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Cellular Respiration 
 All living things need 
energy 
 Energy in the form 
of… 
Food =chemical 
energy 
 Cell 
energy=ATP
Eukaryote vs Prokaryote 
Glycolytic pathways
Prokaryotes 
 Lack mitochondria?? 
 Free enzymes break 
down glucose-ATP 
 1 glucose=2 ATP 
 No O2 needed so… 
 ANAEROBI 
C 
 Some,however…?? 
?
Quiz-anaerobic gylcolysis 
 Where in the cell does 
gylcolysis occur? 
 Fate of glucose in the 
beginning of gylcolysis? 
 Explain “it takes energy to 
make energy”?? 
 How much net ATP is made? 
 What else is made? 
 2 types of fermentation? 
 Cytoplasm 
 Fructose (isomer) 
 Invest 2 ATP get 4 
 Net= 2 ATP 
 CO2 + NADH 
 Lactate or alcohol
Mitochondrial structure 
 Two compartments 
inner and outer 
 Inner=MATRIX 
 Lotsa folds=…why? 
 Outer=acid…why?
The Mitochondria 
 Double membrane 
 Has it’s own DNA!! 
 Can reproduce in 
cell…! 
 Endosymbiont?? 
 Possible evolution?
Possible evolution of 
mitochondria-endosymbiont
The Fate of PYRUVATE 
 Taken into mitochondria 
 Broken down to ACETATE 
 CO2 produced 
 Binds to large protein Coenzyme A to 
produce acetyl Coenzyme A
The TCA or KREBS CYCLE 
CO2 
NADH & 
FADH 
 2 more 
ATP
Krebs Cycle
Quiz-Krebs cycle (TCA cycle) 
 What are the reactants? 
 What is produced? 
 What do we mean by 
nonmembrane reactions? 
 What is NADH? FADH? 
 What is CoA and why is it 
important? 
 Pyruvate (C3) 
 2 ATP, CO2, NADH, 
FADH 
 Enzymes not embedded 
 Energy carriers 
 Escort molecule to 
Krebs cycle
3rd alternative pathway… 
 Mitochondria and 
 O2 needed 
 Uses NADH and 
FADH produced in 
previous reactions 
 To make more ATP 
 Lots more!!
What is NADH?? FADH?? 
 ENERGY 
CARRIER! 
 Same for FADH 
 Carrier to…?
Electron Transport System 
 ETS (cytochrome 
chain) is a series of 
reduction/oxidation 
reactions 
 Enzymes 
embedded in 
mitochondrial 
membranes
ETS--Chemiosmosis 
 RedOx reactions 
pump H+ out of 
matrix to… 
 Outer compartment 
 H+ = acid…aha!
Chemiosmosis 
 H+ can only “fall” back into matrix thru 
 A special enzyme/protein complex 
 ATP SYNTHASE…guess what that 
makes?? 
 But…how much ATP??
glycolysis
Alternatives to carbos? 
 Fats (2X calories/gm) 
but produce ketones 
 Protein produces 
ammonia!! 
 We utilize some of 
each but in small 
amounts
Why are virtually all living 
things aerobes?? 
 There’s lotsa O2 
 Mitochondria 
 MORE ATP/glucose! 
 Protective enzymes 
(SOD, catalase, etc)
Summary Quiz 
 What are the reactants of aerobic 
respiration?? Products? Equation? 
 List the three respiratory stages: 
 Where in the cell do each occur? 
 What are the products of each? 
 Why is oxygen needed? 
 How much ATP is produced by 
 Anaerobic gylcolysis? 
 Aerobic glycolysis? 
 List the 2 types of fermentation??

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Cell respiration

  • 1. Cellular Respiration  All living things need energy  Energy in the form of… Food =chemical energy  Cell energy=ATP
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4. Eukaryote vs Prokaryote Glycolytic pathways
  • 5. Prokaryotes  Lack mitochondria??  Free enzymes break down glucose-ATP  1 glucose=2 ATP  No O2 needed so…  ANAEROBI C  Some,however…?? ?
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  • 12. Quiz-anaerobic gylcolysis  Where in the cell does gylcolysis occur?  Fate of glucose in the beginning of gylcolysis?  Explain “it takes energy to make energy”??  How much net ATP is made?  What else is made?  2 types of fermentation?  Cytoplasm  Fructose (isomer)  Invest 2 ATP get 4  Net= 2 ATP  CO2 + NADH  Lactate or alcohol
  • 13.
  • 14. Mitochondrial structure  Two compartments inner and outer  Inner=MATRIX  Lotsa folds=…why?  Outer=acid…why?
  • 15. The Mitochondria  Double membrane  Has it’s own DNA!!  Can reproduce in cell…!  Endosymbiont??  Possible evolution?
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  • 17. Possible evolution of mitochondria-endosymbiont
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  • 21. The Fate of PYRUVATE  Taken into mitochondria  Broken down to ACETATE  CO2 produced  Binds to large protein Coenzyme A to produce acetyl Coenzyme A
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  • 24. The TCA or KREBS CYCLE CO2 NADH & FADH  2 more ATP
  • 26. Quiz-Krebs cycle (TCA cycle)  What are the reactants?  What is produced?  What do we mean by nonmembrane reactions?  What is NADH? FADH?  What is CoA and why is it important?  Pyruvate (C3)  2 ATP, CO2, NADH, FADH  Enzymes not embedded  Energy carriers  Escort molecule to Krebs cycle
  • 27. 3rd alternative pathway…  Mitochondria and  O2 needed  Uses NADH and FADH produced in previous reactions  To make more ATP  Lots more!!
  • 28.
  • 29. What is NADH?? FADH??  ENERGY CARRIER!  Same for FADH  Carrier to…?
  • 30.
  • 31. Electron Transport System  ETS (cytochrome chain) is a series of reduction/oxidation reactions  Enzymes embedded in mitochondrial membranes
  • 32. ETS--Chemiosmosis  RedOx reactions pump H+ out of matrix to…  Outer compartment  H+ = acid…aha!
  • 33. Chemiosmosis  H+ can only “fall” back into matrix thru  A special enzyme/protein complex  ATP SYNTHASE…guess what that makes??  But…how much ATP??
  • 34.
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  • 40.
  • 41. Alternatives to carbos?  Fats (2X calories/gm) but produce ketones  Protein produces ammonia!!  We utilize some of each but in small amounts
  • 42. Why are virtually all living things aerobes??  There’s lotsa O2  Mitochondria  MORE ATP/glucose!  Protective enzymes (SOD, catalase, etc)
  • 43. Summary Quiz  What are the reactants of aerobic respiration?? Products? Equation?  List the three respiratory stages:  Where in the cell do each occur?  What are the products of each?  Why is oxygen needed?  How much ATP is produced by  Anaerobic gylcolysis?  Aerobic glycolysis?  List the 2 types of fermentation??