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Common diseases of cattle
- in pathology view (in India)
Dr.Pavulraj. S
M.V.Sc., Scholar(NRCE)
Division of Pathology
Indian Veterinary Research
Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly,
U.P., India

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

1
List of common diseases
Bacterial diseases
• Tuberculosis
• Paratuberculosis
• Brucellosis
• Hemorrhagic septicemia
• Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis
Viral diseases
• Foot and mouth diseases
• Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis
• Rinderpest
Haemoprotozoan disease
• Theileriosis
Parasitic disease
• Fascioliasis
Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

2
Tuberculosis
• Chronic bacterial disease of animal
• Caused by Mycobacterium
tuberculosis, M.bovis
• Characterized by presence of tubercle nodules
in lungs, spleen, lymphnodes

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

3
Granuloma in the lungs

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

4
Consolidation of lung

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

5
Tuberculous granuloma in the
mediastinal lymph node

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

6
Nodules of tubercle present in lung
containing cheesy mass

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

7
Granulomatous lesion in LN, liver,
intestine

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

8
Spleen- Caseous nodules on the
surface

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

9
TB- Nodules on the diaphragm, liver
and spleen

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

10
Tubercle in
pleura, masentry, peritoneum – pearl’s
disease

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

11
Uterus -Endometrium contains
numerous raised tubercles

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

12
TB- Mastitis and granuloma in the
bone marrow

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

13
Differential diagnosis
• Lung abscesses
• Pleurisy and pericarditis - traumatic reticulitis
• Contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

14
Paratuberculosis
• A chronic bacterial disease of bovine, ovine
and caprine
• Caused by Mycobacterium avium sub sp.
paratuberculosis
• Characterized by
dehydration, emaciation, chronic diarrrhoea
and thickening of intestine - corrugations

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

15
Emaciation and cachexia

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

16
Mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

17
Thickened, edematous ileum and distended
lymphatics on the serosal surface

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (copy right protected)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

18
Thickening of intestine wall

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

19
Presence of corrugations

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

20
Corrugations can’t be removed even
after stretching of intestine wall – look
like brain

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

21
Differential diagnosis
• Parasitism
• Malnutrition

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

22
Brucellosis
• It is a infectious bacterial disease of animals
• Characterized by abortion in late gestation
and formation of granulomatous lesions in
genital organs, joints, fetal liver and
indurations of mammary glands
• Caused by Brucella abortus in cattle

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

23
Edematous placenta

yellowish granular necrotic areas in cotyledons
and chorion is opaque and thickened with a
leathery consistency. Called leathery placenta.

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
Necrosis
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

of cotyledons

24
Edema of fetus, serosanguinous fluid
in body cavities

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

25
Pneumonia and necrotic foci in liver of
fetus

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

26
Enlarged scrotum in males

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

27
Orchitis

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

28
Hygroma

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

29
Differential diagnosis
•
•
•
•
•

IBR
Vibriosis
Leptospirosis
Trichomoniasis
Nutritional and physiological causes

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

30
Hemorrhagic septicemia
• Highly contagious bacterial disease of bovine
• Characterized by edematous swelling in neck
region, pneumonia and wide spread of
hemorrhage in visceral organs
• Caused by Pasteurella multocida

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

31
Edema of neck and brisket region

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

32
Subcutaneous edema

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

33
Serosanguinous fluid in
peritoneal, pleural and pericardial
cavity

Serosanguinous fluid in pericardial cavity

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

34
Epicardial hemorrhages

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

35
HS- Petechial on the Heart and Lung

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

36
Pneumonia

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

37
Lungs – congested and consolidated –
marbling

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
- Fibrinous bronchopneumonia
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

38
HS- Hemorrhage on the serosal surface

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

39
Hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

40
HS- Chronic cases- Necrotic patch on
the liver

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

41
Hemorrhage - Brain

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

42
Differential diagnosis
•
•
•
•

Anthrax
Blackleg
Acute leptospirosis
Rinderpest

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

43
Foot and mouth
• It is a contagious viral disease of cloven footed
animals
• Caused by Picorna virus
• Characterized by presence of vesicles in oral
mucosa and foot

