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DRY FLUE GASES LOSSES
IN BOILER

SHIVAJI CHOUDHURY

1
Challenges
 Rising fuel costs which in most of
power generating companies are
passed through to customer ,caught
the attention to regulating agencies.
 Regulating agencies are now paying
more attention to efficiency of power
plants.
2
BENEFIT -identification of losses








Efficiency increase
Green house gases emission decrease
Particulate emission reduction
Availability improvement
Reduction in O&M cost
Less capacity addition
Increase profitability
3
Boiler losses
 1.Moisture losses
 2.Dry flue gas losses
 3.Incomplete combustion
 4.Radiation losses

4
Dry Gas Losses ( excess air)
 Dry gas losses are those heat losses resulting
from the heating of combustion air and fuel
from ambient conditions to the temperature of
the flue gas leaving the unit .
 The magnitude of dry gas losses is directly
proportional to the excess airflow and to the
difference between the inlet air temperature
and the flue gas outlet temperature.
 Reducing these losses presents the greatest
potential for improving boiler efficiency .

5
Dry gas losses
 High excess air and lower heat
absorption in the boiler system can
cause exit gas temperature higher
than expected resulting dry gas loss.
 A 22 deg C rise in exit temperature
can rise the heat rate one percent.

6
LOSSES IN BOILER –Design (IN

)
210 MW THERMAL POWER PLANT( AS PER BS 2886)
at 100% TMCR 210 MW










DRY GASH2O AND H2 IN FUEL
H2O IN AIR
UNBURN CARBON
RADIATION
UNACCOUNTED
MANUFACTURER MARGIN
TOTAL LOSSES

PERCENT

5.1
6.16
0.15
1.2
0.22
0.53
1.00
14.36
7
LOSSES IN BOILER –Design (IN

PERCENT

DRY GASH2O IN FUEL
H2O FROM COMP OF H2
H2O IN AIR
UNBURN CARBON
RADIATION
UNACCOUNTED
TOTAL LOSSES

4.32
2.15
3.68
0.11
1.50
0.12
0.76
12.64

)
500 MW THERMAL POWER PLANT( AS PER BS 2886)
at 100% TMCR 500 MW










8
Cause of deviation
 Excess air, high O2 at boiler outlet .
 In leakage from bottom hopper air preheater/ESP
inlet door leakage /open
 In leakage from duct, expansion joints.
 Excess mill tempering air due to low mill temperature
 Incorrect operation of pre warming airpreheater inlet
air
 Air preheater bypass dampers open
 Poor mill performance
 Poor preheater efficiency- plugage/fouled;
corroded/eroded
 Oxygen measurement calibration
 Correct on of mills in service for given load
 Excess furnace draft (higher draft is worst for in
leakage )

9
Operator controllable









Reduce excess air
Ensure hopper ,slag ports etc closed tightly
Adjust mill primary air
Achieve design mill outlet temperature or
more
Proper soot blowing for air reheater
Proper operation of steam coil to prevent
fouling and corrosion
Proper soot blowing for boiler
Proper number of mills in service
10
Maintenance -correctable
 Repair expansion joints, door gaskets
on hoppers and preheater seals.
 Repair/replace preheater baskets.
 Mill maintenance.

11
Optimization Envelope

12
Plugging or fouling of APH
Plugging or fouling of preheaters can occur on the
hot side but is more common on the cold side where
moisture has formed due to reaching the dewpoint. In
addition to raising the exit gas temperatures, plugging
can lead to load reductions.
 Ensure proper soot blowing for preheater. Dry
superheated steam is normally used as a cleaning
medium.
 Periodic high pressure washing may be necessary if
the pressure drop across the preheater starts to limit
fan capability.


