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Enterprise Architecture
An Introduction from the Real World
Daljit Roy Banger MSc FBCS24th April 2017
Hosted By
Deloitte
• Introduction / Context
• A Quick Introduction
• Products of Enterprise Architecture
▪ The Role / Responsibilities
• Q&A
Agenda
Open Groups
TOGAF Framework
Zachman Framework™
MODAF
Federal Enterprise Architecture
Framework (FEAF)
Public Architectural Frameworks
ETOM (Enhanced
Telecom Operations
Map
Numerous Frameworks exist which
provide views, approaches and
general support to help deliver /
manage an Enterprise Architecture
Capability
▪ Enterprise Architecture supports how one builds a reusable
Unified Information Systems/Management Capability that
supports and meets Organisational needs.
▪ The EA Goal is to Align and Manage the Technology
landscape of an Organisation with its Strategic /
Operational Goals/Objectives for both today and tomorrow.
Food for Thought …
▪ Enterprise Architecture is NOT Enterprise Systems
Architecture.
▪ Enterprise Architecture is NOT a methodology for building a
stand-alone single information system.
A Quick Introduction
The Stack – (BOM to Technology Mapping)
Each layer in the Stack can be further decomposed, with each layer pushing or consuming to the layer above and below.
The Stack (Methods/Questions)
Each layer of the Stack is a complex view in its own right of a specific
element of how the layer above and below maps and interacts to support
the Business Operating Model
What are the tools available to us to analyse, visualise and render to
stakeholders the alignment ?
The Stack (Points in time )
• What if a new piece of legislation is imposed by a Local, Central or
International body with which the organisation must comply?
➢ One such piece of legislation that is coming in 2018 is the General Data Protection
Regulation (GDPR)
• Full text of GDPR can be found at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data-
protection/reform/files/regulation_oj_en.pdf )
• “Do nothing” is not an option as GDPR significantly raises the stakes
in terms of compliance, with maximum penalties of 4% annual global
turnover or up to 20m Euros (whichever is higher).
• How do we ensure that we are compliant using an Enterprise
Architectural Approach and that we have factored most areas of our
technology estate to the problem?
• More info available at my blog :
https://dalbanger.wordpress.com/2017/03/18/general-data-protection-regulation-
gdpr-and-the-enterprise-technology-landscape/
Example Scenario
General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
Guidance
Consent
• freely given
?
Transparency
Profiling
High risk
processing
Certification
Administrative
fines
• 4% annual global
turnover or up to
20m Euros
(whichever is
higher).
Breach
notification
• where feasible,
within 72 hours of
becoming aware!
Data
transfers
Privacy by
Design
Impact of GDPR on the Enterprise / Actions
http:www.s-ea-t.com
CopyrightDaljitRBanger
Impact / Touchpoints
Data
Breach
Policy
Audit /
Trace
Reporting
Info
Exchange
Policies
Info
Processing
controls
refactoring
refactored
Controls
DR
Systems
Compliance
Procedures
Reporting
SQL Extracts
Audit
Privacy by
Design
principle
Products of Enterprise Architecture
The deliverables and attributes of
artefacts produced by the EA teams will
be directly influenced by one or all of the
following:
TheStructure/Sizeofthe
Organisation
Characteristicsofthe
Organisation
TheOperatingEnvironmentofthe
EnterpriseArchitecturePractice
Managementbuy-inofEnterprise
Architecture
SizeandBudgetAvailabletothe
Team.