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

44
FMD: Mouth lesions

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

45
Ruptured vesicle in gum

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

46
Vesicles causing
extensive erosion in mouth

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

47
Infected FMD lesion - tongue

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

48
Ulceration of tongue

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

49
Rupture of vesicle leading to necrotic area in feet

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

50
Vesicle on teat

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

51
Ruptured vesicle in the teat

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

52
Erosions on the ruminal mucosa

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

53
Tigroid appearance - Degeneration
and necrosis in myocardium

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

54
Differential diagnosis
•
•
•
•
•

Vesicular stomatitis
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
Malignant catarrhal fever
Bovine viral diarrhea
Rinderpest

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

55
Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis
• Infectious viral disease of cattle
• Caused by Herpes virus
• Characterized by conjunctivitis, hemorrhagic
tracheitis, encephalitis in calves and abortion
and mastitis in cows

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

56
Congested mucus membrane

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

57
Purulent oculo-nasal discharge

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

58
Necrotic white plaques in nasal mucosa

Friday, October 18, 2013

Necrotic plaques on the mucosa and
mucocutaneous junction

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

59
Multifocal white plaques - palpebral
conjunctiva

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

60
Hemorrhagic laryngotracheitis

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

61
Rhinotracheitis, mucopurulent exudate
in trachea

Nasal septum necrosis
Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

62
Pustules in vulva/vagina, glans penis
and prepuce

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

63
Necrotic lesion in liver of aborted fetus

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

64
Differential diagnosis
•
•
•
•

Shipping Fever
Malignant Catarrhal Fever
Pinkeye
Mucosal Disease

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

65
Rinderpest
• Is a acute contagious viral disease caused by
Morbilli virus
• Characterized by erosive mouth lesions and
hemorrhagic enteritis
• Has been eradicated from India (25 -06-2006)

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

66
•Salivation:
excessive & frothy
•Serous oculonasal
discharge

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

67
Conjunctivitis

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

68
Necrosis and erosion of the gum above
the dental pad and inside the upper lip

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

69
Erosions in the inside of the upper lip

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

70
Ulcer on lower lip

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

71
Necrotic Peyer's patches

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

72
Rectum - Hyperemia of the
longitudinal folds (zebra striping)

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

73
Zebra marking in large intestine

Some time petechial hemorrhage in
Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Friday,bladder, vagina and other mucous membrane
October 18, 2013
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

74
Differential diagnosis
• Mucosal disease
• Malignant catarrhal fever
• Foot and mouth disease

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

75
Theileriosis
• Infectious disease of animal caused by
haemoprotozoan parasite
• Characterized by enlargement of lymph
nodes, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage in
kidneys and liver, ulcers in abomasum and
catarrhal enteritis
• Etiology – Theileria annulata

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

76
Lymph node enlargement

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

77
Enlarged and hemorrhagic lymph
nodes

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

78
Abomasal ulcers

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

79
Swollen edematous lungs & interstitial pneumonia

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

80
Other lesions
• Enlarged and mottled liver
• Infarcts, thrombosis and lymphoid
hypertrophy in spleen
• Hemorrhagic and ulcerative enteritis

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

81
Differential diagnosis
• Hemorrhagic septicemia
• Babesiosis
• Malignant catarrhal fever

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

82
Fascioliasis
• Fascioliasis is caused by different liver
flukes(Trematode)
• Etiology
– Fasciola gigantica
– Fasciola hepatica
– Fasciola magna - one of the largest of flukes

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

83
• Emaciated, anemic or edematous carcass in
severe chronic infestations
• Presence of flukes in enlarged and thickened
bile ducts and in the liver parenchyma
• Hepatic abscesses and secondary bacterial
infection
• Calcification of bile ducts
• Hemorrhagic tracts of migratory immature
flukes in the liver and some time lungs in an
acute infestation
• Icterus due to liver damage
Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

