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GRAMMAR II- COLOQUIO
TEACHER: ANDREA ARELLANO.
 STUDENT: ADELA PEREZ DEL VISO


TOPIC: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES IN
GENERAL. +
 NOMINAL CLAUSES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES.

SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX
SENTENCES.


SIMPLE.



COMPOUND: consists of 2 or more clauses
at the same grammatical level. Each of them:
a main clause.



COMPLEX sentence: CONTAINS a
subordinate clause as one of its constituents.
CLASSES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES
FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS
CLAUSES
 “… when we were drinking wine.”
 “while drinking w…” “In order to drink w.”…
 After some time, …

CLASSES AS REGARDS FUNCTION
NOMINAL CLAUSES: can have a range of
functions similar to N.PH.s. RELATIVE CLAUSES: postmodify N PH.s
 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: a range of functions
similar to ADV Ph.or P.P. as adverbials
 COMPARATIVE CLAUSES :with more,less
or as and inflection –er function as
intensifiers.

FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS IN DET.
Non finite: a) -ing participle clause with
subject: I don´t have a dog barking all day.
 B) –ing part. Witho. Subject: Barking all day
long, the dog was exhausted.
 C) –ed part.cl. With subjetct: I don´t have a
dog covered with a dress.
 D) –ed part. Cl witho. Sub: Covered with a
dress, the dog looked ridiculous.

OTHERS:
To inf. With subject:
 I told Mary to read the book.
 To inf. With o. subject:
 I ordered to march towards the sun.
 Bare inf. With subject: (causative): I made
them march towards the sun.
 Bare inf. W.o. subject: It helps support our
style of marching.

VERBLESS CLAUSES:


No cars there, the street was peaceful. (with
subject)



Although under subjection, streets
seemed peaceful.
FOUR CASES: NOMINAL, RELATIVE,
ADVERBIAL AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES
NOMINAL CLAUSES:
 FUNCTIONS:
 **SUBJECT: That this is a good
environment, is for sure.
 Working on your own is the best way of
living.
 **COMPLEMENT OF A VERB: (d.o.):
 He asked to be taken to the country.

(NOMINAL CL):
Other N.CLAUSES can function as:
 **COMPLEMENT OF AN ADJECTIVE:
 It is sure that her mother is safe.
 (sure, prepared, surprised).
 COMPLEMENT OF A PREPOSITION:
 He promised to leave as soon as he could.
 COMPLEMENT OF A NOUN: the fact, the
idea, the report that everything is fine.

RELATIVE CLAUSES.
They postmodify N.PHRASES.
 They can be restrictive or non restrictive.
 REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES: have a
non finite verb:
 Most people wearing bright colours are
happier.
 Most people, depressed by the notice, felt
quite down the weather.

FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
DISJUNCTS:
 Style disjuncts: … if you know what I mean.
 Content disjuncts: Broadly speaking…


ADJUNCTS:
 …while singing loud songs.
 …where we used to gather before.

FUNCTIONS OF COMPARATIVE CLAUSES
We use a comparative clause with a
preceding CORRELATIVE. (more, less, as)
 With the preceding correlative, they function
as intensifiers:
 He should drive more rapidly than others.
 “MORE THAN OTHERS” modifies the
adverb rapidly and functions as intensifier.
 **Less harm than it might be expected.
 “LESS THAN IT M.B.E.”: intensifier of harm.

NOMINAL CLAUSES / TYPES.
 SUBORDINATE

DECLARATIVE CL:

finite/ non finite.
 SUBORDINATE INTERROGATIVE
CL.: yes/no // wh //
 SUBORDINATE EXCLAMATIVE CL.
 NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE.
SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES
FINITE subordinate declarative clauses:
 They are introduced by “that” They function as: complement of a verb (“he
told me that”, with the pro clause “so”),
 Compl. Of an adjective (sure that it is true)
 Compl. Of a noun: idea, belief, concept that
it is true.

SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES
NON FINITE:
 -ING clauses.
 -ed clauses.
 -bare inf. Clauses (let me … )

SUBORDINATE INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES
THREE TYPES:
YES/NO CLAUSES: If and weather.
 I don´t know if you have studied the issue.
 I asked whether they knew the issue.
 ALTERNATIVE CLAUSES: whether /or
 … whether they knew the issue or not.
 WH CLAUSES: introduced by a wh word
(determiner, pronoun or adverb):
 He asked Mary what would be the best thing
to do.

SOME DETAILS AS REGARDS INTERROGATIVE
CLAUSES:
IF/ WHETHER restrictions: If : more
restricted than w.:
 Only whether: a) with a to-inf. clause b) as
complement of a preposition. (as to
whether they were gathered or not) c) only
whether followed by “or not”.




IF and WHETHER can be repeated in
alternative clauses, if they are in full.
SUBORDINATE EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSES
In this use, the clause is introduced by
 HOW AND WHAT.
 How and what are intensifiers.
 He realised in amazement how much their
children loved each other.
 (THE “loved each other”, and “how much “
they did it, is an intensifier. )

NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES
OTHER NAMES: independent relaive clauses
or free relative clauses.
 They resemble N. PHR.s.
 Like N.Ph. They can take plural verbs.
 They can have personal reference:
 He speaks to whoever girl he encounters.
 With plural verbs:
 What he really wants to see, are girls in bikini.

OTHER CONCEPTIONS:
Some grammarians:
 NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE is a NOUN
PHRASE. (RATHER THAN A CLAUSE).
 In this conception, it is a NOUN
PHRASE, and the head
(what, whatever, whoever) is a “fused
relative” and the rest of the clause: a
postmodifying relative clause.
 He gave me what I needed. (head: what).

ADVERBIAL CLAUSES:
May be finite, non finite (to-inf/ bare inf, -ing,
-ed) and verbless.
 FINITE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: Generally
they have a subordinator: if /although, in
case, when. IF IT RAINS, I´LL GO
 Exceptionally, in cases of invertion, subject –
operator inversion is used instead of the
subordinator. HAD IT RAINED, I WOULD
HAVE GONE.

NON FINITE CLAUSES WITHO. A SUBJECT
If the non finite or verbless clause does not
have a subject: it is understood that the
subject is identical with the subject of the
host clause.
 If the understood subject is not identical, it is
said to be a dangling or unattached clause:
 If under rain, the march would be terrible.
 … about that illness. If severe, nerve cell
death may result.

VIOLATION OF IDENTIAL/SUBJECT RULE:
Generally: considered to be an error.
 EXCEPTIONS:
 Style disjunct: Broadly speaking, the items
were in good condition.
 If the understood subj. Is you, we, one: It is
the same thing when turning the lights on.
 If the understood subject is the whole host
clause: I would like it covered in red, if
possible.

ABSOLUTE CLAUSES
Adverbial participle clauses or advebial
verbless clauses
 Not introduced by a subordinator
 They have their own subject:
 Winds having blown all night, the streed
seemed to be a disaster.

MEANINGS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
PLACE CLAUSES
 TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
 CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
(OPEN/HYPOTHETICAL)
 CIRCUMSTANTIAL CLAUSES.
 CONCESSIVE CLAUSES.
 REASON/PURPOSE/ RESULT CLAUSES.
 MANNER CLAUSES
 PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES

PLACE AND TEMPORAL CLAUSES
Place clauses: may refer to POSITION:
 He will sit wherever he wants.
 MAY REFER TO DIRECTION:
 He was going TOWARDS N.Y. CITY.
 Temporal clauses: The host clause may occur
before, at the same time or at a later time than
that of the temporal clause:
 After drinking some water he felt better.
 Before walking so long distance, his leg was
not so bad.

CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
They exhibit a parallel with subordinate
interrogative clauses:
 Both : information is missing. For cond.
clauses, the missing info is about the fulfilment
of the condition.
 The distinction of the three types of
interrogative clauses (y/n, alternative or wh)
are analogous to those in conditional clauses.
 If and whether are used as subordinators.
 Rhetorical quest. aralleled by rhetorical
conditions. If anybody knows more, I´m dead.