TeamCapabilities
However , irrespective of the structure or capabilities of the team, all artefacts can be
classified into 1 of 3 domains
One size does not necessarily always fit all No two organisations/industries are ever identical
Abstract
•Notional
Models
•Views
Functional
Interactions /
Inter-
Relationships
Artifacts /
Components
Support /
Hygiene
Control
Governance –
Process
Boards –
Review,
Technical,
Business
Boards
Programme /
Project
Engagement
Business /
Partner
Engagements
Stakeholder
Management
Inform
Principles
Policies
Portfolio
Manageme
nt
Funding
Models
Reference
Models
• Technical
• ApplicationBest
Practices
Patterns
Impact
Assessmen
ts
Marketing
Plans
Standards /
Notations
Direct
Stakeholder
Engagement
Business
Architecture
Target
Definition
Application
Target
Architecture
Data &
Information
(Master Data
Management
Strategy)
Infrastructure
Target
Architecture –
Enabling
Technology &
Platforms
Roadmaps
(Product /
Technology)
Gap Analysis –
Transitional
States
Impact
Assessments
Service
promotion,
catalogue
etc…
Enterprise Architecture Products (Support/Enablers)
Enterprise Architecture - Example Product Matrix
Control Inform Direct Artefacts
x x x API Management
x x Governance – Process
x x Application - Target Architecture/s
x x Architectural Boards – (Review, Technical, Business Boards(Participation))
x x Architectural Principles - System, Process, Generic
x x x Best Practices Research / Promotion/ Socialisation
x x x Business Architecture Target Definition
x x x Data & Information (MDM Strategy), Journey from Data to Insights
x x x Financial / Funding Models (TCO, Investment Plans)
x x x Gap Analysis – New Solutions, Transitional States
x x x Group / System Policies (Sys Admin etc)
x x x Impact Assessments - Projects, Technologies, Solutions
x x x Infrastructure Target Architecture – Enabling Technology & Platforms
x x Reusable System Patterns (Dev, Integration etc.)
x x Portfolio Advisory
x x x Programme / Project Engagement
x x x Reference Models
x x x Technical / Application
x x x Roadmaps (Product / Technology)
x x x Service catalogue
Strategy (Product/technology, Deviation etc.)
x x x Service promotion Plans
x x x Stakeholder Engagement
x Stakeholder Management
x x Standards / Notations (Promotion of BPMN, UML, Archimate, etc.)
Principles
• Business
• This criteria element relates to
the promotion of enterprise wide
principles around the domain of
business processing, especially
business process modelling and
service design.
• Application
• Principles relating to the design,
build and deployment of
applications
• Information
• Principles linked with the
production, cleansing and
publishing of information
• Data
• Principles associated with data
design, usage, persistence etc.
• Infrastructure
• Principles associated with
selection, deployment,
management of the infrastructure
(data Centres, Servers storage,
network etc)
• Foundation Services.
• Foundation services relate to DR,
Security, Incident management
etc i.e. services that are core to
all of the above
Practices
• Business Operations
• Here Enterprise Architects should
be concerned with the practices
associated with capturing,
modelling and digitally executing
the business operations.
• Application Design
• I.e. delivery of designs of. Whilst,
practices adopted may based on
a specific methodology or
approach, the real question ‘ how
efficiently have we adopted the
practices of the approach and are
we meeting the business
demands based on this adoption
?’
• Application Build
• The maturity of the build of
applications both internal and
externally developed applications
should encapsulate test of
software unit, components etc
prior to build
• Governance
• Architectural Governance and the
teeth i.e. power of associated with
the various boards.
• Service Delivery
• The maturity of the practices i.e.
what actually happens during the
deployment, management of
systems on the technology
landscape.
• Support
• Whilst this is close to Service
Delivery it must be noted that we
should rank how effectively the
EA team deliver the support of its
artefacts
Process
• Business
• The engagement of the Enterprise
Architecture functions with the
Business Process Modelling and
Design functions and any
alignment activities.
• STP
• EA should facilitate a move
towards Straight Through
processing i.e. reducing the
number of digital and manual
process hand offs between
processes.
• Information
• The Information Architecture and
the associated process to capture,
manage and publish EA
information.
• Orchestration
• This relates to the processes
associated with orchestrating
business and technology services
• Production Acceptance
• The maturity of the processes
associated with deployment,
management of systems accepted
into the production environment.
• Documentation
• The maturity of document
production , publication and
promotion by the Enterprise
Architecture function
• 3rd Party Engagement
• How effectively does EA engage
with 3rd parties to maximise the
benefits to the organisation e.g.
cost reductions, savings etc
• Contribution to the Enterprise
• What is the general perception of
EA processes e.g. Governance
contributing real value to the
organisation from system users to
senior management?
Patterns
• Publications
• Does the organisation have a
patterns catalogue? How mature
is the organising in publishing it
patterns, do these publications
adopt standards for syntax,
notations etc
• Promotion
• How are patterns promoted
through the organisation, are they
rendered via an intranet? Or are
they in a document library
somewhere?