84
Submandibular edema

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

85
Flukes in bile ducts and liver
parenchyma

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

86
Thickening of bile duct

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

87
Young fluke of Fasciola magna

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

88
Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis
• Infectious disease of newborn animal
• Infection start at umbilicus and spread to
joints
• Characterized by swelling of umblilicus &
joints and drainage of pus
• Caused by
– E.coli
– Staphylococcus sp.,
– Actinomyces pyogenes
Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

89
• Seen in colostrum denied young calves
• Infection of umbilicus lead to omphalitis &
cystitis
• Bacterial infection produce bacteremia and
infect joints leading to arthritis
• Abscess formation and congestion of visceral
organs

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

90
Swelling of umbilicus

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

91
Swelling of the joints

Septic arthritis involving the distal
limb, fetlocks and pastern joints in all limbs

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

92
Discharge of pus from the joints

Large fibrin clots in the carpal joint
Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

Edematous, hyperemic
synovial membrane
93
Liver abscess

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

94
Grey foci in renal cortex and
hemorrhage in medulla

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

95
Differential diagnosis
• Hematoma – contain blood
• Umbilical hernia – hernial ring, sac, contents
• Patent urachus – retention of urine

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc.,
Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

96
Thank you
For your kind attention and
reading. Be the best and proud
to be a ‘Great

Veterinarian’

Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

97
References
• Color atlas of diseases and disorders of cattle
-Roger W.Blowey
• Rebhun’s Disease of dairy cattle
-Thomas J.Divers
• Veterinary pathology
-RS Chauhan
• http://compepid.tuskegee.edu
• http://www.fao.org
Friday, October 18, 2013

Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author)
M.V.Sc., Pathology
scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India

98

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Common cattle diseases by Dr.Pavulraj.S, M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI (NRCE), India

