regulation mrna glutathione trna medical biochemistry assessment methods teaching-learning methods lipids uric acid glutathione peroxidase nucleotides ada deficiency rrna de novo synthesis bile salts acidosis starvation nitric oxide glycogenic amino acids mhc genes tcr diversity t cell receptor antigen-presenting cells helper t cells suppressor t cells interleukins cytotoxic t cells cd4 lymphokines opsonization epitope complement activation adaptive immunity primary response innate immunity neutralization paratope antibody diversity hormones classification coenzymes competitive and non-competitive inhibition mechanism of action isoenzymes enzymes peptide bond ceruloplasmin vitamin e vitamin a ascorbic acid dna ethics committee publication of outcome compensation reimbursement informed consent icmr guidelines council for international orga belmont report helsinki declaration nuremberg code ethical principles intellectual honesty moral philosophy thesis dissertation authorship abstract references discussion results materials and methods introduction manuscript journals research article use of statistics pico format scientific method reseach question hypothesis chemistry mcqs chemistry of carbohydrates mcq memory t cells cytokines granulysin granzyme perforin cd3 complex cd8 peptide binding cleft mhc ii proteins mhc i proteins class switching gene re-arrangement antigen-binding sites variable region constant region light chains heavy chains immunoglobulins b lymphocytes antigen pathogens domains communication attitude skill knowledge specific learning objectives professional life-long learner leader communicator clinician competency-based medical education medical council of india slideshare best practices linkedin social media sites community of practice updating teachers technology in education curricular innovations respiratory acidosis renal regulation respiratory regulation ph buffers anion gap metabolic alkalosis metabolic acidosis respiratory alkalosis alkalosis therapeutic enzymes diagnostic enzymes covalent modification repression induction allosteric nomenclature cofactors polar and nonpolar ninhydrin edman's reaction sanger's reaction disluphide bond amphoteric isoelectric ph essential amino acids alpha-amino acids l-amino acids d-amino acids amino acids orotic acid ctp tmp ump hgprt gmp amp inosine monophosphate prpp salvage cancer oxidative phosphorylation atp acid-base balance xenobiotics immunochemistry nutrition metabolism minerals vitamins rna carbohydrates proteins cell small mitochondria-derived activators of caspases intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway fas-associated death domain tnfr-1 tnf fas-fasl binding extrinsic (extracellular) pathway effector caspases initiator caspases apoptotic caspases pro-inflammatory caspases p53 gene g2/m checkpoint g1/s checkpoint cyclin-dependent kinases cyclins gap2 (g2) phase synthetic (s) phase gap1 (g1) phase mitotic (m) phase retinoblastoma brca-1 gene rb 1 gene p 53 gene philadelphia chromosome burkitt’s lymphoma growth factors oncoviruses ames assay carcinogens lymphoma leukaemia sarcoma carcinoma metástasis malignant tumours benign tumours anti-oncogenes oncogenes proto-oncogenes strimvelis glybera recombinant aav adeno-associated virus retroviral vectors human genome project recombinant proteins severe combined immunodeficiency disease (scid) expression vectors gene therapy knock-out animals transgenic animals dna finger-printing variable number of tandem repeats (vntr) restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) cdna library genomic library mapping of genomes polymerase chain reaction (pcr) western blotting northern blotting southern blotting cloning vectors bacterial artificial chromosome yeast artificial chromosome bacteriophages cosmids plasmids cloning taq polymerase dideoxynucleotides sanger’s method maxam-gilbert method dna sequencing blunt ends sticky ends palindromic restriction endonucleases pre-mirna primary mirna guide strand argonaute proteins risc rna-induced silencing complex dicer double-stranded rna micro rna sirna small interfering rna gene silencing streptomycin chloramphenicol erythromycin tetracyclines translation signal hypothesis ribosomes protein targeting protein folding post-translational modifications gene expression charging of trna chaperone proteins antibiotics favism primaquin quinacrine haemolysis ribose nadph g-6-pd glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase non-oxidative phase of hmp shunt oxidative phase of hmp shunt direct oxidative pathway phosphogluconate oxidative pathway pentose phosphate pathway carotenes selenium vitamin c exogenous anti-oxidants cytochrome c catalase glutathione reductase superoxide dismutase endogenous anti-oxidants redox signaling superoxide radicals hydroxyl radical oxidative stress free radicals anti-smooth muscle antibody anti-nuclear antibody anti-mitochondrial antibody bromsulphthalein test hippuric acid test galactose tolerance test blood ammonia ggt ldh sgpt sgot serum enzymes prothrombin time serum proteins and albumin:globulin ratio urobilinogen in urine bile salts in urine bile pigments in urine serum bilirubin viral hepatitis jaundice azotaemia uraemia para-amino hippurate clearance dilution test concentration test phenolsulphonephthalein excretion test inulin clearance serum cystatin c microproteinuria creatinine clearance urea clearance serum creatinine serum urea urine examination tests of tubular function tests of glomerular function faecal elastase faecal fat exocrine pancreatic insufficiency cystic fibrosis trans-membrane conductance regulat mucoviscidosis fibrocystic disease of the pancreas cystic fibrosis sweat chloride serum lipase serum amylase acute pancreatitis trh stimulation test subclinical hypothyroidism post-partum thyroiditis hashimoto’s thyroiditis thyroperoxidase antibodies hypothyroidism hyperthyroidism radioactive iodine uptake thyrotropin-releasing hormone thyroid-stimulating hormone thyroxine tetra-iodo-thyronine tri-iodo-thyronine di-iodo-tyrosine mono-iodo-tyrosine body mass index obesity marasmus kwashiorkor nutritional disorders balanced diet fibre protein efficiency ratio net protein utilization biological value digestibility coefficient specific dynamic action basal metabolic rate respiratory quotient calorimetry calorific value calorie 5% gdw isotonic saline intravenous fluids hypovolaemia ecf contraction and expansion diuretics water intoxication dehydration chloride potassium sodium oncotic pressure osmolality interstitial fluid extracellular fluid intracellular fluid chloride shift hyperkalaemia hypokalaemia sodium-potassium pump hypernatraemia hyponatraemia hypocalcaemia hypercalcaemia calcitriol dihydroxycholecalciferol ionized calcium skeletal fluorosis dental fluorosis kashin-beck disease keshan disease selenocysteine menkes’ disease wilson’s disease haemosiderosis haemochromatosis iron deficiency hepcidin ferroportin transferrin haemosiderin ferritin inherited disorders of birubin metabolism conjugated bilirubin unconjugated bilirubin obstructive jaundice hepatic jaundice haemolytic jaundice hepatic porphyrias erythropoietic porphyrias myoglobin sickle cell disease thalassaemia haemoglobin s ala synthetase protoporphyrin pyrrole cyp deficiency cyp inhibition cyp induction conjugation methylation reduction oxidation hydrolysis hydroxylation cytochrome p-450 anticancer drugs antiviral drugs nucleosides deoxyribose ribode thymine uracil cytosine guanine adenine pyrimidine bases purine bases allopurinol orotic aciduria lesch-nyhan syndrome primary gout hershey and chase wilkins and franklin chargaff base-pairing rule watson and crick rna-dependent dna polymerase reverse transcription norfloxacin telomerase dna topoisomerase ii replication bubbles dna gyrase dna ligase primase single strand binding (ssb) protein rep protein helicase okazaki fragment rna primer dna polymerase lagging strand leading strand replication fork origin of replication thymine dimers gatc non-homologous end joining homologous recombination xeroderma pigmentosum ionizing radiation ultaviolet light double strand break repair mismatach repair nucleotide excision repair base excision repair hnrna rifampicin inhibition of transcription splicing exons introns post-transcriptional processing rho factor sigma factor core enzyme promoters eukaryotic transcription prokaryotic transcription emulsification amphipathic pancreatic lipase salivary lipase esterified cholesterol phospholipids triglycerides activation of fatty acids refsum's disease carnitine omega-oxidation beta-oxidation alpha-oxidation synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids synthesis of arachidonic acid multienzyme complex microsomal elongation of fatty acids fatty acid synthase extramitochondrial fatty acids synthesis acyl carrier protein