DIRECT AND INDIRECT CONDITION.
THERE IS A POSSIBLE TRUTH OF THE
HOST CLAUSE: APODOSIS.
 AND THE FULFILMENT OF THE
CONDITION IN THE CONDITIONAL
CLAUSE (IF CLAUSE): PROTASIS.
 Direct conditional clauses: indicate that the
truth of the host clause depends on the
fulfilment of the if clause (apodosis depends
on protasis)

INDIRECT CONDITIONS:
They are “speech acts”.”
 “… if you know what I mean.”
 Apodosis do not depend on protasis.

DIRECT CONDITIONS: OPEN AND
HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS:
OPEN CONDITIONS: They leave
completely open whether the condition will
be fulfilled.
 The speaker does not indicate if he believes
the condition has been fulfilled.
 HYPOTHETICAL conditions: The
hypothetical cond. Will be conveyed through
verb forms backshifted. They express the
idea that the condition has not been fulfilled.

EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS
-- with idea of “present”:
 I´d be happy if I could pass this exam.
 -- with idea of “past”:
 I would have been happy if my mother had
visited me.
 (the condition has not been fulfilled, or is not
fulfilled).
 The subjunctive WERE is used sometimes:
 I would be happy if I WERE you.

SUBJECT/OPERATOR INVERSION IN
CONDITIONAL CLAUSES
 Cond.

Clauses may have subject
operator inversion without a
subordinator.
 Auxiliaries: had, were or should
 HAD HE WON the prize, he would be
happy now.
CONDITIONAL SUBORDINATORS
If I were you…
 Unless it is true…
 Provided that…
 If only it was true…
 Should it rain, …

CIRCUMSTANTIAL AND CONCESSIVE CLAUSES
Circumstantial cl: express a general idea of
place or time: … whenever he wants//
 Concessive: THERE IS A HOST CLAUSE/
AND A CONCESSIVE CLAUSE.
 The situation in the host cl. Is unexpected in
view of what is said in the concessive clause.
 Although it started as a bright sunny day,
it rained heavily afterwards.

REASON/ CAUSE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Reason clauses: express notions as reason
and cause
 There is a host clause and a reason clause.
 Sometimes the reason clause is a speech
act.
 … since you are a dumb.

PURPOSE CLAUSE
May be FINITE AND NON FINITE.
 Finite purpose clause: They take a modal
auxiliary: they refer to an event that has yet
to take place: “… since one person can go to
the front…”
 Infinitival (non finite) purpose clause: They
are more frequent. / To-infinitive clauses
witho. A subordinator/ in order to, so as to.

RESULT CLAUSE
There is a host clause and a result clause.
 He studied quickly, so that he was able to be
on time.
 You never speak aloud, so I do not hear
you.
 They refer to a situation that is or was in
effect.

MANNER CLAUSE
Manner clauses refer to the manner of the
action expressed by the verb.
 Though treated here for convenience, they
are also COMPLEMENTS OF THE VERB.
 They do AS THEY ARE INSTRUCTED.
 You go on, AS IF YOU HAD NOT HEARED
ANYTHING.
 (as, as if, as though)

PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES
Both prop. and similarity cl. Involve kinds of
comparison.
 The thinner the girl, the better she looks.
 The in proportion clauses is not a definitive
article: it comes from OLD ENGLISH of the
instrumental case THY of the demonstrative
pronoun : “by that the faster, by that the
better” and it is similar to “so”.

OTHER DETAILS AS REGARDS PROPORTION
AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES


Reduced case: The simpler, the better.

Similarity clauses resemble the second type
of proportion clause in form:
 JUST AS our fortune reduced, so our
possibilities to afford his studies died.
 It means that something happens in the
same proportion of another process.


