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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY
PSYCHOLOGY
Top
Jinka, Ethiopia
1
The Meaning of Personality Psychology
• Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies
about personality and individual differences.
A. One emphasis in this field is to construct a coherent picture of a
person and his or her major psychological processes
B. Another emphasis views personality as the study of individual
differences, in other words, how people differ from each other.
C. A third area of emphasis examines human nature and how all
people are similar to one other. These three viewpoints merge
together in the study of personality.
2
• Personality psychology looks for answers to
numerous questions like;
In what ways do human beings differ?
In what situations and along what dimensions do
they differ?
Why do they differ?
How much do they differ?
How consistent are human differences?
Can they be measured? 3
• Personality psychology is also known as personology,
the study of the person, that is, the whole human
individual. Most people, when they think of personality,
are actually thinking of personality differences - types and
traits and the like. This is certainly an important part of
personality psychology, since one of the characteristics of
persons is that they can differ from each other quite a bit.
But the main part of personality psychology addresses the
broader issue of "what is it to be a person."
4
1.1. Concept of Personality
• Personality is the total quality of an individual. The word
personality comes from the Latin word persona which means
the mask worn by players in the theater.
• Personality consists of observable behaviour. It is defined as
an individual, typical or consistent adjustment to his
environment.
• The elements of personality are called the traits of
personality; it is the traits that make one person different
from another person in his behaviour. Shyness and sociability
are different traits and characteristic of an individual.
5
• All characteristics which an individual possesses are his powers, needs,
abilities, wants, habits, his goal and aspirations. His patterns of behaviour to
objects and persons continue his personality. Since an individual is a bundle of
characteristics as traits we can define personality as an integrated pattern of
traits.
• According to worth, one's personality is made up of high physique, instincts,
and intelligence.
1. Material self (his body, clothes, family property etc.)
2. Social self (his home, club, office, church etc.)
3. Spiritual self (his ability to argue and discriminate consciousness, moral
sensitivities).
According to Medougali personality consists of his (a) disposition, (b) temper,
(c) temperament and (d) character.
6
1.2. The Meaning of Personality
• The word "personality" originates from the Greek
word ‘persona’, which means mask. The masks worn
by theatrical players in ancient Greek dramas term
came to encompass the actor’s roles as well. Thus,
personality is the public personality that people display
to those around them. The term personality has many
meanings, even within psychology there is
disagreement about the meaning of the term.
7
• In fact, there may be as many different meanings of the
term “personality” as there are psychologists who have
tried to define it; Gordon Allport defined it as “a
dynamic organization, inside the person, of
psychophysical systems that create the person’s
characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts and
feelings.” Therefore, personality refers to the overall
impression that an individual makes on others, that is, a
sum total or constellation of characteristics that are
typical of the individual and thus observable in various
social settings. 8
• Personality can also be defined as a dynamic and
organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that
uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and
behaviors in various situations (Ryckman, 2004). It is the
set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the
individual that is organized and relatively enduring and
that influences his or her interactions with, and
adaptations to the environment (i.e. intra-psychic,
physical, and social environment). 9
1.3. Features of Personality
• The following are elements of personality pattern:
a) Personality is a set of traits or characteristics that
describe the ways in which people are different from each
other.
b) Psychological Mechanisms refers to the processes of
personality. Most Psychological Mechanisms involve
information processing activity. They are not activated all
the time rather they are activated under particular
conditions or situations.
10
c) Within the individual means that personality is
something that a person carries with him over time and
from one situation to next. So we are stable and
consistent across time and situation. Example we feel as
the same person we were yesterday, last week or month.
d) Personality is organized because traits and
mechanisms are organized or linked to one another in a
coherent fashion. Suppose that you have two desires or
needs you are hungry and you have to appear for a job
interview.
Our personality is organized in the sense that it contains
decision rules which govern and control which needs are
to be activated and which needs are to be inactive. So in
the example the hunger need is to be inactive or passive
and the need for the preparation for the interview is to be
activated.
