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The Menstrual Cycle
What is the menstrual cycle? 
 The process in which females ripen or 
release one mature egg. 
 The average menstrual cycle will repeat 
itself about every 28 days, but normal 
menstrual cycles can range from 21 to 
40 days.
Changes in Pituitary 
Hormones Days 1-14: 
 During the first half of the cycle (Days 
1-14) the pituitary produces FSH, which 
stimulates egg production. 
 This hormone also triggers the release 
of estrogen from the ovaries.
Changes in Pituitary 
Hormones Days 14-28: 
 On the 14th day the pituitary begins 
releasing LH causing ovulation 
 LH also directs the production of 
progesterone which maintains the 
growth of the endometrium. 
 If the egg is not fertilized upon arrival 
in the uterus progesterone levels drop 
causing estrogen levels to drop leading 
to menstruation.
Pituitary Hormones
Changes in the Ovaries: 
Stage 2 - egg continues 
to ripen; follicle growth. 
Stage 1 - ovum 
begins to develop. 
Stage 3 - Ovulation 
fully mature egg 
bursts out of follicle. 
Stage 4 - Egg enters fallopian tube follicle 
remains and forms the corpus luteum.
Changes in the Ovaries: 
 Stage 1 - An egg is beginning to mature 
within a cluster of cells called a follicle 
 Stage 2 - Rapid follicle and egg growth 
 Stage 3 - Ovulation occurs; fully mature egg 
bursts out of the follicle (fertile) empty 
follicle transforms into the corpus luteum 
 Stage 4 - Egg travels through fallopian tube 
(7 days) if not fertilized upon arrival in uterus 
the corpus luteum shrinks triggering 
menstruation and ripening of new egg.
Changes in Ovarian 
Hormones: 
 Estrogen -gradually increases during days 1- 
14; signals body to thicken the lining of the 
uterus. Levels drop sharply after ovulation. 
 Progesterone -Levels remain low during the 
first half of the cycle and then increase 
sharplyduring the second half of the cycle. 
Maintaining the growth of the endometrium 
lining.
Changes in the Uterus: 
Stage 1- Day 1-5 
menstruation 
Stage 2 Day 5- 13 
pre-ovulatory stage Stage 3 Day 14 
Ovulation 
Stage 4 Day 15-28 
post-ovulatory 
stage
The uterine lining slowly 
thickens from day 5 through 
day 28
Changes in the Uterus: 
 Stage 1- Menstruation- Endometrium 
breaks down and blood, mucus, tissue, 
and the egg are shed through the 
vagina. 
 Stage 2- Menstrual flow stops & 
endometrium begins to thicken. 
 Stage 3- Endometrium continues to 
thicken. 
 Stage 4- The endometrium is at it’s 
thickest point.
Ovarian Hormones
Days 1-14 
Pituitary 
Gland 
Produces 
FSH 
Follicle Stimulating Hormone 
Triggers formation of the 
Follicle 
Within the ovary 
Produces 
Estrogen & Ovum 
Triggers uterine lining thickening
Days 14 - 28 
Pituitary 
Gland 
Produces 
LH 
Lutinizing Hormone 
Triggers Ovulation 
and the formation of the 
Corpus Lutium 
Within the ovary 
Produces 
Progesterone 
Continues uterine lining thickening
Mestrual cycle
Breast Self Exams 
Monthly check to detect changes that 
could lead to breast cancer. 
 Step One – “Look” In a mirror look for dimples, 
puckering,redness of the breast skin, discharge from 
the nipples, or change in breast size or shape. 
 Step two – With flat fingers feel from top to bottom 
or in circles making sure to examine the entire 
breast.
Common Complications of the 
Female Reproductive System 
 Ovarian Cysts- Fluid filled sacs on the surface of an 
ovary usually harmless; sometimes more serious. 
Symptoms include sudden severe abdominal pain, 
fever, vomiting. 