  • 1. Common diseases of cattle - in pathology view (in India) Dr.Pavulraj. S M.V.Sc., Scholar(NRCE) Division of Pathology Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly, U.P., India Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 1
  • 2. List of common diseases Bacterial diseases • Tuberculosis • Paratuberculosis • Brucellosis • Hemorrhagic septicemia • Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis Viral diseases • Foot and mouth diseases • Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis • Rinderpest Haemoprotozoan disease • Theileriosis Parasitic disease • Fascioliasis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 2
  • 3. Tuberculosis • Chronic bacterial disease of animal • Caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M.bovis • Characterized by presence of tubercle nodules in lungs, spleen, lymphnodes Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 3
  • 4. Granuloma in the lungs Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 4
  • 5. Consolidation of lung Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 5
  • 6. Tuberculous granuloma in the mediastinal lymph node Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 6
  • 7. Nodules of tubercle present in lung containing cheesy mass Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 7
  • 8. Granulomatous lesion in LN, liver, intestine Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 8
  • 9. Spleen- Caseous nodules on the surface Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 9
  • 10. TB- Nodules on the diaphragm, liver and spleen Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 10
  • 11. Tubercle in pleura, masentry, peritoneum – pearl’s disease Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 11
  • 12. Uterus -Endometrium contains numerous raised tubercles Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 12
  • 13. TB- Mastitis and granuloma in the bone marrow Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 13
  • 14. Differential diagnosis • Lung abscesses • Pleurisy and pericarditis - traumatic reticulitis • Contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 14
  • 15. Paratuberculosis • A chronic bacterial disease of bovine, ovine and caprine • Caused by Mycobacterium avium sub sp. paratuberculosis • Characterized by dehydration, emaciation, chronic diarrrhoea and thickening of intestine - corrugations Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 15
  • 16. Emaciation and cachexia Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 16
  • 17. Mesenteric lymph nodes enlarged Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 17
  • 18. Thickened, edematous ileum and distended lymphatics on the serosal surface Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (copy right protected) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 18
  • 19. Thickening of intestine wall Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 19
  • 20. Presence of corrugations Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 20
  • 21. Corrugations can’t be removed even after stretching of intestine wall – look like brain Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 21
  • 22. Differential diagnosis • Parasitism • Malnutrition Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 22
  • 23. Brucellosis • It is a infectious bacterial disease of animals • Characterized by abortion in late gestation and formation of granulomatous lesions in genital organs, joints, fetal liver and indurations of mammary glands • Caused by Brucella abortus in cattle Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 23
  • 24. Edematous placenta yellowish granular necrotic areas in cotyledons and chorion is opaque and thickened with a leathery consistency. Called leathery placenta. Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) Necrosis M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India of cotyledons 24
  • 25. Edema of fetus, serosanguinous fluid in body cavities Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 25
  • 26. Pneumonia and necrotic foci in liver of fetus Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 26
  • 27. Enlarged scrotum in males Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 27
  • 28. Orchitis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 28
  • 29. Hygroma Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 29
  • 30. Differential diagnosis • • • • • IBR Vibriosis Leptospirosis Trichomoniasis Nutritional and physiological causes Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 30
  • 31. Hemorrhagic septicemia • Highly contagious bacterial disease of bovine • Characterized by edematous swelling in neck region, pneumonia and wide spread of hemorrhage in visceral organs • Caused by Pasteurella multocida Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 31
  • 32. Edema of neck and brisket region Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 32
  • 33. Subcutaneous edema Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 33
  • 34. Serosanguinous fluid in peritoneal, pleural and pericardial cavity Serosanguinous fluid in pericardial cavity Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 34
  • 35. Epicardial hemorrhages Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 35
  • 36. HS- Petechial on the Heart and Lung Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 36
  • 37. Pneumonia Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 37
  • 38. Lungs – congested and consolidated – marbling Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) - Fibrinous bronchopneumonia M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 38
  • 39. HS- Hemorrhage on the serosal surface Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 39
  • 40. Hemorrhagic gastro-enteritis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 40
  • 41. HS- Chronic cases- Necrotic patch on the liver Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 41
  • 42. Hemorrhage - Brain Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 42
  • 43. Differential diagnosis • • • • Anthrax Blackleg Acute leptospirosis Rinderpest Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 43
  • 44. Foot and mouth • It is a contagious viral disease of cloven footed animals • Caused by Picorna virus • Characterized by presence of vesicles in oral mucosa and foot Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 44
  • 45. FMD: Mouth lesions Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 45
  • 46. Ruptured vesicle in gum Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 46
  • 47. Vesicles causing extensive erosion in mouth Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 47
  • 48. Infected FMD lesion - tongue Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 48
  • 49. Ulceration of tongue Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 49
  • 50. Rupture of vesicle leading to necrotic area in feet Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 50
  • 51. Vesicle on teat Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 51
  • 52. Ruptured vesicle in the teat Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 52
  • 53. Erosions on the ruminal mucosa Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 53