11
e) Influential forces in personality means that traits and
mechanisms can act as influence how we act, how we view our
selves, how we feel, how we interact with the world, how we
select our environments, how we react to our circumstances so
personality plays a key role in how people shape their lives.
f) Person- environment interaction is perhaps a difficult and
complex feature of personality. Perception refers to how we see
and interpret environment. Example smile of a clown and of a
stranger are seen and interpreted differently one as friendly and
other with suspicion.
g) Adaptation conveys the notion that central feature of
personality concerns adaptive functioning such as accomplishing
goals, coping, adjusting and dealing with challenges and
problems we face as we go through life. Example: People who
worry a lot receive a lot of social support and encouragement as
a reward therefore they adapt to the concept of worrying. 12
1- Different Environments: There are three types of environments.
a. The physical environment often poses challenges for people some
of these are direct threats to the survival, such as extreme
temperatures, snakes, spiders, heights etc.
b. Social environment also poses challenges such as we desire
friends, mates, love, belongingness and unconditional positive
regard.
c. Intra-psychic environment: We have memories, dreams, desires,
fantasies, and a collection of private experiences we live every day.
The three physical, social and Intra- psychic are the ones which are
equally important for the survival of individual.
13
1.4. Patterns of Personality, their differences and elements
• Every individual is:
1- Like all others (the human nature level)
• This means, some traits or mechanisms are
possessed by all of us. For example nearly every
human being has language skills which allow him
(her) to learn and use language, so spoken language
is a universal human nature. At the psychological
level all humans possess fundamental psychological
mechanism for example to live in harmony and to
belong to social groups so there are many ways in
which each person is like every other person.
14
2- Like some others (the level of individual and group differences)
This second level pertains to individual and group differences. In
individual differences there are people who love to go out, have
parties and socialize, while we have people who want to be alone,
read a book or listen to music, so there are ways or dimensions in
which each person is like some others (introverts, extroverts). When
we say there is group difference, people in one group may have
certain personality features in common and these common features
make them different from other groups. Examples: Different cultures,
different age groups, different genders, different political parties.
15
3- Like no others (the individual uniqueness level)
• There are no two similar individuals, even identical twins raised by
the same parents in the same home, country and culture are
different. This indicates that no two individuals have exactly the same
personalities. Personality psychology focuses on the uniqueness of
individual differences.
• The important point is that personality psychology is concerned with
all the three levels of personality analysis: Every individual is
1-Like all others (universal level)
2-Like some others (individual and group level)
3-Like no others (the individual uniqueness level)
16
1.6. Temperament and Personality
• Definitions, Origins and Characteristics of Temperament
• Temperament is a consistent style of behavior and
emotional reactions that are present from infancy onward,
presumably due to biological influences (Clonigner, 2004).
• Temperament implies a genetic foundation for individual
differences in personality. Temperaments are general
patterns of behavior and mood that can be expressed in
many different ways and that, depending on one’s
experiences, develop into different personality traits.
17
• Temperament is defined as constitutionally based individual
differences in emotional, motor and attentional reactivity and
self-regulation, showing consistency across situations and
relative stability over time (Rothbart and Derryberry 1981).
• The term ‘constitutional’ refers to links between temperament
and biology.
• The term ‘reactivity’ refers to the latency, rise time, intensity
and duration of the person’s responsiveness to stimulation.
• The term ‘self-regulation’ refers to processes that serve to
modulate reactivity; these include behavioral approach,
withdrawal, inhibition and executive or effortful attention. 18
three temperament dimensions
(1) Emotionality refers to the intensity of emotional reactions. Children, who
cry frequently, easily frightened, and often express anger are high in this
temperament. As adults, these individuals are easily upset and may have a
“quick temper.”
(2) Activity refers to a person’s general level of energy. Children high in this
temperament move around a lot, prefer games that require running and
jumping, and tend to fidget and squirm when forced to sit still for an extended
period of time. Adults high on this dimension are always on the go and prefer
high-energy activities like playing sports and dancing in their free time.
(3) Sociability relates to a general tendency to affiliate and interact with
others. Sociable children seek out other children to play with. Adults high in
this temperament have a lot of friends and enjoy social gatherings.
Adult personalities are determined by both inherited temperament and the
environment. 19
• Moreover, temperament influences the environment, and
the environment then influences the way temperament
develops into stable personality traits. Two children born
with identical temperaments can grow up to be two very
different people. A child with a high activity level may
become an aggressive, achieving, or athletic adult. But that
child will probably not become lazy and indifferent. A child
does not represent a blank slate on which parents may
draw whatever personality they desire. But neither is a
child’s personality set at birth, leaving the parents and
society to settle for whatever they get.
• Temperament and personality represent two distinct but
interrelated approaches to studying individuality.
