SlideShare a Scribd company logo
ROLE OF FREE RADICAL
ANTIOXDANT IN HUMAN
Shruti gautam
Vidya bharati college of pharmacy
 Free Radical’ is an especially reactive atom or group of atoms that has one or more unpaired
electrons; especially : one that is produced in the body by natural biological processes or
introduced from an outside source (such as tobacco smoke, toxins, or pollutants) and that can
damage cells, proteins, and DNA by altering their chemical structure
 Free Radicals are very short-lived, with half-lives in milli-, micro- or nanoseconds
FREE RADICAL
 Mitochondria-the intracellular powerhouse which produces the
universal energy molecules Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) normally
consume oxygen in the process and convert it to water
.
GENERATION OF FREE RADICAL
 Oxygen free radicals occur just by breathing but excessive
amounts of these free radicals occur when we are exposed
to air pollution and cigarette smoke.
 Secondly, white blood cells destroy parasites, bacteria, and
viruses by using oxidants (free radicals) such as nitric
oxide, Superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide. This is done by
the release of free radicals to destroy invading pathogenic
microbes as part of the body’s defense mechanism against
diseases but with electrons unhinged, free radicals roam
the body wreaking havoc
 cellular components called peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a
by-product of the degradation of fatty acids and other molecules. In
contrast to the mitochondria which oxidizes fatty acids to produce ATP and
water, peroxisomes oxidize fatty acids to produce heat and hydrogen
peroxide. The peroxide is then degraded by an enzymatic antioxidant called
catalase.
 an enzyme in the cells called cytochrome P450 is one of the body’s primary
defenses against toxic chemicals ingested with food. The induction of these
enzymes to prevent damage by toxic foreign chemicals like drugs and
pesticides also result in the production of oxidant by-products. Virtually all
organs and tissues in the body are under constant attack by these free
radicals behaving like biological terrorists ripping through our bodies and
they need to be stopped quickly. To prevent free radical damage, the body
has a defense system called antioxidants
 Reactive oxygen species
 Radicals derived from oxygen represent the most important
class of radical species generated in living systems.
Molecular oxygen (dioxygen) has a unique electronic
configuration and is itself a radical. The addition of one
electron to dioxygen forms the superoxide anion radical
(O2•−). Superoxide anion, arising either through metabolic
processes or following oxygen “activation” by physical
irradiation, is considered the “primary” ROS, and can further
interact with other molecules to generate “secondary” ROS,
either directly or prevalently through enzyme- or metal-
catalyzed processes
REACTIVE SPECIES
 Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)
 NO• is a small molecule that contains one unpaired electron
on the antibonding 2π orbital and is, therefore, a radical. NO•
is generated in biological tissues by specific nitric oxide
synthases (NOSs), which metabolize arginine to citrulline
with the formation of NO• via a five-electron oxidative
reaction.Nitric oxide(NO•) is an abundant reactive radical
that acts as an important oxidative biological signaling
molecule in a large variety of diverse physiological processes,
including neurotransmission, blood pressure regulation,
defense mechanisms, smooth muscle relaxation and immune
regulation
REACTIVE SPECIES
REACTIVE SPEICE SYMBOL HALF LIFE REACTIVITY
Superoxide O2 10-6 s Generated in
mitochondria, in the
cardiovascular system
and others
Hydroxyl Radical OH 10-9 s Very highly reactive,
generated
during iron overload and
such conditions in our
body
Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 stable Formed in our body by
large
peroxide
number of reactions and