• Development
• How patterns are developed – are
they text book extracts or are
they developed with the various
technical communities?
• Usage
• Do the technical Communities use
these patterns to provide
efficiency gains to the
organisation?
• Application
• Application patterns are to be
found publically available and
thus should be exploited – do
your organisational developers for
example exploit published
patterns when constructing
applications.
• Infrastructure
• As with Applications above – Do
your Service delivery personal for
example use standard patterns
for system configurations
deployed into production.
• Security
• Security patterns are emerging as
a key in distributed systems – are
these in use ?, does the technical
community know of the existence
• Re-Use
• How often are patterns re-used if
at all and do we as an
organisation promote reuse.
Portfolio
Management
• Services
• Most Organisations have their
own definition of a Services the
EAM measure assumes a service
as a function that is well-defined,
self-contained, and does not
depend on the context or state of
other services. A service can be
either a business or technical
object.
• Application
• The portfolio of applications in an
Organisation can be a mix of
either bespoke or Commercial Off
the Shelf (COTS) either way the
life cycle should be managed in a
single unified location.
• Middleware
• Middleware could refer to
Enterprise Service Buses,
Messaging or even request
brokers – these should be
managed and in most cases the
interfaces to these systems.
• Storage
• Information and data object
persistence should be monitored
and managed, i.e. not be the
physical devices e.g. the NAS or
SANs etc.
• Servers
• The portfolio management of the
Physical Servers both in the
production and test
environments.
• Other Infrastructure
• Maturity of the portfolio
management of the Physical
devices e.g. network Switches,
laptops, etc.
• Techniques
• The techniques adopted to create,
capture and manage the
information required to measure
the level of maturity in the
management of the ‘artefact’
portfolio.
Products of Enterprise Architecture Contd..
Services/Touchpoints of Enterprise Architecture
The Role..
Mapping the Architect to The Stack/ SFIA Plus
Roles & Responsibility (EA)
• Strategic input into the technology roadmaps of the organisation –
shape, form and stabilise.
• Influence decision makers on technology investment – current & future
• Provide systems consultancy, guidance and assurance to large
programmes.
• Review and assure Solution Designs produced both internally and by 3rd
party suppliers.
• Ensure that governance mechanisms such as review boards, principles
etc. are maintained and supported.
• Police the standards through Project and Programme engagement.
• Represent the organisation with 3rd parties, for example Systems
Integrators and Standards Bodies.
• Understand the impact of the introduction of new technology into the
technology landscape of the organisation.
Enterprise Architects maintain the organisational abstract view, with a primary
objective to ensure that the technology landscape is aligned to the strategic,
operational and tactical goals of the organisation.
Roles & Responsibility (SA&TA)
Solution Architects work with/in Projects and
Programmes to provide systems consultancy services,
impact assessments, end-to-end designs, cost models..
Solution Architects work within the Projects and
Programmes to deliver the following architectural
services:
• Manage the ‘cradle to grave’ – from conception
through to delivery into production of solution
architectures.
• Design both the physical and logical components of
solution architectures that will deliver a positive
business outcome.
• Work with Project Managers to provide provisional
costs for the components of the architecture.
• Technical Analysis and Design capabilities
• Business and technical requirements capture, when
required
• Facilitate design workshops
• Validate designs / costs produced by 3rd parties
wishing to sell systems to the organisation.
Technical Architects deliver the lower level of technical
design, based on high-level component solution
designs and costs provided by the Solution Architects.
Technical Architects work with projects and the BAU
organisation to provide some of the following:
•Delivering technical designs and standards and the
associated approvals from the formal governance
channels.
•Understanding the technology estate and the
encapsulated technology components of the
organisation.
•Providing technical recommendations and options
based on solution designs which can cost-effectively be
realised in the production environment.
•Mitigating any technical risks that could occur through
the introduction of new technology into the landscape
of the organisation.
•Providing input into the appropriate innovation
funnels for the analysis of new technology.
•Keeping abreast of technology trends, attending
industry events to ensure product roadmaps are
understood by the Solution and Enterprise Architects.
•Ensuring that production acceptance for projects is
delivered and managed.