20
• In the newborn, individual differences in irritability and orienting
can be observed along with variations in alertness, and by two to
three months, infants demonstrate clear positive responses to
stimulation. Early forms of what will later be called Extraversion or
Surgency are present in the smiling, laughter and rapid approach
of infants to a novel object by six months, and measures of
approach tendencies and smiling and laughter at this early age
predict children’s extraverted tendencies at seven years.
• Throughout early development, children who are more
extraverted also appear to express greater anger and frustration,
and are more prone to externalizing disorders.
21
• More extrovert temperament may also be a protective factor in a
highly stressful environment. For instance, children who are more
sociable may attract warmth and responsiveness from adults, thereby
protecting them from the effects of poor parenting. Better social
skills have also been shown for children whose temperament
matched parental expectations and desires, who were more
persistent, and whose parents were higher on warmth. When infants
are four months of age, their distress and body movement to
laboratory-presented stimulation predict later fear and behavioral
inhibition. Positive affect and body movement, on the other hand,
predict later surgency. 22
Chapter Two: Determinants of Personality
I. Physical
II. Psychological
III. Cultural
IV. Social
V. Family
VI. Sexual
VII.Intellectual
VIII.Environmental
23
I. Biological /Physical Determinants of Personality
• Physical Determinants of Personality
• The primary criterion that represents numerous aspects of a
person's personality is their biological composition. Being the
primary factor in determining character, it also includes many
additional elements that bring out numerous insights about an
individual. Under the heading of "physical factors of
personality," some significant components include:
• Hereditary: Hereditary characteristics can be predicted from
the moment of conception. Typically inherited from parents
include sex, physical stature, temperament, muscular
composition, facial features, height, and others. As a result, it is
clear from the hereditary perspective that the genes found in
chromosomes are the best explanation for personality.
24
• Physical characteristics: One of the critical factors
influencing personality is one's looks. One's physical
appearance has a significant impact on how others
see them. Whether short, tall, thin, overweight, black,
or white, it is evident that this will impact how others
perceive them, affecting how they perceive
themselves. Height, weight, skin tone, hair color, and
beauty are just a few physical characteristics.
25
2.2. Psychological Determinants of Personality
• The psychological approach views personality as a
distinctive style unique to each individual, one of the critical
factors influencing personality. The accumulative traits of
mental trends, emotions, sentiments, thought patterns, and
complexes determine this particular style, which varies for
each individual. Additionally, it investigates a person's mental
conflicts, desires, aspirations, repressed feelings, sublimation,
and emotional health.
26
2.3. Cultural Determinants of Personality
• We are raised with cultural determinants of personality,
just as we are born with biological ones. Family rituals and
traditions, early conditioning, how we are nurtured, and the
social groups we associate with are the elements that impact
the development of our personalities. Every culture teaches
and demands that its members act and breathe in a manner
acceptable to the broader community.
• As a result, critical cultural influences on personality
determination include traits like hostility, independence,
cooperation, and competition. Since the cultures in which we
were raised are so opposed, it is obvious to separate those
raised in the west from the residents of our nation. 27
2.4. Social Determinants of Personality
• The social determinants examine an individual's
personality in light of their position within their social
group or community and consider how they see their
place. The primary consideration in this method is
that how others perceive us affects how we develop
as people. Communication tools have been more
widely available in this period, mainly through social
media. Social media influencers can have a global
impact on the masses.
28
• Consequently, the social lives that people lead and are
a part of greatly influence each person's personality.
Through interacting, whether online or in person, we
contact a wide variety of people who, in some way or
another, leave an impression on our personalities.
• As soon as we leave playschool and enter the real
world, the process begins when we interact with peers
and friends, among other people. We are constantly
urged to choose our social circle carefully because it is
one of the critical factors in personality that our social life
influences.
29
2.5. Family Determinants
• The primary factors contributing to our personalities are
the family environment and parents' direct impact. The
impact of familial factors on nature is the greatest. Families
influence, especially when children are young. A child raised
in a warm, tolerant, and healthy environment will be different
emotionally, socially cautious, and frigid.
• Let's examine the idea put forth by American-Australian
psychologist Walter Mischel to comprehend the significance
of parents and family as significant factors of personality:
30
• Identification can be accomplished by comparing
the child's behavior, emotions, and attitude to their
parents.
• The desire and aspiration of a child to be like their
parents can be seen as identification.