yields potent species
Reactive oxygen species
REACTIVE SPEICE SYMBOL HALF LIFE REACTIVITY
Peroxynitrite ONOO 10-3 s Formed from NO. and
superoxide, highly
reactive
Peroxynitrous ONOOH Protonated form of
ONOO- acid
Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)
 Superoxide- Ion Radical (O2 )
 Superoxide anion radical is the most important widespread ROS formed by the
enzymatic process, auto oxidation reaction and by a nonenzymatic electron
transfer reactions in which an electron is transferred to molecular oxygen
 O2 + e- → O 2
–
 O2 + Fe2+ →Fe+3 + O 2
- (auto-oxidation)
 Hydroxyl Radical (OH•)
 Hydroxyl radical is the neutral form of hydroxide ion and is a highly reactive
free radical. It can strongly react with both organic and inorganic molecules
including DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and cause severe damage to
the cells than any other ROS can do.
 Fe+2 + H2O2 →Fe+3 + OH (Fenton reaction)
 O2 + H2O2 → O2+ OH + OH - (Haber-Weiss reaction)
Properties of Some Free Radicals
 The ROS can be produced from either endogenous or exogenous
sources. The endogenous sources of ROS include different cellular
organs such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic
reticulum, where the oxygen consumption is high.
 Mitochondria
 Most of the intracellular ROS are derived from mitochondria. The
superoxide radicals are produced at two major sites in the electron
transport chain, namely complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) and
complex III (ubiquinone cytochrome c reductase). The transfer of
electrons from complex I or II to coenzyme Q or ubiquinone (Q)
results in the formation of a reduced form of coenzyme Q (QH2).
SOURCES OF FREE RADICAL
 Peroxisomes
 In peroxisomes, the respiratory pathway involves the transfer of
electrons from various metabolites to the oxygen leads to the H2O2
formation but is not coupled to oxidative phosphorylation to
produce ATP instead free energy is released in the form of heat. The
other free radicals produced in peroxisomes include H2O2, O2 •-
OH• and NO•.
SOURCES OF FREE RADICAL
 Endoplasmic Reticulum
 The enzymes of endoplasmic reticulum such as cytochrome p-450
and b5 enzymes and diamine oxidase con- a tribute to the formation
of ROS. Another important thiol oxidase enzyme, Erop1p catalyzes
thet ransfer of electrons from dithiols to molecular oxygen results in
the formation of H2O2.
SOURCES OF FREE RADICAL
 Free radicals perform many critical functions in our bodies in controlling the
flow of blood through our arteries, to fight infection, to keep our brain alert and
in focus.
 Phagocytic cells involved in body defense produce and mobilize oxygen free
radicals to destroy the bacteria and other cells of foreign matter which they
ingest.
 DEFENSIVE SYSTEM AGAINST FREE RADICAL
 All aerobic forms of life maintain elaborate anti-free-radical defense systems, also
known as antioxidant systems
 The human body has a natural antioxidant defense mechanism to counteract the FR
produced which when present at very low concentrations compared with those of an
oxidizable substrate, significantly delays or prevents oxidation of that substrate".
The word oxidizable substrate includes almost everything (except H2O) found in
foods such as oil and fat; in living tissues, it include carbohydrate, lipid , protein &
DNA
FREE RADICAL IN BENEFICAL ROLE & DEFENSIVE SYSTEM
AGAINST FREE RADICAL
FREE RADICALS AND HUMAN DISEASE
 Antioxidants are defined as the substances which protect cells from
reactive oxygen species, when present in low concentration inhibit
the oxidative stress, by oxidizing themselves.
ANTIOXIDANT
Antioxidant compound Food containing antioxidant
Vitamine C Fresh fruit and vegetables
Vitamine E Vegetable oil
Polyphenolic antioxidant Tea ,coffee ,soy ,fruits, olive oil
Carotenoids Fruits vegetable and egg
Natural antioxidant
 Butylated hydroxyanisole
 Butylated hydroxytoluene
 Propylgallate
Synthetic antioxidant
Thank you