Final Note
• Enterprise Architecture is delivered in the context of the
Organisation – true value can not be realised by simply
following a single ‘Cook Book’ or Framework approach.
• Architectural Realisation is a way of thinking and not a
concrete technological implementation. It is however,
supported by frameworks, patterns & best practices that
complement the mindset.
• As an Enterprise Architect you must be aware of both the
technology landscape of your organisation and external
factors that can impact the landscape.
Website : www.s-ea-t.com (Tools, Papers Downloads)
Blog : https://dalbanger.wordpress.com/
Email : dal@s-ea-t.com
Thank You

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Enterprise Architecture - An Introduction from the Real World

  • 1. Enterprise Architecture An Introduction from the Real World Daljit Roy Banger MSc FBCS24th April 2017 Hosted By Deloitte
  • 2. • Introduction / Context • A Quick Introduction • Products of Enterprise Architecture ▪ The Role / Responsibilities • Q&A Agenda
  • 3. Open Groups TOGAF Framework Zachman Framework™ MODAF Federal Enterprise Architecture Framework (FEAF) Public Architectural Frameworks ETOM (Enhanced Telecom Operations Map Numerous Frameworks exist which provide views, approaches and general support to help deliver / manage an Enterprise Architecture Capability
  • 4. ▪ Enterprise Architecture supports how one builds a reusable Unified Information Systems/Management Capability that supports and meets Organisational needs. ▪ The EA Goal is to Align and Manage the Technology landscape of an Organisation with its Strategic / Operational Goals/Objectives for both today and tomorrow. Food for Thought … ▪ Enterprise Architecture is NOT Enterprise Systems Architecture. ▪ Enterprise Architecture is NOT a methodology for building a stand-alone single information system.
  • 6. The Stack – (BOM to Technology Mapping) Each layer in the Stack can be further decomposed, with each layer pushing or consuming to the layer above and below.
  • 7. The Stack (Methods/Questions) Each layer of the Stack is a complex view in its own right of a specific element of how the layer above and below maps and interacts to support the Business Operating Model What are the tools available to us to analyse, visualise and render to stakeholders the alignment ?
  • 8. The Stack (Points in time )
  • 9. • What if a new piece of legislation is imposed by a Local, Central or International body with which the organisation must comply? ➢ One such piece of legislation that is coming in 2018 is the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) • Full text of GDPR can be found at http://ec.europa.eu/justice/data- protection/reform/files/regulation_oj_en.pdf ) • “Do nothing” is not an option as GDPR significantly raises the stakes in terms of compliance, with maximum penalties of 4% annual global turnover or up to 20m Euros (whichever is higher). • How do we ensure that we are compliant using an Enterprise Architectural Approach and that we have factored most areas of our technology estate to the problem? • More info available at my blog : https://dalbanger.wordpress.com/2017/03/18/general-data-protection-regulation- gdpr-and-the-enterprise-technology-landscape/ Example Scenario
  • 10. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Guidance Consent • freely given ? Transparency Profiling High risk processing Certification Administrative fines • 4% annual global turnover or up to 20m Euros (whichever is higher). Breach notification • where feasible, within 72 hours of becoming aware! Data transfers Privacy by Design
  • 11. Impact of GDPR on the Enterprise / Actions http:www.s-ea-t.com CopyrightDaljitRBanger Impact / Touchpoints Data Breach Policy Audit / Trace Reporting Info Exchange Policies Info Processing controls refactoring refactored Controls DR Systems Compliance Procedures Reporting SQL Extracts Audit Privacy by Design principle
  • 12. Products of Enterprise Architecture
  • 13. The deliverables and attributes of artefacts produced by the EA teams will be directly influenced by one or all of the following: TheStructure/Sizeofthe Organisation Characteristicsofthe Organisation TheOperatingEnvironmentofthe EnterpriseArchitecturePractice Managementbuy-inofEnterprise Architecture SizeandBudgetAvailabletothe Team. TeamCapabilities However , irrespective of the structure or capabilities of the team, all artefacts can be classified into 1 of 3 domains One size does not necessarily always fit all No two organisations/industries are ever identical Abstract •Notional Models •Views Functional Interactions / Inter- Relationships Artifacts / Components Support / Hygiene
  • 14. Control Governance – Process Boards – Review, Technical, Business Boards Programme / Project Engagement Business / Partner Engagements Stakeholder Management Inform Principles Policies Portfolio Manageme nt Funding Models Reference Models • Technical • ApplicationBest Practices Patterns Impact Assessmen ts Marketing Plans Standards / Notations Direct Stakeholder Engagement Business Architecture Target Definition Application Target Architecture Data & Information (Master Data Management Strategy) Infrastructure Target Architecture – Enabling Technology & Platforms Roadmaps (Product / Technology) Gap Analysis – Transitional States Impact Assessments Service promotion, catalogue etc… Enterprise Architecture Products (Support/Enablers)