• It can be viewed as the process through which a
child truly inherits traits from their parents that make
up their personality.
31
2.6. Sex Determinants
• Sex differences: Boys are generally more assertive,
tough minded and vigorous. They have better need
to succeed with regard to interest and aptitudes.
• Boys show interest in machinery and outdoor
activities. They prefer adventures. But girls are less
vigorous games. They are quieter, and interested in
personal appearance. They have better sense of fine
art. They are more injured by personal, emotional
and social problems. Thus sex differences play a
vital role in the development of personality of
individual
32
IV. Intellectual Determinants of Personality
• Intelligence is another essential factor that can play
an important role in the development of our
personality. Our intellect can influence various
aspects and areas of our behaviour which in turn,
can determine our personality. Here are the
intellectual determinants of Personality:
33
• Humour is one of the integral intellectual determinants
of personality as it helps us get a realistic view of
things, facilitates social acceptance and further also
ironically brings forward a lighter perspective of life.
• Morality: Our intellect and worldview plays a crucial
role in the development of our morality and how we
see certain things as moral or immoral. Thus, morality
is another factor that determines our intellect and thus
overall personality as well.
• Values: An individual learns about values from his/her
upbringing as well as from the society they are brought
up in. These values and beliefs also form our
intellectual behaviour and thus are an important
determinant of our personality.
34
2.8. Environmental Determinants
:
i. Geographical environment and personality:
ii.Early childhood experiences and personality:
iii.Neighborhood
iv.Friends and Companions
v.School
vi.Radio, clubs, cinemas
vii.Names and personality
viii.Clothes and personality 35
i. Geographical environment and personality: Physical or
geographical conditions or areas that we dwell influence
the personality of the individual. People of cold countries
are industrious and hard working.
ii.Early childhood experiences and personality: Childhood
experiences play a very important role in the development
of the individual. Tensions and emotional upsetting of
early life influence personality development. Methods of
breast feeding and toilet training do play a significant role
in the personality development as of the Freud’s theory.
36
iii. Neighborhood: If the people in the neighborhood are
cultured and educated then the child may also grow into a
good person through imitation and modeling.
iv. Friends and Companions: Psychologists like Burt and
Kretschmer view that friends and companions greatly affect
the personality of the child. Children of laborers go to third
rate school and play with half naked children in dirty streets or
slums. They live amidst hunger and poverty. This may lead to
delinquency.
37
v. School: School plays a vital role in the development of personality:
a. Teacher’s personality, i.e. his attitudes, beliefs, ideas, habits,
ambitions, aspirations, sentiments and emotional maturity affect the
personality development of the child.
b. Curriculum of school i.e. richness or drabness of curriculum also
affects the personality of an individual.
c. Methods of teaching and co-curricular activities also influence
personality development.
d. General atmosphere in school: congenial or uncongenial
atmosphere influence personality development.
38
vi. Radio, clubs, cinemas have a significant role to play in the
personality development. Children can learn a lot from these
agencies of education.
vii. Names and personality: impressive names may give us an
air of superiority and poor or undesirable names are source of
resentment. These names shape our ideas of ourselves and
hence influence personality development.
viii. Clothes and personality: if we wear funny clothes people
will laugh at us and as a result we may develop inferiority
complex. Our clothes should resemble with great persons
whom we admire. The type of clothes we prefer also indicates
our personality.
39
CHAPTER FIVE
5. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSONALITY
The major factors affecting personality are
• Biological Factors
(ii) Environmental Factors
Cultural facotrs
Situational factors
Education factors
40
Biological Factors
1. Heredity: refers to physical stature, facial attractiveness,
sex, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy
level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are
considered to be inherent. It plays an important part in
determining an individual's personality. Heredity is indeed, an
important factor in personality development.
Almost every form of personality has been attributed to heredity.
Today it is believed that hereditary traits are transmitted through
the genes. This can be clearly understood according to Mendel’s
theory of dominant and recessive genes.
41
According to Mendel, genes are the carriers of hereditary
traits in the sense that they maintain integrity, particular
constitution and properties in unaltered form from one
generation to the next.
The traits and skills acquired by the parent may not
modify the genes but just pass on to the children just as
they are whichever genes carrying hereditary trait is
dominant, the trait will pass on to the children from their
parents just as it is. For instance, the child inherits
complexion, physique, intelligence, etc. from his parents
42
2. Physical Features. It is vital ingredient of the
personality, it focus an individual person's external
appearance which also determined the personality.