More Related Content

What's hot

FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTSFREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
samiya shaik
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
Herat Soni
 
Antioxidants /endodontic courses
Antioxidants  /endodontic coursesAntioxidants  /endodontic courses
Antioxidants /endodontic courses
Indian dental academy
 
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidantsReactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Periowiki.com
 
Pharmacology of free radicals
Pharmacology of free radicalsPharmacology of free radicals
Pharmacology of free radicals
Shivam Diwaker
 
Antioxidants
AntioxidantsAntioxidants
Antioxidants
ssuserd509321
 
13. free radicals and antioxidants
13. free radicals and antioxidants13. free radicals and antioxidants
13. free radicals and antioxidants
Madhumita Sen
 
Antioxident
AntioxidentAntioxident
Antioxident
250812345
 
PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant
PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant
PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant
Naveen K L
 
Antioxidant medical
Antioxidant medicalAntioxidant medical
Antioxidant medical
Narveer Shekhawat
 
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
DRNEETHIRKRISHNAN
 
Free radical and antioxidants
Free radical and antioxidantsFree radical and antioxidants
Free radical and antioxidants
Dhiraj Trivedi
 
Non enzymatic antioxidants in human cells
Non enzymatic antioxidants in human cellsNon enzymatic antioxidants in human cells
Non enzymatic antioxidants in human cells
Ashutosh Vanaparthi
 
Nico wanandy unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skin
Nico wanandy   unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skinNico wanandy   unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skin
Nico wanandy unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skin
Nico Wanandy
 
Free radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidantsFree radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidants
Tri Nguyen
 
oxidative stress
oxidative stressoxidative stress
oxidative stress
shaily mehra
 
Free redical vs antioxident
Free redical vs antioxidentFree redical vs antioxident
Free redical vs antioxident
rakesh6132
 
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidantsFree radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
Dr Alok Bharti
 
Rajkumar new 2013 norma lpptm.0pdf
Rajkumar new  2013 norma lpptm.0pdfRajkumar new  2013 norma lpptm.0pdf
Rajkumar new 2013 norma lpptm.0pdf
Rajkumar Kirtania
 
Antioxidants
AntioxidantsAntioxidants
Antioxidants
Youssor mamdouh
 

What's hot (20)

FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTSFREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
FREE RADICALS & ANTIOXIDANTS
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
 
Antioxidants /endodontic courses
Antioxidants  /endodontic coursesAntioxidants  /endodontic courses
Antioxidants /endodontic courses
 
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidantsReactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
Reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidants
 
Pharmacology of free radicals
Pharmacology of free radicalsPharmacology of free radicals
Pharmacology of free radicals
 
Antioxidants
AntioxidantsAntioxidants
Antioxidants
 
13. free radicals and antioxidants
13. free radicals and antioxidants13. free radicals and antioxidants
13. free radicals and antioxidants
 
Antioxident
AntioxidentAntioxident
Antioxident
 
PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant
PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant
PPT on Protective Activity Of Certain Important Antioxidant
 
Antioxidant medical
Antioxidant medicalAntioxidant medical
Antioxidant medical
 
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
 
Free radical and antioxidants
Free radical and antioxidantsFree radical and antioxidants
Free radical and antioxidants
 
Non enzymatic antioxidants in human cells
Non enzymatic antioxidants in human cellsNon enzymatic antioxidants in human cells
Non enzymatic antioxidants in human cells
 
Nico wanandy unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skin
Nico wanandy   unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skinNico wanandy   unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skin
Nico wanandy unsw mechanism of antioxidant for the skin
 
Free radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidantsFree radicals antioxidants
Free radicals antioxidants
 
oxidative stress
oxidative stressoxidative stress
oxidative stress
 
Free redical vs antioxident
Free redical vs antioxidentFree redical vs antioxident
Free redical vs antioxident
 
Free radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidantsFree radicals and antioxidants
Free radicals and antioxidants
 
Rajkumar new 2013 norma lpptm.0pdf
Rajkumar new  2013 norma lpptm.0pdfRajkumar new  2013 norma lpptm.0pdf
Rajkumar new 2013 norma lpptm.0pdf
 