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GRAMMAR II. CLAUSES

  • 1. GRAMMAR II- COLOQUIO TEACHER: ANDREA ARELLANO.  STUDENT: ADELA PEREZ DEL VISO  TOPIC: SUBORDINATE CLAUSES IN GENERAL. +  NOMINAL CLAUSES ADVERBIAL CLAUSES. 
  • 2. SIMPLE, COMPOUND AND COMPLEX SENTENCES.  SIMPLE.  COMPOUND: consists of 2 or more clauses at the same grammatical level. Each of them: a main clause.  COMPLEX sentence: CONTAINS a subordinate clause as one of its constituents.
  • 3. CLASSES OF SUBORDINATE CLAUSES FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS CLAUSES  “… when we were drinking wine.”  “while drinking w…” “In order to drink w.”…  After some time, … 
  • 4. CLASSES AS REGARDS FUNCTION NOMINAL CLAUSES: can have a range of functions similar to N.PH.s. RELATIVE CLAUSES: postmodify N PH.s  ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: a range of functions similar to ADV Ph.or P.P. as adverbials  COMPARATIVE CLAUSES :with more,less or as and inflection –er function as intensifiers. 
  • 5. FINITE, NON FINITE AND VERBLESS IN DET. Non finite: a) -ing participle clause with subject: I don´t have a dog barking all day.  B) –ing part. Witho. Subject: Barking all day long, the dog was exhausted.  C) –ed part.cl. With subjetct: I don´t have a dog covered with a dress.  D) –ed part. Cl witho. Sub: Covered with a dress, the dog looked ridiculous. 
  • 6. OTHERS: To inf. With subject:  I told Mary to read the book.  To inf. With o. subject:  I ordered to march towards the sun.  Bare inf. With subject: (causative): I made them march towards the sun.  Bare inf. W.o. subject: It helps support our style of marching. 
  • 7. VERBLESS CLAUSES:  No cars there, the street was peaceful. (with subject)  Although under subjection, streets seemed peaceful.
  • 8. FOUR CASES: NOMINAL, RELATIVE, ADVERBIAL AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES NOMINAL CLAUSES:  FUNCTIONS:  **SUBJECT: That this is a good environment, is for sure.  Working on your own is the best way of living.  **COMPLEMENT OF A VERB: (d.o.):  He asked to be taken to the country. 
  • 9. (NOMINAL CL): Other N.CLAUSES can function as:  **COMPLEMENT OF AN ADJECTIVE:  It is sure that her mother is safe.  (sure, prepared, surprised).  COMPLEMENT OF A PREPOSITION:  He promised to leave as soon as he could.  COMPLEMENT OF A NOUN: the fact, the idea, the report that everything is fine. 
  • 10. RELATIVE CLAUSES. They postmodify N.PHRASES.  They can be restrictive or non restrictive.  REDUCED RELATIVE CLAUSES: have a non finite verb:  Most people wearing bright colours are happier.  Most people, depressed by the notice, felt quite down the weather. 
  • 11. FUNCTIONS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES DISJUNCTS:  Style disjuncts: … if you know what I mean.  Content disjuncts: Broadly speaking…  ADJUNCTS:  …while singing loud songs.  …where we used to gather before. 
  • 12. FUNCTIONS OF COMPARATIVE CLAUSES We use a comparative clause with a preceding CORRELATIVE. (more, less, as)  With the preceding correlative, they function as intensifiers:  He should drive more rapidly than others.  “MORE THAN OTHERS” modifies the adverb rapidly and functions as intensifier.  **Less harm than it might be expected.  “LESS THAN IT M.B.E.”: intensifier of harm. 
  • 13. NOMINAL CLAUSES / TYPES.  SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CL: finite/ non finite.  SUBORDINATE INTERROGATIVE CL.: yes/no // wh //  SUBORDINATE EXCLAMATIVE CL.  NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE.
  • 14. SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES FINITE subordinate declarative clauses:  They are introduced by “that” They function as: complement of a verb (“he told me that”, with the pro clause “so”),  Compl. Of an adjective (sure that it is true)  Compl. Of a noun: idea, belief, concept that it is true. 
  • 15. SUBORDINATE DECLARATIVE CLAUSES NON FINITE:  -ING clauses.  -ed clauses.  -bare inf. Clauses (let me … ) 