 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease- Infection leading to 
damage of the reproductive organs. If untreated 
may lead to chronic pain, infertility, and ectopic 
pregnancy 
 Breast Cancer- uncontrolled cell growth that 
invades surrounding tissue and destroys it.

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Mestrual cycle

  • 2. What is the menstrual cycle?  The process in which females ripen or release one mature egg.  The average menstrual cycle will repeat itself about every 28 days, but normal menstrual cycles can range from 21 to 40 days.
  • 3. Changes in Pituitary Hormones Days 1-14:  During the first half of the cycle (Days 1-14) the pituitary produces FSH, which stimulates egg production.  This hormone also triggers the release of estrogen from the ovaries.
  • 4. Changes in Pituitary Hormones Days 14-28:  On the 14th day the pituitary begins releasing LH causing ovulation  LH also directs the production of progesterone which maintains the growth of the endometrium.  If the egg is not fertilized upon arrival in the uterus progesterone levels drop causing estrogen levels to drop leading to menstruation.
  • 6. Changes in the Ovaries: Stage 2 - egg continues to ripen; follicle growth. Stage 1 - ovum begins to develop. Stage 3 - Ovulation fully mature egg bursts out of follicle. Stage 4 - Egg enters fallopian tube follicle remains and forms the corpus luteum.
  • 7. Changes in the Ovaries:  Stage 1 - An egg is beginning to mature within a cluster of cells called a follicle  Stage 2 - Rapid follicle and egg growth  Stage 3 - Ovulation occurs; fully mature egg bursts out of the follicle (fertile) empty follicle transforms into the corpus luteum  Stage 4 - Egg travels through fallopian tube (7 days) if not fertilized upon arrival in uterus the corpus luteum shrinks triggering menstruation and ripening of new egg.
  • 8. Changes in Ovarian Hormones:  Estrogen -gradually increases during days 1- 14; signals body to thicken the lining of the uterus. Levels drop sharply after ovulation.  Progesterone -Levels remain low during the first half of the cycle and then increase sharplyduring the second half of the cycle. Maintaining the growth of the endometrium lining.
  • 9. Changes in the Uterus: Stage 1- Day 1-5 menstruation Stage 2 Day 5- 13 pre-ovulatory stage Stage 3 Day 14 Ovulation Stage 4 Day 15-28 post-ovulatory stage
  • 10. The uterine lining slowly thickens from day 5 through day 28
  • 11. Changes in the Uterus:  Stage 1- Menstruation- Endometrium breaks down and blood, mucus, tissue, and the egg are shed through the vagina.  Stage 2- Menstrual flow stops & endometrium begins to thicken.  Stage 3- Endometrium continues to thicken.  Stage 4- The endometrium is at it’s thickest point.
  • 13. Days 1-14 Pituitary Gland Produces FSH Follicle Stimulating Hormone Triggers formation of the Follicle Within the ovary Produces Estrogen & Ovum Triggers uterine lining thickening
  • 14. Days 14 - 28 Pituitary Gland Produces LH Lutinizing Hormone Triggers Ovulation and the formation of the Corpus Lutium Within the ovary Produces Progesterone Continues uterine lining thickening
  • 16. Breast Self Exams Monthly check to detect changes that could lead to breast cancer.  Step One – “Look” In a mirror look for dimples, puckering,redness of the breast skin, discharge from the nipples, or change in breast size or shape.  Step two – With flat fingers feel from top to bottom or in circles making sure to examine the entire breast.
  • 17. Common Complications of the Female Reproductive System  Ovarian Cysts- Fluid filled sacs on the surface of an ovary usually harmless; sometimes more serious. Symptoms include sudden severe abdominal pain, fever, vomiting.  Pelvic Inflammatory Disease- Infection leading to damage of the reproductive organs. If untreated may lead to chronic pain, infertility, and ectopic pregnancy  Breast Cancer- uncontrolled cell growth that invades surrounding tissue and destroys it.