13
Air inleakage in boiler,preheater or
ducts
 Run O2 rise test on boiler to locate air inleakage and
make repairs.
 Air inleakage in the furnace, boiler ducts, expansion
joints, or preheater can adversely affect the heat
transfer, give false indications of percent O2, and
increase fan auxiliaries.
 Incoming oxygen rich air also tends to increase the
rate of acid deposition increasing the corrosion
potential.
 O2 readings should be taken at several locations
simultaneously to isolate cause of air in leakage.

14
Corrosion or erosion in Air
Preheater
 During the process of combustion, sulfur in the fuel is
converted to SO2 and depending on the excess air
available, part of the SO2 is converted to SO3. The
SO3 reacts with any water vapor present in the
preheater to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4).
 Ensure proper operation of steam coils or preheater
bypass damper to keep the preheater above dew
point temperature
 If steam coils are used, perform periodic inspections
for leaks which would increase water vapor to the
preheater
 Incoming oxygen-rich air, as a result of air in
leakage, tends to increase the rate of acid deposition,
increasing the corrosion potential.
15
Corrosion in ductwork and ID
fan
 The ductwork and ID fan housings have
suffered damage due to dewpoint corrosion.
 Taking into account the money spent on repairs
to ductwork and pattern of corrosion ,high
nickel alloy should used since it will afford a
good degree against corrosion and also
provide adequate resistance against
mechanical abrasion .
 If Carpenter 20(CN7M) is selected
,performance will increase the life of ductwork
by a factor of 8 as compared to carbon steel.
16
Air and flue gas system -500 MW
O2 at
APH
outlet

O2
at APH
Inlet

NOTEIncreased
O2 at
APH outlet
Due to
Leakages
In APH

17
Air Preheater- PAH & SAH

Leakage in
APH

18
Air Leakage in AirPreheater
 Air Leakage in APH %
90 * (CO2 in – CO2 out )
= --------------------------CO2 out
NOTE1.CO2 in – percentage CO2 at air preheater inlet
2.CO2 out- percentage CO2 at air preheater
outlet
19
AIR PRE HEATER