Physical features like tall or short, fat or skinny, black
or white. These physical features will be influenced
the personal effect on others and also affect self
concept of individual.
43
3. Endocrine Glands:
• The endocrine glands are characterized for interaction
and interdependence. These glands secrete hormones.
Any over-activity or under-activity of these glands can
cause increase or decrease in harmones resulting in
personality disorder as given below:
(i) Thyroid:
(ii) Parathyroid:
(iv) Adrenal:
(v) Gonads:
44
(i) Thyroid:
• Thyroid gland secretes thyroxin. Any excess of the hormone
leads to tension and unstableness, whereas its deficiency
takes one to imbecile level.
(ii) Parathyroid:
• This gland is responsible for calcium equilibrium in the
body. Over-activity of this gland causes irritation, emotional
instability, etc.
• (iii) Pituitary. This gland secretes sarnatotropin. It controls
the other glands of the body. The excess of this hormone
causes aeromegaly whereas its deficiency causes midget.
45
(iv) Adrenal:
• This gland secretes cortin and adrenin. Cortin deficiency
results in increased fatigability, anaemia, loss of
appetite, etc. While adrenin is discharged in times of
great emotional stress.
(v) Gonads:
• This gland secretes testosterone and andresterone that
are responsible for growth of male sex organs and
estrogens and progestins in females promote sexual
maturity. 46
4. Nervous System
• Nervous system too influences personality
development. Mental abilities, sensory-motor skill are
also determined by the nervous system. The autonomic
nervous system and the central nervous system are
responsible for personality development.
47
5. ENVIRONMENT
 The environmental factors that exert pressures on
our personality formation are culture in which we
raised, our early conditioning, the norms among
our family, friends, social groups, social
interaction, etc that we experience.
48
5. Environment Factors
• The environment is everything that affects the
individual except his genes. The environment of an
individual consists of the sum total of the stimulation
which he receives from his conception to birth. As a
matter of fact the following environmental factors have
to be taken into consideration.
49
(a) Home
• The effect of home in personality has been accepted by
everyone. Home has much bearing on the personality
development of an individual. Parents behaviour and
attitude, their expectations from the child, their
education and attention to the child, influences the
child’s personality.
50
• Mischel found from his study that absence of father
effects the socialization of the child. Hurlock pointed
out from the basis of his study that “even though
children from small and medium sized homes are
often played with sibling rivalry and jealously, parental
overprotection and suspicion of parental favouritism,
they generally make better adjustments to life and are
happier than children from large families.’ In the same
way economic status of the family also influences
child’s personality. 51
(b) School
• After home, school is the next socializing agent, by the
fact that the child spends most of his time with his
peers. Hellersberg found from his study that after
parents the most influencing factor on a person’s
personality is the school.
• In school he comes in contact with his teachers whose
personality influences and he adopts his teachers style
of life, etc. He sees the teacher as his ideal. His
personality is also to a great extent, influenced by peer
interaction. His peers whom he like influence him and
he tries to adopt whatever he likes in them. The school
atmosphere, discipline of the school, etc. also influence
the student’s personality.
52
(c) Maturation and Personality
• Personality is also influenced by maturation. Maturation
improves the coordination of numerous relationships.
Maturation provides raw material for learning and determines
to a large extent the more general patterns and sequences of
child’s behaviour.
(d) Early Experience:
• Personality is also influenced by one’s early experiences. If a
person suffers bitter experiences, he is often is subjected to
undue thwartings at the early stage of life, regress to interests
from outer to inner spheres and become self-centred.
53
(e) Success and Failures
• Success and failure also play a key role in the
determination of personality. This influences one’s
adjustment and self-concept Success motivates the
individual for more attempts and success in future.
• It heightens one’s level of aspiration and makes the
individual about his abilities whereas failure leads to the
development of negative traits, i.e., inferiority feeling,
low aspiration, escape and blame, etc.
54
55
5.2. Socio-Cultural and Economic Factors
• Cultural factors are also major factors which influence to
determine individual personality. It refers to traditional
practice, customs, procedure, norms and rules and
regulation followed by the society. It significantly influence
to individual behavior compared to biological factors.
Cultural factors determine attitudes towards independence,
aggression, competition, cooperation, positive thinking,
team spirit, and a host of the human being and discharge
his/her duties towards valuable responsibilities to society.