Antioxidants
AntioxidantsAntioxidants
Antioxidants
 

Similar to Role of free radical antioxdant in human

antioxidant
antioxidantantioxidant
antioxidant
Ali Wafiq
 
Mock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Mock Teaching 2007-ANISMock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Mock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Saiful Irwan Zubairi
 
Reactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen speciesReactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen species
Vijay Apparaju
 
Oxidants and antioxidants
Oxidants and antioxidantsOxidants and antioxidants
Oxidants and antioxidants
Ramesh Gupta
 
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's diseaseOxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Mandeep Bhullar
 
ros [].pptx
ros [].pptxros [].pptx
ros [].pptx
SritamPadhan
 
free radicals and antioxidants.pptx
free radicals and antioxidants.pptxfree radicals and antioxidants.pptx
free radicals and antioxidants.pptx
DrManojAcharya1
 
Antioxidant
AntioxidantAntioxidant
Antioxidant
poojabhattji
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
Lekhan Lodhi
 
free radicals.pptx
free radicals.pptxfree radicals.pptx
free radicals.pptx
DrPrashantMJadav
 
Reactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen speciesReactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen species
Rupali Patil
 
Strategies to target mitochondria
Strategies to target mitochondriaStrategies to target mitochondria
Strategies to target mitochondria
Sergio Esteves Rebollo
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Anti oxidants in resp med
Anti oxidants in resp medAnti oxidants in resp med
Anti oxidants in resp med
Anusha Jahagirdar
 
Seminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
Seminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenseSeminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
Seminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
Mijail JN
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Oxidative stress
Vijay Singh
 
ROS and redox regulation
ROS and redox regulationROS and redox regulation
ROS and redox regulation
Hadia Azhar
 
Deleterious effects of RONS on biomolecules
Deleterious effects of RONS on biomoleculesDeleterious effects of RONS on biomolecules
Deleterious effects of RONS on biomolecules
Noor Lasheen
 
Antioxidants (1)
Antioxidants (1)Antioxidants (1)
Antioxidants (1)
Abhishek Kumar
 
antioxidants.ppt
antioxidants.pptantioxidants.ppt
antioxidants.ppt
Seema Bansal
 

Similar to Role of free radical antioxdant in human (20)

antioxidant
antioxidantantioxidant
antioxidant
 
Mock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Mock Teaching 2007-ANISMock Teaching 2007-ANIS
Mock Teaching 2007-ANIS
 
Reactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen speciesReactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen species
 
Oxidants and antioxidants
Oxidants and antioxidantsOxidants and antioxidants
Oxidants and antioxidants
 
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's diseaseOxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
Oxidative stress and Alzheimer's disease
 
ros [].pptx
ros [].pptxros [].pptx
ros [].pptx
 
free radicals and antioxidants.pptx
free radicals and antioxidants.pptxfree radicals and antioxidants.pptx
free radicals and antioxidants.pptx
 
Antioxidant
AntioxidantAntioxidant
Antioxidant
 
Free radicals
Free radicalsFree radicals
Free radicals
 
free radicals.pptx
free radicals.pptxfree radicals.pptx
free radicals.pptx
 
Reactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen speciesReactive oxygen species
Reactive oxygen species
 
Strategies to target mitochondria
Strategies to target mitochondriaStrategies to target mitochondria
Strategies to target mitochondria
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Oxidative stress
 
Anti oxidants in resp med
Anti oxidants in resp medAnti oxidants in resp med
Anti oxidants in resp med
 
Seminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
Seminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenseSeminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
Seminario 1 Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense
 
Oxidative stress
Oxidative stressOxidative stress
Oxidative stress
 
ROS and redox regulation
ROS and redox regulationROS and redox regulation
ROS and redox regulation
 
Deleterious effects of RONS on biomolecules
Deleterious effects of RONS on biomoleculesDeleterious effects of RONS on biomolecules
Deleterious effects of RONS on biomolecules
 