20
AIR PRE HEATER

21
LOSSES IN THERMAL POWER
PLANT IN INDIA

22
THANKING YOU

23

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Dry heat losses in boiler

  • 1. DRY FLUE GASES LOSSES IN BOILER SHIVAJI CHOUDHURY 1
  • 2. Challenges  Rising fuel costs which in most of power generating companies are passed through to customer ,caught the attention to regulating agencies.  Regulating agencies are now paying more attention to efficiency of power plants. 2
  • 3. BENEFIT -identification of losses        Efficiency increase Green house gases emission decrease Particulate emission reduction Availability improvement Reduction in O&M cost Less capacity addition Increase profitability 3
  • 4. Boiler losses  1.Moisture losses  2.Dry flue gas losses  3.Incomplete combustion  4.Radiation losses 4
  • 5. Dry Gas Losses ( excess air)  Dry gas losses are those heat losses resulting from the heating of combustion air and fuel from ambient conditions to the temperature of the flue gas leaving the unit .  The magnitude of dry gas losses is directly proportional to the excess airflow and to the difference between the inlet air temperature and the flue gas outlet temperature.  Reducing these losses presents the greatest potential for improving boiler efficiency . 5
  • 6. Dry gas losses  High excess air and lower heat absorption in the boiler system can cause exit gas temperature higher than expected resulting dry gas loss.  A 22 deg C rise in exit temperature can rise the heat rate one percent. 6
  • 7. LOSSES IN BOILER –Design (IN ) 210 MW THERMAL POWER PLANT( AS PER BS 2886) at 100% TMCR 210 MW         DRY GASH2O AND H2 IN FUEL H2O IN AIR UNBURN CARBON RADIATION UNACCOUNTED MANUFACTURER MARGIN TOTAL LOSSES PERCENT 5.1 6.16 0.15 1.2 0.22 0.53 1.00 14.36 7
  • 8. LOSSES IN BOILER –Design (IN PERCENT DRY GASH2O IN FUEL H2O FROM COMP OF H2 H2O IN AIR UNBURN CARBON RADIATION UNACCOUNTED TOTAL LOSSES 4.32 2.15 3.68 0.11 1.50 0.12 0.76 12.64 ) 500 MW THERMAL POWER PLANT( AS PER BS 2886) at 100% TMCR 500 MW         8
  • 9. Cause of deviation  Excess air, high O2 at boiler outlet .  In leakage from bottom hopper air preheater/ESP inlet door leakage /open  In leakage from duct, expansion joints.  Excess mill tempering air due to low mill temperature  Incorrect operation of pre warming airpreheater inlet air  Air preheater bypass dampers open  Poor mill performance  Poor preheater efficiency- plugage/fouled; corroded/eroded  Oxygen measurement calibration  Correct on of mills in service for given load  Excess furnace draft (higher draft is worst for in leakage ) 9
  • 10. Operator controllable         Reduce excess air Ensure hopper ,slag ports etc closed tightly Adjust mill primary air Achieve design mill outlet temperature or more Proper soot blowing for air reheater Proper operation of steam coil to prevent fouling and corrosion Proper soot blowing for boiler Proper number of mills in service 10
  • 11. Maintenance -correctable  Repair expansion joints, door gaskets on hoppers and preheater seals.  Repair/replace preheater baskets.  Mill maintenance. 11
  • 13. Plugging or fouling of APH Plugging or fouling of preheaters can occur on the hot side but is more common on the cold side where moisture has formed due to reaching the dewpoint. In addition to raising the exit gas temperatures, plugging can lead to load reductions.  Ensure proper soot blowing for preheater. Dry superheated steam is normally used as a cleaning medium.  Periodic high pressure washing may be necessary if the pressure drop across the preheater starts to limit fan capability.  13
  • 14. Air inleakage in boiler,preheater or ducts  Run O2 rise test on boiler to locate air inleakage and make repairs.  Air inleakage in the furnace, boiler ducts, expansion joints, or preheater can adversely affect the heat transfer, give false indications of percent O2, and increase fan auxiliaries.  Incoming oxygen rich air also tends to increase the rate of acid deposition increasing the corrosion potential.  O2 readings should be taken at several locations simultaneously to isolate cause of air in leakage. 14
  • 15. Corrosion or erosion in Air Preheater  During the process of combustion, sulfur in the fuel is converted to SO2 and depending on the excess air available, part of the SO2 is converted to SO3. The SO3 reacts with any water vapor present in the preheater to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4).  Ensure proper operation of steam coils or preheater bypass damper to keep the preheater above dew point temperature  If steam coils are used, perform periodic inspections for leaks which would increase water vapor to the preheater  Incoming oxygen-rich air, as a result of air in leakage, tends to increase the rate of acid deposition, increasing the corrosion potential. 15
  • 16. Corrosion in ductwork and ID fan  The ductwork and ID fan housings have suffered damage due to dewpoint corrosion.  Taking into account the money spent on repairs to ductwork and pattern of corrosion ,high nickel alloy should used since it will afford a good degree against corrosion and also provide adequate resistance against mechanical abrasion .  If Carpenter 20(CN7M) is selected ,performance will increase the life of ductwork by a factor of 8 as compared to carbon steel. 16
  • 17. Air and flue gas system -500 MW O2 at APH outlet O2 at APH Inlet NOTEIncreased O2 at APH outlet Due to Leakages In APH 17
  • 18. Air Preheater- PAH & SAH Leakage in APH 18
  • 19. Air Leakage in AirPreheater  Air Leakage in APH % 90 * (CO2 in – CO2 out ) = --------------------------CO2 out NOTE1.CO2 in – percentage CO2 at air preheater inlet 2.CO2 out- percentage CO2 at air preheater outlet 19
  • 22. LOSSES IN THERMAL POWER PLANT IN INDIA 22