SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 17
Prepared by :
Deepa Devkota
Roll no :07
Human Biology 7th batch
Free radicals and reactive oxygen
species
FREE RADICALS
 highly reactive molecular species with an unpaired electron,
persists only for very short duration(of the order of 10–9–10–
12 sec)
 Collide with another molecule and either abstract or donate
an electron to achieve stability
Types of free radicals
1. Superoxide, O2
-
2. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2
3. Hydroxyl radical, OH-
4. Singlet oxygen, 1O2
5. Hydroperoxy radical, HOO-
6. Lipid peroxide radical, ROO-
7. Nitric oxide, NO-
8. peroxynitrite, ONOO-
Antioxidants:the scavengers of free radicals
 Present in low
concentration that
significantly delays or
inhibits oxidation of
substrate
 antioxidant sacrifices
itself by becoming
oxidized,one antioxidant
molecule can react with
a single free radical
Antioxidants
1. Enzymatic
antioxidants
Superoxide
dismutase,catalase,glutathione
peroxidase,glutathione reductase
2.Nutrient
antioxidants
β- carotene,α tocopherol,ascorbic
acid
3.Metabolic
antioxidants
Bilirubin,uric
acid,ceruloplasmin,ferritin,transferrin,al
bumin,glutathione
Reactive oxygen species
 Major oxygen metabolites produced by one electron
reduction of oxygen
Hydroxyl radicals are the most potent
ROS
Lipid peroxidation by hydroxyl
radical
Biological effects of free radicals
 DNA: chemical changes that if not repaired can
inherited to daughter cells
 Proteins: Oxidative damage to sulfhydryl group and
tyrosine residues in protein can lead to formation of
oxygen radicals by non enzymatic reactions
formation of proteins that are recognized as non self
by immune system leading to cross reaction causing
autoimmune diseases
Biological effects of free radicals
 Chemical modification of protein or lipids in plasma
low density lipoprotein leads to abnormal LDL which
arenot recognized by liver’s LDL receptors
 Modified LDL is taken by macrophage scavenger
receptor,forms lipid engorged macrophages(LEM),
infiltrate under blood vessel endothelium
 Killing of LEM by high content of unesterified
cholesterol forming atherosclerotic plaques
Free radicals and diseases
 Respiratory diseases: destroy endothelium and
cause lung edema
Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and
promotes the production of more free radicals
 Diabetes mellitus: Destruction of islets results in
pathogenesis
 Cataract
 Male infertility: reduce sperm motility and viability
 Ageing process
 Others:
 Parkinson’s disease
 Alzheimer’s disease
 multiple sclerosis, liver cirrhosis
REFERENCES
 Harper’s illustrated biochemistry,28th edition
 Marks Dawn B. ,basic medical biochemistry, a
clinical approach
 sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584900
002525(retrieved on 17th january,2015)
 slideshare.net/guest371c9f/free-radicals(retrieved
on 15th january 2015)
Free radicals and reactive oxygen species

More Related Content

What's hot

Hardik free radical
Hardik  free radicalHardik  free radical
Hardik free radical
hardikdave61
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
akif12345
 
Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2
Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2
Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2
University of Mauritius
 

What's hot (20)

Free Radical and Antioxidant
Free Radical and AntioxidantFree Radical and Antioxidant
Free Radical and Antioxidant
 
13. free radicals and antioxidants
13. free radicals and antioxidants13. free radicals and antioxidants
13. free radicals and antioxidants
 
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidantsReactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
 
Hardik free radical
Hardik  free radicalHardik  free radical
Hardik free radical
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Oxidative stress
 
oxidative stress
oxidative stressoxidative stress
oxidative stress
 
REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES
REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIESREACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES
REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Oxidative stress
 
Lipid peroxidation
Lipid peroxidation Lipid peroxidation
Lipid peroxidation
 
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidantsFree radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
 
Oxidative stress and disease
Oxidative stress and diseaseOxidative stress and disease
Oxidative stress and disease
 
Antioxidants
AntioxidantsAntioxidants
Antioxidants
 
Oxidative Stress in Aging and Human Diseases - Exploring the Mechanisms
Oxidative Stress in Aging and Human Diseases - Exploring the MechanismsOxidative Stress in Aging and Human Diseases - Exploring the Mechanisms
Oxidative Stress in Aging and Human Diseases - Exploring the Mechanisms
 
Free radicals in human diseases and the role
Free radicals in human diseases and the roleFree radicals in human diseases and the role
Free radicals in human diseases and the role
 
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidantsFree radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
 
ROS and redox regulation
ROS and redox regulationROS and redox regulation
ROS and redox regulation
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
 
Oxidants and antioxidants
Oxidants and antioxidantsOxidants and antioxidants
Oxidants and antioxidants
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Oxidative stress
 
Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2
Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2
Reactive oxygen species & signal transduction 2
 

Similar to Free radicals and reactive oxygen species

D. H. Nagore Antioxidant Ppt
D. H. Nagore Antioxidant PptD. H. Nagore Antioxidant Ppt
D. H. Nagore Antioxidant Ppt
guest687567f95
 
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's diseaseOxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Mandeep Bhullar
 

Similar to Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (20)

Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidantsFree radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
 
Pharmacology of free radicals
Pharmacology of free radicalsPharmacology of free radicals
Pharmacology of free radicals
 
Free redical vs antioxident
Free redical vs antioxidentFree redical vs antioxident
Free redical vs antioxident
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
 
free radicals and antioxidant system.ppt
free radicals and antioxidant system.pptfree radicals and antioxidant system.ppt
free radicals and antioxidant system.ppt
 
free radicals and antioxidants.pptx
free radicals and antioxidants.pptxfree radicals and antioxidants.pptx
free radicals and antioxidants.pptx
 
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS  FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
 
D. H. Nagore Antioxidant Ppt
D. H. Nagore Antioxidant PptD. H. Nagore Antioxidant Ppt
D. H. Nagore Antioxidant Ppt
 
Dheeraj Antioxidant Seminar
Dheeraj Antioxidant SeminarDheeraj Antioxidant Seminar
Dheeraj Antioxidant Seminar
 
Free radicals & antioxidants
Free radicals & antioxidantsFree radicals & antioxidants
Free radicals & antioxidants
 
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's diseaseOxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
 
Antioxidants
AntioxidantsAntioxidants
Antioxidants
 
Role of free radical antioxdant in human
Role of free radical antioxdant in humanRole of free radical antioxdant in human
Role of free radical antioxdant in human
 
Free Radical Injury by prof dr naseer ppt
Free Radical Injury  by prof  dr naseer  pptFree Radical Injury  by prof  dr naseer  ppt
Free Radical Injury by prof dr naseer ppt
 
freeradicals pharmacology
 freeradicals pharmacology freeradicals pharmacology
freeradicals pharmacology
 
Mock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Mock Teaching 2007-ANISMock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Mock Teaching 2007-ANIS
 
Oxidative stress and antioxidants
Oxidative stress and antioxidantsOxidative stress and antioxidants
Oxidative stress and antioxidants
 
Antioxidant medical
Antioxidant medicalAntioxidant medical
Antioxidant medical
 
Free radicles
Free radiclesFree radicles
Free radicles
 
Free radical and antioxidants
Free radical and antioxidantsFree radical and antioxidants
Free radical and antioxidants
 

More from Deepa Devkota (9)

role of neurotransmitters in neuropsychriatric diseases
role of neurotransmitters in neuropsychriatric diseases role of neurotransmitters in neuropsychriatric diseases
role of neurotransmitters in neuropsychriatric diseases
 
Antiviral drugs final
Antiviral drugs finalAntiviral drugs final
Antiviral drugs final
 
Herpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex virusHerpes simplex virus
Herpes simplex virus
 
Genital warts
Genital wartsGenital warts
Genital warts
 
Streptococcus pyogens
Streptococcus pyogensStreptococcus pyogens
Streptococcus pyogens
 
Antimalarial drugs
Antimalarial drugsAntimalarial drugs
Antimalarial drugs
 
Formation of Bone
Formation of Bone Formation of Bone
Formation of Bone
 
Microbiology seminar
Microbiology seminarMicrobiology seminar
Microbiology seminar
 
Autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood
Autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal bloodAutoregulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood
Autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood
 

Recently uploaded

Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree daysHeat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Brahmesh Reddy B R
 
Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...
Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...
Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Center for Computational Toxicology and Exposure
 
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPTHIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPT

Recently uploaded (20)

GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 4) Concept of Asepsis
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 4) Concept of AsepsisGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 4) Concept of Asepsis
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 4) Concept of Asepsis
 
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...
Molecular and Cellular Mechanism of Action of Hormones such as Growth Hormone...
 
MSCII_ FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdf
MSCII_              FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdfMSCII_              FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdf
MSCII_ FCT UNIT 5 TOXICOLOGY.pdf
 
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
NUMERICAL Proof Of TIme Electron Theory.
 
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed RahimoonVital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
Vital Signs of Animals Presentation By Aftab Ahmed Rahimoon
 
Efficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence acceleration
Efficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence accelerationEfficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence acceleration
Efficient spin-up of Earth System Models usingsequence acceleration
 
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdfNuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
NuGOweek 2024 programme final FLYER short.pdf
 
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) Enzymology
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) EnzymologyGBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) Enzymology
GBSN - Biochemistry (Unit 8) Enzymology
 
Taphonomy and Quality of the Fossil Record
Taphonomy and Quality of the  Fossil RecordTaphonomy and Quality of the  Fossil Record
Taphonomy and Quality of the Fossil Record
 
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree daysHeat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
Heat Units in plant physiology and the importance of Growing Degree days
 
Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...
Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...
Chemistry Data Delivery from the US-EPA Center for Computational Toxicology a...
 