  • 16. SUBORDINATE INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES THREE TYPES: YES/NO CLAUSES: If and weather.  I don´t know if you have studied the issue.  I asked whether they knew the issue.  ALTERNATIVE CLAUSES: whether /or  … whether they knew the issue or not.  WH CLAUSES: introduced by a wh word (determiner, pronoun or adverb):  He asked Mary what would be the best thing to do. 
  • 17. SOME DETAILS AS REGARDS INTERROGATIVE CLAUSES: IF/ WHETHER restrictions: If : more restricted than w.:  Only whether: a) with a to-inf. clause b) as complement of a preposition. (as to whether they were gathered or not) c) only whether followed by “or not”.   IF and WHETHER can be repeated in alternative clauses, if they are in full.
  • 18. SUBORDINATE EXCLAMATIVE CLAUSES In this use, the clause is introduced by  HOW AND WHAT.  How and what are intensifiers.  He realised in amazement how much their children loved each other.  (THE “loved each other”, and “how much “ they did it, is an intensifier. ) 
  • 19. NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES OTHER NAMES: independent relaive clauses or free relative clauses.  They resemble N. PHR.s.  Like N.Ph. They can take plural verbs.  They can have personal reference:  He speaks to whoever girl he encounters.  With plural verbs:  What he really wants to see, are girls in bikini. 
  • 20. OTHER CONCEPTIONS: Some grammarians:  NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSE is a NOUN PHRASE. (RATHER THAN A CLAUSE).  In this conception, it is a NOUN PHRASE, and the head (what, whatever, whoever) is a “fused relative” and the rest of the clause: a postmodifying relative clause.  He gave me what I needed. (head: what). 
  • 21. ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: May be finite, non finite (to-inf/ bare inf, -ing, -ed) and verbless.  FINITE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES: Generally they have a subordinator: if /although, in case, when. IF IT RAINS, I´LL GO  Exceptionally, in cases of invertion, subject – operator inversion is used instead of the subordinator. HAD IT RAINED, I WOULD HAVE GONE. 
  • 22. NON FINITE CLAUSES WITHO. A SUBJECT If the non finite or verbless clause does not have a subject: it is understood that the subject is identical with the subject of the host clause.  If the understood subject is not identical, it is said to be a dangling or unattached clause:  If under rain, the march would be terrible.  … about that illness. If severe, nerve cell death may result. 
  • 23. VIOLATION OF IDENTIAL/SUBJECT RULE: Generally: considered to be an error.  EXCEPTIONS:  Style disjunct: Broadly speaking, the items were in good condition.  If the understood subj. Is you, we, one: It is the same thing when turning the lights on.  If the understood subject is the whole host clause: I would like it covered in red, if possible. 
  • 24. ABSOLUTE CLAUSES Adverbial participle clauses or advebial verbless clauses  Not introduced by a subordinator  They have their own subject:  Winds having blown all night, the streed seemed to be a disaster. 
  • 25. MEANINGS OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES PLACE CLAUSES  TEMPORAL CLAUSES.  CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. (OPEN/HYPOTHETICAL)  CIRCUMSTANTIAL CLAUSES.  CONCESSIVE CLAUSES.  REASON/PURPOSE/ RESULT CLAUSES.  MANNER CLAUSES  PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES 
  • 26. PLACE AND TEMPORAL CLAUSES Place clauses: may refer to POSITION:  He will sit wherever he wants.  MAY REFER TO DIRECTION:  He was going TOWARDS N.Y. CITY.  Temporal clauses: The host clause may occur before, at the same time or at a later time than that of the temporal clause:  After drinking some water he felt better.  Before walking so long distance, his leg was not so bad. 