  • 15. Enterprise Architecture - Example Product Matrix Control Inform Direct Artefacts x x x API Management x x Governance – Process x x Application - Target Architecture/s x x Architectural Boards – (Review, Technical, Business Boards(Participation)) x x Architectural Principles - System, Process, Generic x x x Best Practices Research / Promotion/ Socialisation x x x Business Architecture Target Definition x x x Data & Information (MDM Strategy), Journey from Data to Insights x x x Financial / Funding Models (TCO, Investment Plans) x x x Gap Analysis – New Solutions, Transitional States x x x Group / System Policies (Sys Admin etc) x x x Impact Assessments - Projects, Technologies, Solutions x x x Infrastructure Target Architecture – Enabling Technology & Platforms x x Reusable System Patterns (Dev, Integration etc.) x x Portfolio Advisory x x x Programme / Project Engagement x x x Reference Models x x x Technical / Application x x x Roadmaps (Product / Technology) x x x Service catalogue Strategy (Product/technology, Deviation etc.) x x x Service promotion Plans x x x Stakeholder Engagement x Stakeholder Management x x Standards / Notations (Promotion of BPMN, UML, Archimate, etc.)
  • 16. Principles • Business • This criteria element relates to the promotion of enterprise wide principles around the domain of business processing, especially business process modelling and service design. • Application • Principles relating to the design, build and deployment of applications • Information • Principles linked with the production, cleansing and publishing of information • Data • Principles associated with data design, usage, persistence etc. • Infrastructure • Principles associated with selection, deployment, management of the infrastructure (data Centres, Servers storage, network etc) • Foundation Services. • Foundation services relate to DR, Security, Incident management etc i.e. services that are core to all of the above Practices • Business Operations • Here Enterprise Architects should be concerned with the practices associated with capturing, modelling and digitally executing the business operations. • Application Design • I.e. delivery of designs of. Whilst, practices adopted may based on a specific methodology or approach, the real question ‘ how efficiently have we adopted the practices of the approach and are we meeting the business demands based on this adoption ?’ • Application Build • The maturity of the build of applications both internal and externally developed applications should encapsulate test of software unit, components etc prior to build • Governance • Architectural Governance and the teeth i.e. power of associated with the various boards. • Service Delivery • The maturity of the practices i.e. what actually happens during the deployment, management of systems on the technology landscape. • Support • Whilst this is close to Service Delivery it must be noted that we should rank how effectively the EA team deliver the support of its artefacts Process • Business • The engagement of the Enterprise Architecture functions with the Business Process Modelling and Design functions and any alignment activities. • STP • EA should facilitate a move towards Straight Through processing i.e. reducing the number of digital and manual process hand offs between processes. • Information • The Information Architecture and the associated process to capture, manage and publish EA information. • Orchestration • This relates to the processes associated with orchestrating business and technology services • Production Acceptance • The maturity of the processes associated with deployment, management of systems accepted into the production environment. • Documentation • The maturity of document production , publication and promotion by the Enterprise Architecture function • 3rd Party Engagement • How effectively does EA engage with 3rd parties to maximise the benefits to the organisation e.g. cost reductions, savings etc • Contribution to the Enterprise • What is the general perception of EA processes e.g. Governance contributing real value to the organisation from system users to senior management? Patterns • Publications • Does the organisation have a patterns catalogue? How mature is the organising in publishing it patterns, do these publications adopt standards for syntax, notations etc • Promotion • How are patterns promoted through the organisation, are they rendered via an intranet? Or are they in a document library somewhere? • Development • How patterns are developed – are they text book extracts or are they developed with the various technical communities? • Usage • Do the technical Communities use these patterns to provide efficiency gains to the organisation? • Application • Application patterns are to be found publically available and thus should be exploited – do your organisational developers for example exploit published patterns when constructing applications. • Infrastructure • As with Applications above – Do your Service delivery personal