Antioxidants (1)
Antioxidants (1)Antioxidants (1)
Antioxidants (1)
 
antioxidants.ppt
antioxidants.pptantioxidants.ppt
antioxidants.ppt
 

More from ShrutiGautam18

Genotoxicity studies
Genotoxicity studiesGenotoxicity studies
Genotoxicity studies
ShrutiGautam18
 
Cell signaling
Cell signalingCell signaling
Cell signaling
ShrutiGautam18
 
Preclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activity
Preclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activityPreclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activity
Preclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activity
ShrutiGautam18
 
Neurotransmission
NeurotransmissionNeurotransmission
Neurotransmission
ShrutiGautam18
 
Angina
AnginaAngina
Coagualnts and Anticoagulant
Coagualnts and Anticoagulant Coagualnts and Anticoagulant
Coagualnts and Anticoagulant
ShrutiGautam18
 

More from ShrutiGautam18 (6)

Genotoxicity studies
Genotoxicity studiesGenotoxicity studies
Genotoxicity studies
 
Cell signaling
Cell signalingCell signaling
Cell signaling
 
Preclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activity
Preclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activityPreclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activity
Preclinical screening of new substance for pharmacological activity
 
Neurotransmission
NeurotransmissionNeurotransmission
Neurotransmission
 
Angina
AnginaAngina
Angina
 
Coagualnts and Anticoagulant
Coagualnts and Anticoagulant Coagualnts and Anticoagulant
Coagualnts and Anticoagulant
 

Recently uploaded

CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
rishi2789
 
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
 Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc. Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
Gokuldas Hospital
 
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptxPost-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
FFragrant
 
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptxTests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
taiba qazi
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxVestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
NephroTube - Dr.Gawad
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
rishi2789
 
OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1
OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1
OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1
KafrELShiekh University
 
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in AyurvedaEfficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Dr. Jyothirmai Paindla
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
rishi2789
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Jim Jacob Roy
 
Ketone bodies and metabolism-biochemistry
Ketone bodies and metabolism-biochemistryKetone bodies and metabolism-biochemistry
Ketone bodies and metabolism-biochemistry
Dhayanithi C
 
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic ApproachIntegrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Ayurveda ForAll
 
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India ListTop-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
SwisschemDerma
 
Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...
Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...
Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...
bkling
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
HongBiThi1
 
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of RespirationThe Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
MedicoseAcademics
 
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxEar and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore
 
Clinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa Central
Clinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa CentralClinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa Central
Clinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa Central
19various
 
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in IndiaTop Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
SwisschemDerma
 

Recently uploaded (20)

CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 6_Anti Malarial Drugs.pdf
 
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
 Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc. Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
Identifying Major Symptoms of Slip Disc.
 
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptxPost-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
Post-Menstrual Smell- When to Suspect Vaginitis.pptx
 
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptxTests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
Tests for analysis of different pharmaceutical.pptx
 
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxVestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Vestibulocochlear Nerve by Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.GawadHemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
Hemodialysis: Chapter 4, Dialysate Circuit - Dr.Gawad
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdfCHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 4_ANTI VIRAL DRUGS.pdf
 
OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1
OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1
OCT Training Course for clinical practice Part 1
 
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in AyurvedaEfficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
Efficacy of Avartana Sneha in Ayurveda
 
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
CHEMOTHERAPY_RDP_CHAPTER 2 _LEPROSY.pdf1
 
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdfOsteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
Osteoporosis - Definition , Evaluation and Management .pdf
 
Ketone bodies and metabolism-biochemistry
Ketone bodies and metabolism-biochemistryKetone bodies and metabolism-biochemistry
Ketone bodies and metabolism-biochemistry
 
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic ApproachIntegrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
Integrating Ayurveda into Parkinson’s Management: A Holistic Approach
 
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India ListTop-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
Top-Vitamin-Supplement-Brands-in-India List
 
Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...
Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...
Part II - Body Grief: Losing parts of ourselves and our identity before, duri...
 