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary GlandFactor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
Factor Causing low production and physiology of mamary Gland
 
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolationGBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
GBSN - Microbiology (Unit 5) Concept of isolation
 
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY ARSON INVESTIGATION.pdf
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY ARSON INVESTIGATION.pdfFORENSIC CHEMISTRY ARSON INVESTIGATION.pdf
FORENSIC CHEMISTRY ARSON INVESTIGATION.pdf
 
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...
Harry Coumnas Thinks That Human Teleportation is Possible in Quantum Mechanic...
 
Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic LakeWaterConditionsinGale...
Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic  LakeWaterConditionsinGale...Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic  LakeWaterConditionsinGale...
Manganese‐RichSandstonesasanIndicatorofAncientOxic LakeWaterConditionsinGale...
 
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPTHIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT  INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
HIV AND INFULENZA VIRUS PPT HIV PPT INFULENZA VIRUS PPT
 
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdfTEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
TEST BANK for Organic Chemistry 6th Edition.pdf
 
Technical english Technical english.pptx
Technical english Technical english.pptxTechnical english Technical english.pptx
Technical english Technical english.pptx
 
A Scientific PowerPoint on Albert Einstein
A Scientific PowerPoint on Albert EinsteinA Scientific PowerPoint on Albert Einstein
A Scientific PowerPoint on Albert Einstein
 

Free radicals and reactive oxygen species

  • 1. Prepared by : Deepa Devkota Roll no :07 Human Biology 7th batch Free radicals and reactive oxygen species
  • 2. FREE RADICALS  highly reactive molecular species with an unpaired electron, persists only for very short duration(of the order of 10–9–10– 12 sec)  Collide with another molecule and either abstract or donate an electron to achieve stability
  • 3. Types of free radicals 1. Superoxide, O2 - 2. Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 3. Hydroxyl radical, OH- 4. Singlet oxygen, 1O2 5. Hydroperoxy radical, HOO- 6. Lipid peroxide radical, ROO- 7. Nitric oxide, NO- 8. peroxynitrite, ONOO-
  • 4. Antioxidants:the scavengers of free radicals  Present in low concentration that significantly delays or inhibits oxidation of substrate  antioxidant sacrifices itself by becoming oxidized,one antioxidant molecule can react with a single free radical
  • 5. Antioxidants 1. Enzymatic antioxidants Superoxide dismutase,catalase,glutathione peroxidase,glutathione reductase 2.Nutrient antioxidants β- carotene,α tocopherol,ascorbic acid 3.Metabolic antioxidants Bilirubin,uric acid,ceruloplasmin,ferritin,transferrin,al bumin,glutathione
  • 6. Reactive oxygen species  Major oxygen metabolites produced by one electron reduction of oxygen
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 9. Hydroxyl radicals are the most potent ROS
  • 10. Lipid peroxidation by hydroxyl radical
  • 11. Biological effects of free radicals  DNA: chemical changes that if not repaired can inherited to daughter cells  Proteins: Oxidative damage to sulfhydryl group and tyrosine residues in protein can lead to formation of oxygen radicals by non enzymatic reactions formation of proteins that are recognized as non self by immune system leading to cross reaction causing autoimmune diseases
  • 12. Biological effects of free radicals  Chemical modification of protein or lipids in plasma low density lipoprotein leads to abnormal LDL which arenot recognized by liver’s LDL receptors  Modified LDL is taken by macrophage scavenger receptor,forms lipid engorged macrophages(LEM), infiltrate under blood vessel endothelium  Killing of LEM by high content of unesterified cholesterol forming atherosclerotic plaques
  • 13. Free radicals and diseases  Respiratory diseases: destroy endothelium and cause lung edema Cigarette smoke contains free radicals and promotes the production of more free radicals  Diabetes mellitus: Destruction of islets results in pathogenesis  Cataract  Male infertility: reduce sperm motility and viability  Ageing process  Others:  Parkinson’s disease  Alzheimer’s disease  multiple sclerosis, liver cirrhosis
  • 14.
  • 15.
  • 16. REFERENCES  Harper’s illustrated biochemistry,28th edition  Marks Dawn B. ,basic medical biochemistry, a clinical approach  sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0891584900 002525(retrieved on 17th january,2015)  slideshare.net/guest371c9f/free-radicals(retrieved on 15th january 2015)