for example use standard patterns for system configurations deployed into production. • Security • Security patterns are emerging as a key in distributed systems – are these in use ?, does the technical community know of the existence • Re-Use • How often are patterns re-used if at all and do we as an organisation promote reuse. Portfolio Management • Services • Most Organisations have their own definition of a Services the EAM measure assumes a service as a function that is well-defined, self-contained, and does not depend on the context or state of other services. A service can be either a business or technical object. • Application • The portfolio of applications in an Organisation can be a mix of either bespoke or Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) either way the life cycle should be managed in a single unified location. • Middleware • Middleware could refer to Enterprise Service Buses, Messaging or even request brokers – these should be managed and in most cases the interfaces to these systems. • Storage • Information and data object persistence should be monitored and managed, i.e. not be the physical devices e.g. the NAS or SANs etc. • Servers • The portfolio management of the Physical Servers both in the production and test environments. • Other Infrastructure • Maturity of the portfolio management of the Physical devices e.g. network Switches, laptops, etc. • Techniques • The techniques adopted to create, capture and manage the information required to measure the level of maturity in the management of the ‘artefact’ portfolio. Products of Enterprise Architecture Contd..
  • 19. Mapping the Architect to The Stack/ SFIA Plus
  • 20. Roles & Responsibility (EA) • Strategic input into the technology roadmaps of the organisation – shape, form and stabilise. • Influence decision makers on technology investment – current & future • Provide systems consultancy, guidance and assurance to large programmes. • Review and assure Solution Designs produced both internally and by 3rd party suppliers. • Ensure that governance mechanisms such as review boards, principles etc. are maintained and supported. • Police the standards through Project and Programme engagement. • Represent the organisation with 3rd parties, for example Systems Integrators and Standards Bodies. • Understand the impact of the introduction of new technology into the technology landscape of the organisation. Enterprise Architects maintain the organisational abstract view, with a primary objective to ensure that the technology landscape is aligned to the strategic, operational and tactical goals of the organisation.
  • 21. Roles & Responsibility (SA&TA) Solution Architects work with/in Projects and Programmes to provide systems consultancy services, impact assessments, end-to-end designs, cost models.. Solution Architects work within the Projects and Programmes to deliver the following architectural services: • Manage the ‘cradle to grave’ – from conception through to delivery into production of solution architectures. • Design both the physical and logical components of solution architectures that will deliver a positive business outcome. • Work with Project Managers to provide provisional costs for the components of the architecture. • Technical Analysis and Design capabilities • Business and technical requirements capture, when required • Facilitate design workshops • Validate designs / costs produced by 3rd parties wishing to sell systems to the organisation. Technical Architects deliver the lower level of technical design, based on high-level component solution designs and costs provided by the Solution Architects. Technical Architects work with projects and the BAU organisation to provide some of the following: •Delivering technical designs and standards and the associated approvals from the formal governance channels. •Understanding the technology estate and the encapsulated technology components of the organisation. •Providing technical recommendations and options based on solution designs which can cost-effectively be realised in the production environment. •Mitigating any technical risks that could occur through the introduction of new technology into the landscape of the organisation. •Providing input into the appropriate innovation funnels for the analysis of new technology. •Keeping abreast of technology trends, attending industry events to ensure product roadmaps are understood by the Solution and Enterprise Architects. •Ensuring that production acceptance for projects is delivered and managed.
  • 22. Final Note • Enterprise Architecture is delivered in the context of the Organisation – true value can not be realised by simply following a single ‘Cook Book’ or Framework approach. • Architectural Realisation is a way of thinking and not a concrete technological implementation. It is however, supported by frameworks, patterns & best practices that complement the mindset. • As an Enterprise Architect you must be aware of both the technology landscape of your organisation and external factors that can impact the landscape.
  • 23. Website : www.s-ea-t.com (Tools, Papers Downloads) Blog : https://dalbanger.wordpress.com/ Email : dal@s-ea-t.com Thank You