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấuK CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
K CỔ TỬ CUNG.pdf tự ghi chép, chữ hơi xấu
 
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of RespirationThe Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
The Nervous and Chemical Regulation of Respiration
 
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptxEar and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
Ear and its clinical correlations By Dr. Rabia Inam Gandapore.pptx
 
Clinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa Central
Clinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa CentralClinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa Central
Clinic ^%[+27633867063*Abortion Pills For Sale In Tembisa Central
 
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in IndiaTop Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
Top Effective Soaps for Fungal Skin Infections in India
 

Role of free radical antioxdant in human

  • 1. ROLE OF FREE RADICAL ANTIOXDANT IN HUMAN Shruti gautam Vidya bharati college of pharmacy
  • 2.  Free Radical’ is an especially reactive atom or group of atoms that has one or more unpaired electrons; especially : one that is produced in the body by natural biological processes or introduced from an outside source (such as tobacco smoke, toxins, or pollutants) and that can damage cells, proteins, and DNA by altering their chemical structure  Free Radicals are very short-lived, with half-lives in milli-, micro- or nanoseconds FREE RADICAL
  • 3.  Mitochondria-the intracellular powerhouse which produces the universal energy molecules Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) normally consume oxygen in the process and convert it to water . GENERATION OF FREE RADICAL
  • 4.  Oxygen free radicals occur just by breathing but excessive amounts of these free radicals occur when we are exposed to air pollution and cigarette smoke.  Secondly, white blood cells destroy parasites, bacteria, and viruses by using oxidants (free radicals) such as nitric oxide, Superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide. This is done by the release of free radicals to destroy invading pathogenic microbes as part of the body’s defense mechanism against diseases but with electrons unhinged, free radicals roam the body wreaking havoc
  • 5.  cellular components called peroxisomes produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product of the degradation of fatty acids and other molecules. In contrast to the mitochondria which oxidizes fatty acids to produce ATP and water, peroxisomes oxidize fatty acids to produce heat and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide is then degraded by an enzymatic antioxidant called catalase.  an enzyme in the cells called cytochrome P450 is one of the body’s primary defenses against toxic chemicals ingested with food. The induction of these enzymes to prevent damage by toxic foreign chemicals like drugs and pesticides also result in the production of oxidant by-products. Virtually all organs and tissues in the body are under constant attack by these free radicals behaving like biological terrorists ripping through our bodies and they need to be stopped quickly. To prevent free radical damage, the body has a defense system called antioxidants
  • 6.
  • 7.  Reactive oxygen species  Radicals derived from oxygen represent the most important class of radical species generated in living systems. Molecular oxygen (dioxygen) has a unique electronic configuration and is itself a radical. The addition of one electron to dioxygen forms the superoxide anion radical (O2•−). Superoxide anion, arising either through metabolic processes or following oxygen “activation” by physical irradiation, is considered the “primary” ROS, and can further interact with other molecules to generate “secondary” ROS, either directly or prevalently through enzyme- or metal- catalyzed processes REACTIVE SPECIES
  • 8.  Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)  NO• is a small molecule that contains one unpaired electron on the antibonding 2π orbital and is, therefore, a radical. NO• is generated in biological tissues by specific nitric oxide synthases (NOSs), which metabolize arginine to citrulline with the formation of NO• via a five-electron oxidative reaction.Nitric oxide(NO•) is an abundant reactive radical that acts as an important oxidative biological signaling molecule in a large variety of diverse physiological processes, including neurotransmission, blood pressure regulation, defense mechanisms, smooth muscle relaxation and immune regulation REACTIVE SPECIES