  • 54. Tigroid appearance - Degeneration and necrosis in myocardium Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 54
  • 55. Differential diagnosis • • • • • Vesicular stomatitis Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis Malignant catarrhal fever Bovine viral diarrhea Rinderpest Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 55
  • 56. Infectious bovine rhino tracheitis • Infectious viral disease of cattle • Caused by Herpes virus • Characterized by conjunctivitis, hemorrhagic tracheitis, encephalitis in calves and abortion and mastitis in cows Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 56
  • 57. Congested mucus membrane Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 57
  • 58. Purulent oculo-nasal discharge Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 58
  • 59. Necrotic white plaques in nasal mucosa Friday, October 18, 2013 Necrotic plaques on the mucosa and mucocutaneous junction Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 59
  • 60. Multifocal white plaques - palpebral conjunctiva Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 60
  • 61. Hemorrhagic laryngotracheitis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 61
  • 62. Rhinotracheitis, mucopurulent exudate in trachea Nasal septum necrosis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 62
  • 63. Pustules in vulva/vagina, glans penis and prepuce Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 63
  • 64. Necrotic lesion in liver of aborted fetus Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 64
  • 65. Differential diagnosis • • • • Shipping Fever Malignant Catarrhal Fever Pinkeye Mucosal Disease Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 65
  • 66. Rinderpest • Is a acute contagious viral disease caused by Morbilli virus • Characterized by erosive mouth lesions and hemorrhagic enteritis • Has been eradicated from India (25 -06-2006) Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 66
  • 67. •Salivation: excessive & frothy •Serous oculonasal discharge Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 67
  • 68. Conjunctivitis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 68
  • 69. Necrosis and erosion of the gum above the dental pad and inside the upper lip Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 69
  • 70. Erosions in the inside of the upper lip Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 70
  • 71. Ulcer on lower lip Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 71
  • 72. Necrotic Peyer's patches Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 72
  • 73. Rectum - Hyperemia of the longitudinal folds (zebra striping) Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 73
  • 74. Zebra marking in large intestine Some time petechial hemorrhage in Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Friday,bladder, vagina and other mucous membrane October 18, 2013 Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 74
  • 75. Differential diagnosis • Mucosal disease • Malignant catarrhal fever • Foot and mouth disease Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 75
  • 76. Theileriosis • Infectious disease of animal caused by haemoprotozoan parasite • Characterized by enlargement of lymph nodes, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage in kidneys and liver, ulcers in abomasum and catarrhal enteritis • Etiology – Theileria annulata Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 76
  • 77. Lymph node enlargement Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 77
  • 78. Enlarged and hemorrhagic lymph nodes Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 78
  • 79. Abomasal ulcers Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 79
  • 80. Swollen edematous lungs & interstitial pneumonia Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 80
  • 81. Other lesions • Enlarged and mottled liver • Infarcts, thrombosis and lymphoid hypertrophy in spleen • Hemorrhagic and ulcerative enteritis Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 81
  • 82. Differential diagnosis • Hemorrhagic septicemia • Babesiosis • Malignant catarrhal fever Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 82
  • 83. Fascioliasis • Fascioliasis is caused by different liver flukes(Trematode) • Etiology – Fasciola gigantica – Fasciola hepatica – Fasciola magna - one of the largest of flukes Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 83
  • 84. • Emaciated, anemic or edematous carcass in severe chronic infestations • Presence of flukes in enlarged and thickened bile ducts and in the liver parenchyma • Hepatic abscesses and secondary bacterial infection • Calcification of bile ducts • Hemorrhagic tracts of migratory immature flukes in the liver and some time lungs in an acute infestation • Icterus due to liver damage Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 84
  • 85. Submandibular edema Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 85
  • 86. Flukes in bile ducts and liver parenchyma Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 86
  • 87. Thickening of bile duct Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 87
  • 88. Young fluke of Fasciola magna Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 88
  • 89. Joint ill/ naval ill/ omphalitis • Infectious disease of newborn animal • Infection start at umbilicus and spread to joints • Characterized by swelling of umblilicus & joints and drainage of pus • Caused by – E.coli – Staphylococcus sp., – Actinomyces pyogenes Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 89
  • 90. • Seen in colostrum denied young calves • Infection of umbilicus lead to omphalitis & cystitis • Bacterial infection produce bacteremia and infect joints leading to arthritis • Abscess formation and congestion of visceral organs Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 90
  • 91. Swelling of umbilicus Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 91
  • 92. Swelling of the joints Septic arthritis involving the distal limb, fetlocks and pastern joints in all limbs Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 92
  • 93. Discharge of pus from the joints Large fibrin clots in the carpal joint Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India Edematous, hyperemic synovial membrane 93
  • 94. Liver abscess Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 94
  • 95. Grey foci in renal cortex and hemorrhage in medulla Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 95
  • 96. Differential diagnosis • Hematoma – contain blood • Umbilical hernia – hernial ring, sac, contents • Patent urachus – retention of urine Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 96
  • 97. Thank you For your kind attention and reading. Be the best and proud to be a ‘Great Veterinarian’ Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 97
  • 98. References • Color atlas of diseases and disorders of cattle -Roger W.Blowey • Rebhun’s Disease of dairy cattle -Thomas J.Divers • Veterinary pathology -RS Chauhan • http://compepid.tuskegee.edu • http://www.fao.org Friday, October 18, 2013 Dr.Pavulraj.S, (original author) M.V.Sc., Pathology scholar, IVRI(NRCE), India 98