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Genetic Engineering 
• Genetic Engineers can 
alter the DNA code of 
living organisms. 
• Selective Breeding 
• Recombinant DNA 
• PCR 
• Gel Electrophoresis 
• Transgenic Organisms
Selective Breeding 
• Breed only those 
plants or animals with 
desirable traits 
• People have been 
using selective 
breeding for 1000’s of 
years with farm crops 
and domesticated 
animals.
Recombinant DNA 
• The ability to combine 
the DNA of one 
organism with the 
DNA of another 
organism. 
• Recombinant DNA 
technology was first 
used in the 1970’s 
with bacteria.
Recombinant Bacteria 
1. Remove bacterial DNA 
(plasmid). 
2. Cut the Bacterial DNA with 
“restriction enzymes”. 
3. Cut the DNA from another 
organism with “restriction 
enzymes”. 
4. Combine the cut pieces of DNA 
together with another enzyme 
and insert them into bacteria. 
5. Reproduce the recombinant 
bacteria. 
6. The foreign genes will be 
expressed in the bacteria.
Benefits of Recombinant 
Bacteria 
1. Bacteria can make human insulin or 
human growth hormone. 
1. Bacteria can be engineered to “eat” oil 
spills.
The DNA of plants and animals 
can also be altered. 
PLANTS 
1. disease-resistant and 
insect-resistant crops 
2. Hardier fruit 
3. 70-75% of food in 
supermarket is 
genetically modified.
How to Create a Genetically 
Modified Plant 
1.Create recombinant 
bacteria with desired 
gene. 
2. Allow the bacteria to 
“infect" the plant cells. 
3. Desired gene is 
inserted into plant 
chromosomes.
Genetically modified organisms are 
called transgenic organisms. 
TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 
1. Mice – used to study human 
immune system 
2. Chickens – more resistant to 
infections 
3. Cows – increase milk supply 
and leaner meat 
4. Goats, sheep and pigs – 
produce human proteins in 
their milk
Transgenic Goat 
Human DNA in 
a Goat Cell 
. 
This goat contains a human 
gene that codes for a blood 
clotting agent. The blood 
clotting agent can be harvested 
in the goat’s milk.
How to Create a 
Transgenic Animal 
Desired DNA 
is 
added to an 
egg cell.
Polymerase Chain Reaction 
PCR 
• PCR allows scientists to 
make many copies of a 
piece of DNA. 
1. Heat the DNA so it 
“unzips”. 
2. Add the complementary 
nitrogenous bases. 
3. Allow DNA to cool so the 
complementary strands 
can “zip” together.
Gel Electrophoresis 
• This technology 
allows scientists to 
identify someone’s 
DNA!
Steps Involved in Gel 
Electrophoresis 
1. “Cut” DNA sample with 
restriction enzymes. 
2. Run the DNA fragments 
through a gel. 
3. Bands will form in the gel. 
4. Everyone’s DNA bands are 
unique and can be used to 
identify a person. 
5. DNA bands are like “genetic 
fingerprints”.

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Genetic engineering

  • 1. Genetic Engineering • Genetic Engineers can alter the DNA code of living organisms. • Selective Breeding • Recombinant DNA • PCR • Gel Electrophoresis • Transgenic Organisms
  • 2. Selective Breeding • Breed only those plants or animals with desirable traits • People have been using selective breeding for 1000’s of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.
  • 3. Recombinant DNA • The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism. • Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970’s with bacteria.
  • 4. Recombinant Bacteria 1. Remove bacterial DNA (plasmid). 2. Cut the Bacterial DNA with “restriction enzymes”. 3. Cut the DNA from another organism with “restriction enzymes”. 4. Combine the cut pieces of DNA together with another enzyme and insert them into bacteria. 5. Reproduce the recombinant bacteria. 6. The foreign genes will be expressed in the bacteria.
  • 5. Benefits of Recombinant Bacteria 1. Bacteria can make human insulin or human growth hormone. 1. Bacteria can be engineered to “eat” oil spills.
  • 6. The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered. PLANTS 1. disease-resistant and insect-resistant crops 2. Hardier fruit 3. 70-75% of food in supermarket is genetically modified.
  • 7. How to Create a Genetically Modified Plant 1.Create recombinant bacteria with desired gene. 2. Allow the bacteria to “infect" the plant cells. 3. Desired gene is inserted into plant chromosomes.
  • 8. Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms. TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 1. Mice – used to study human immune system 2. Chickens – more resistant to infections 3. Cows – increase milk supply and leaner meat 4. Goats, sheep and pigs – produce human proteins in their milk
  • 9. Transgenic Goat Human DNA in a Goat Cell . This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goat’s milk.
  • 10. How to Create a Transgenic Animal Desired DNA is added to an egg cell.
  • 11. Polymerase Chain Reaction PCR • PCR allows scientists to make many copies of a piece of DNA. 1. Heat the DNA so it “unzips”. 2. Add the complementary nitrogenous bases. 3. Allow DNA to cool so the complementary strands can “zip” together.
  • 12. Gel Electrophoresis • This technology allows scientists to identify someone’s DNA!
  • 13. Steps Involved in Gel Electrophoresis 1. “Cut” DNA sample with restriction enzymes. 2. Run the DNA fragments through a gel. 3. Bands will form in the gel. 4. Everyone’s DNA bands are unique and can be used to identify a person. 5. DNA bands are like “genetic fingerprints”.