  • 9. REACTIVE SPEICE SYMBOL HALF LIFE REACTIVITY Superoxide O2 10-6 s Generated in mitochondria, in the cardiovascular system and others Hydroxyl Radical OH 10-9 s Very highly reactive, generated during iron overload and such conditions in our body Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2 stable Formed in our body by large peroxide number of reactions and yields potent species Reactive oxygen species
  • 10. REACTIVE SPEICE SYMBOL HALF LIFE REACTIVITY Peroxynitrite ONOO 10-3 s Formed from NO. and superoxide, highly reactive Peroxynitrous ONOOH Protonated form of ONOO- acid Reactive nitrogen species (RNS)
  • 11.  Superoxide- Ion Radical (O2 )  Superoxide anion radical is the most important widespread ROS formed by the enzymatic process, auto oxidation reaction and by a nonenzymatic electron transfer reactions in which an electron is transferred to molecular oxygen  O2 + e- → O 2 –  O2 + Fe2+ →Fe+3 + O 2 - (auto-oxidation)  Hydroxyl Radical (OH•)  Hydroxyl radical is the neutral form of hydroxide ion and is a highly reactive free radical. It can strongly react with both organic and inorganic molecules including DNA, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates and cause severe damage to the cells than any other ROS can do.  Fe+2 + H2O2 →Fe+3 + OH (Fenton reaction)  O2 + H2O2 → O2+ OH + OH - (Haber-Weiss reaction) Properties of Some Free Radicals
  • 12.  The ROS can be produced from either endogenous or exogenous sources. The endogenous sources of ROS include different cellular organs such as mitochondria, peroxisomes, and endoplasmic reticulum, where the oxygen consumption is high.  Mitochondria  Most of the intracellular ROS are derived from mitochondria. The superoxide radicals are produced at two major sites in the electron transport chain, namely complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) and complex III (ubiquinone cytochrome c reductase). The transfer of electrons from complex I or II to coenzyme Q or ubiquinone (Q) results in the formation of a reduced form of coenzyme Q (QH2). SOURCES OF FREE RADICAL
  • 13.
  • 14.  Peroxisomes  In peroxisomes, the respiratory pathway involves the transfer of electrons from various metabolites to the oxygen leads to the H2O2 formation but is not coupled to oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP instead free energy is released in the form of heat. The other free radicals produced in peroxisomes include H2O2, O2 •- OH• and NO•. SOURCES OF FREE RADICAL
  • 15.
  • 16.  Endoplasmic Reticulum  The enzymes of endoplasmic reticulum such as cytochrome p-450 and b5 enzymes and diamine oxidase con- a tribute to the formation of ROS. Another important thiol oxidase enzyme, Erop1p catalyzes thet ransfer of electrons from dithiols to molecular oxygen results in the formation of H2O2. SOURCES OF FREE RADICAL
  • 17.
  • 18.  Free radicals perform many critical functions in our bodies in controlling the flow of blood through our arteries, to fight infection, to keep our brain alert and in focus.  Phagocytic cells involved in body defense produce and mobilize oxygen free radicals to destroy the bacteria and other cells of foreign matter which they ingest.  DEFENSIVE SYSTEM AGAINST FREE RADICAL  All aerobic forms of life maintain elaborate anti-free-radical defense systems, also known as antioxidant systems  The human body has a natural antioxidant defense mechanism to counteract the FR produced which when present at very low concentrations compared with those of an oxidizable substrate, significantly delays or prevents oxidation of that substrate". The word oxidizable substrate includes almost everything (except H2O) found in foods such as oil and fat; in living tissues, it include carbohydrate, lipid , protein & DNA FREE RADICAL IN BENEFICAL ROLE & DEFENSIVE SYSTEM AGAINST FREE RADICAL
  • 19. FREE RADICALS AND HUMAN DISEASE
  • 20.  Antioxidants are defined as the substances which protect cells from reactive oxygen species, when present in low concentration inhibit the oxidative stress, by oxidizing themselves. ANTIOXIDANT
  • 21.
  • 22. Antioxidant compound Food containing antioxidant Vitamine C Fresh fruit and vegetables Vitamine E Vegetable oil Polyphenolic antioxidant Tea ,coffee ,soy ,fruits, olive oil Carotenoids Fruits vegetable and egg Natural antioxidant
  • 23.  Butylated hydroxyanisole  Butylated hydroxytoluene  Propylgallate Synthetic antioxidant