  • 27. CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. They exhibit a parallel with subordinate interrogative clauses:  Both : information is missing. For cond. clauses, the missing info is about the fulfilment of the condition.  The distinction of the three types of interrogative clauses (y/n, alternative or wh) are analogous to those in conditional clauses.  If and whether are used as subordinators.  Rhetorical quest. aralleled by rhetorical conditions. If anybody knows more, I´m dead. 
  • 28. DIRECT AND INDIRECT CONDITION. THERE IS A POSSIBLE TRUTH OF THE HOST CLAUSE: APODOSIS.  AND THE FULFILMENT OF THE CONDITION IN THE CONDITIONAL CLAUSE (IF CLAUSE): PROTASIS.  Direct conditional clauses: indicate that the truth of the host clause depends on the fulfilment of the if clause (apodosis depends on protasis) 
  • 29. INDIRECT CONDITIONS: They are “speech acts”.”  “… if you know what I mean.”  Apodosis do not depend on protasis. 
  • 30. DIRECT CONDITIONS: OPEN AND HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS: OPEN CONDITIONS: They leave completely open whether the condition will be fulfilled.  The speaker does not indicate if he believes the condition has been fulfilled.  HYPOTHETICAL conditions: The hypothetical cond. Will be conveyed through verb forms backshifted. They express the idea that the condition has not been fulfilled. 
  • 31. EXAMPLES OF HYPOTHETICAL CONDITIONS -- with idea of “present”:  I´d be happy if I could pass this exam.  -- with idea of “past”:  I would have been happy if my mother had visited me.  (the condition has not been fulfilled, or is not fulfilled).  The subjunctive WERE is used sometimes:  I would be happy if I WERE you. 
  • 32. SUBJECT/OPERATOR INVERSION IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES  Cond. Clauses may have subject operator inversion without a subordinator.  Auxiliaries: had, were or should  HAD HE WON the prize, he would be happy now.
  • 33. CONDITIONAL SUBORDINATORS If I were you…  Unless it is true…  Provided that…  If only it was true…  Should it rain, … 
  • 34. CIRCUMSTANTIAL AND CONCESSIVE CLAUSES Circumstantial cl: express a general idea of place or time: … whenever he wants//  Concessive: THERE IS A HOST CLAUSE/ AND A CONCESSIVE CLAUSE.  The situation in the host cl. Is unexpected in view of what is said in the concessive clause.  Although it started as a bright sunny day, it rained heavily afterwards. 
  • 35. REASON/ CAUSE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES Reason clauses: express notions as reason and cause  There is a host clause and a reason clause.  Sometimes the reason clause is a speech act.  … since you are a dumb. 
  • 36. PURPOSE CLAUSE May be FINITE AND NON FINITE.  Finite purpose clause: They take a modal auxiliary: they refer to an event that has yet to take place: “… since one person can go to the front…”  Infinitival (non finite) purpose clause: They are more frequent. / To-infinitive clauses witho. A subordinator/ in order to, so as to. 
  • 37. RESULT CLAUSE There is a host clause and a result clause.  He studied quickly, so that he was able to be on time.  You never speak aloud, so I do not hear you.  They refer to a situation that is or was in effect. 
  • 38. MANNER CLAUSE Manner clauses refer to the manner of the action expressed by the verb.  Though treated here for convenience, they are also COMPLEMENTS OF THE VERB.  They do AS THEY ARE INSTRUCTED.  You go on, AS IF YOU HAD NOT HEARED ANYTHING.  (as, as if, as though) 
  • 39. PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES Both prop. and similarity cl. Involve kinds of comparison.  The thinner the girl, the better she looks.  The in proportion clauses is not a definitive article: it comes from OLD ENGLISH of the instrumental case THY of the demonstrative pronoun : “by that the faster, by that the better” and it is similar to “so”. 
  • 40. OTHER DETAILS AS REGARDS PROPORTION AND SIMILARITY CLAUSES  Reduced case: The simpler, the better. Similarity clauses resemble the second type of proportion clause in form:  JUST AS our fortune reduced, so our possibilities to afford his studies died.  It means that something happens in the same proportion of another process. 