • 10. Fragmentation- plant cuttings Some plants can grow from cutting them up and replanting them.
  • 11. Green plants are quite sophisticated in their methods of asexual reproduction. Offspring may be produced by runners, bulbs, rhizomes or tubers.
  • 12. Parthenogenesis Parthenogenesis iiss aa ffoorrmm ooff aasseexxuuaall rreepprroodduuccttiioonn iinn wwhhiicchh ffeemmaalleess pprroodduuccee eeggggss tthhaatt ddeevveelloopp wwiitthhoouutt ffeerrttiilliizzaattiioonn.. PPaarrtthheennooggeenneessiiss iiss sseeeenn ttoo ooccccuurr nnaattuurraallllyy iinn ssoommee iinnvveerrtteebbrraatteess,, aalloonngg wwiitthh sseevveerraall ffiisshh,, aammpphhiibbiiaannss,, aanndd rreeppttiilleess aass wweellll aass iinn mmaannyy ppllaannttss.. TThheerree aarree nnoo kknnoowwnn ccaasseess ooff ppaarrtthheennooggeenneessiiss iinn mmaammmmaallss..
  • 13. What is sexual reproduction? • Requiring 2 parents – male and female (egg & sperm) • The egg and sperm join (zygote) to form an entirely new organism • Offspring are different from the parent organism because
  • 14. SSeexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn:: Requiring 2 parents (egg & sperm) Combining different genetic material
  • 15. Methods of sexual reproduction: Pollination External Fertilization Internal Fertilization
  • 16. Pollen is produced in the male organs of the flowers - anthers. Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the anthers to the female organs by wind or by animals. If the female stigma is receptive to a pollen grain, the pollen produces a pollen tube, which grows through the female tissue to the egg, where fertilization takes place by the sperm nucleus. SSeexxuuaall RReepprroodduuccttiioonn iinn FFlloowweerriinngg PPllaannttss
  • 17. External Fertilization • External fertilization usually requires a medium such as water, which the sperms can use to swim towards the egg cell. External fertilization usually occur in fish and amphibians. • The females lay the eggs in the water and the male squirts the sperm in the same area.
  • 18. Internal Fertilization • Fertilization occurs within the female. • Internal fertilization occurs in mammals, insects, birds, reptiles. – Mammals (gorillas, lions, elephants, rats, zebras, and dolphins have live births) – Insects, birds, reptiles lay eggs
  • 19. Sexual Reproduction • Sexual reproduction produces a greater chance of variation within a species than asexual reproduction would. • This variation improves the chances that a species will adapt to his environment and survive.
  • 20. Sexual vs. Asexual Reproduction • Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism. • Sexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically different from the parent organisms.