acetyl coa carboxylase adipose tissue adipocytes 2-monoacylglycerol lipoprotein lipase hormone-sensitive lipase thiokinase phosphatidic acid diacylglycerol glycerol kinase platelet activating factor phospholipases plasmalogens phosphatidyl serine phosphatidyl inositol lung surfactant lipotropic factors lecithin fatty liver cephalin cirrhosis cardiolipin hypocholesterolaemic drugs coronary risk factors cad bile acids regulation of cholesterol synthesis serum cholesterol hmg coa reductase tangier disease hyperlipoproteinaemia hypolipoproteinaemia apoproteins hdl ldl vldl cm niemann-pick disease krabbe's disease gaucher's disease tay-sachs disease metachromatic leukodystrophy sphingolipidoses gangliosides sulphatides cerebrosides sphingomyelin regulation of ketogenesis diabetes ketosis oxidation of ketone bodies ketogenesis acetoacetate beta-hydroxybtyrate acetone monteleukast. phenylbutazone corticosteroids aspirin lipo-oxygenase cyclo-oxygenase leukotrienes thromboxanes prostaglandins glycogenolysis glycogenesis gluconeogenesis hmp shunt glycolysis glucose transporters facilitated diffusion active transport sucrase maltase lactase amylase bpg shunt allosteric regulation anaerobic aerobic hexokinase glucokinase oxidative phase splitting phase priming phase embden-meyerhof pathway fructose-2.6-biphosphate regulatory mechanisms glycerol lactate gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-alanine cycle cori cycle energy barriers protein kinase a debranching enzyme phosphorylase branching enzyme glycogen synthetase glycogen primer udp-glucose glucose glycogen sorbitol glucosamine uronic acid pathway aldolase b deficiency fructokinase deficiency galactokinase galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase phosphorylase kinase deficiency tarui’s disease her’s disease mcardle’s disease andersen’s disease cori’s disease pompe’s disease von gierke’s disease hba1c renal glycosuria alimentary glycosuria diabetes mellitus glucose tolerance test endocrine system liver fasting blood glucose melatonin serotonin melanin catecholamines creatine ketogenic amino acids amino acid pool nitrogen equilibrium hartnup disease histidinaemia albinism tyrosinaemia alkaptonuria phenylketonuria homocystinuria cystinuria maple syrup urine disease (msud) primary hyperoxaluria inborn errors of urea cycle hepatic encephalopathy ammonia intoxication urea cycle ureotelic aids mhc proteins self-tolerance t cells hiv auto-immune diseases immunodeficiency anergy negative selection posive selection classes of immunoglobulins allergy antigens idiotypes structure of immunoglobulins allotypes class swithing monoclonal antibodies isotypes acquired immunity haptens receptors second messengers clia elisa ria assay g-proteins eia signal transducers enzyme assay enzyme regulation allosteric enzymes enzymes as drugs double reciprocal plot michaelis-menten equation iub nomenclature diagnostic importance of enzymes cholesterol phospholipids membranes fatty acids gl tests for carbohydrates mutarotation stereoisomerism chromatography electrophoresis primary structure disulphide bond alpha-helix quaternary structure tertiary structure beta-sheet fractionation denaturation secondary structure hydrogen bond colloid osmotic pressure albumin alpha1-antitrypsin haemopexin globulins haptoglobin fibrinogen alpha-fetoprotein cell membrane mitochondria nucleus ribosomes activ ph buffers acid-base balance respiratory acidosis deficiencies functions structures rickets requirements vitamin k vitamin d sources osteomalacia toxicity riboflavin megaloblastic anaemia rda deficiency cobalamin pantothenic acid thiamin subacute combined degeneration pellagra dietary sources scurvy pernicious anaemia biotin folic acid pyridoxine niacin beriberi partially acceptable mutations mis-sense mutations point mutations codons frameshift mutations nonsense mutations acceptable mutations silent mutations genes unacceptable mutations alternative splicing transcriptional control post-transcriptional control zinc finger mrna stability lac operon jacob and monod leucine zipper helix-turn-helix redox potential nirenberg unambiguity protein synthesis khorana universality ochoa nonsense codons degeneracy crick punctuationless codon anticodón tca cycle reactions energetics krebs cycle pyruvate importance acetyl coa amphibolic monosachharides disachharides polysachharides atp respiratory chain high-energy compounds
See more