56
• For instance, Western culture influenced Indian society. It
is best example of the cultural factors also determine the
personality.
• To a large extent, one’s culture determines what are
considered proper practices in courtship, marriage,
childrearing, politics, religion, education, and justice.
• These, and other cultural variables, explain many
important individual differences among humans, that is,
differences among people of different cultures.
57
• More specifically, some theorists say that one’s
personality can be viewed as a combination of the many
roles one plays. If you were asked to start a blank sheet
of paper with the words “I am” and then to list all of your
qualities, you would have a rather extensive list.
• For example, you may be female, 19 years old, a college
student, a Lutheran, 5 feet 8 inches tall, attractive, a
Cancer, a psychology major, and so on. Each entry on
your list has a prescribed role associated with it, and for
each role, society has defined what is called an
acceptable range of behavior (norms).
58
• If you deviate from that range, you will confront social
pressure of some type. Indeed, what is considered
normal behavior and what is considered abnormal is, to
a large extent, determined by how you behave relative to
societal expectations. Other socio-cultural determinants
of personality include the socioeconomic level of one’s
family, one’s family size, birth order, ethnic
identification, religion, the region of the country in
which one was raised, the educational level attained by
one’s parents, and the like.
• One simply does not have the same experiences in a
financially secure home as one would have in an
impoverished home. These fortuitous circumstances
into which a person is born (e.g., culture, society, and
family) certainly have a major impact on personality.
59
• Again, this point is one that all personality theorists
accept; it is just a matter of how much each one
emphasizes it. The theories of Adler, Horney, and
Erikson stress the importance of socio-cultural
determinants of personality.
• Personality is said to be the image or mirror of culture.
• Both material and non- material culture play important
role in shaping the personality of the individual.
Material culture brings about the development of
various material needs and goods. Non- material
culture brings about the development of various social
traditions and culture. 60
• Studies have been conducted by Mead, Ruth Benedict,
Malinowski, Baldwin, Cooley and many others. Mead found
that in the “Samoa” culture, girls are free from the stress
and strain of modern society because early sexual relations
are allowed
• Malinowski has reported that adolescent period among
Trobrianders also does not involve stress and strain because of
the absence of sex taboos. In ‘Mundudumor’ culture persons
are violent and aggressive, while in ‘Arapesh’, they are
responsive and mild. In ‘Tchambuli’ women are aggressive and
sexually dominant, while men are submissive.
61
• In other words Ogburn and Nimkoof concluded that
“Biological heredity ushers infant actors on the stage of
which the physical environment, the group and culture
have set. The dramatic actor now begins and new born
baby transforms into social person.” They further said,
“Birth is the signal of experience to begin its work of
converting the biological individual into social person.”
62
Education and Learning
–Formal education and learning experiences contribute to
personality development. School environments, teachers, and
peer interactions influence cognitive and social development.
Educational psychology examines how schools and teachers
influence cognitive and social development
Media and Technology
– Exposure to media, including television, social media, and
the internet, can influence personality by shaping values,
beliefs, and attitudes.
63
7. SITUATION
 An individual’s personality, although generally stable and
consistent, does change in different situations. Situations seem to
differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behaviour.
Some situations (e.g., employment interview) constraints many
behaviour; other situations (e.g., a picnic in a public park)
constrain relatively few.
64
• Situational factors of personality also have a
complete share in the formation of personality of an
individual. Situational factors of personality are
charging according to the social situations. Every
person may face different situations in life, which
demands change in his/her behavior. For example, a
teacher may be rigid and strict with students but may
not with his/her family.
65
• An officer may behave with the subordinates differently
as compared to his/her friends.
• Personality is not the result of only one factor but every
factor is responsible to give complete share in its
formation.
• A person behave and his/her personality exists when
interacts with the environment, culture, society, friends,
and to those who come in contact by chance.
66
67
CHAPTER SIX
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
What is theory?
• Theory refers to set of unconfirmed hypothesis or speculation
concerning reality that is not definitely known but when a theory has
confirmatory data or evidence it is a fact. Different systems of consistent
constellations of concepts about personality make theories of
personality. Each theory of personality is concerned about human
nature and the goal of each theory is the understanding of the diversity
and complexity of the whole person functioning in the real world.
1) A theory is useful when it can efficiently generate predictions and
propositions.
2) A theory should contain two parts a cluster of relevant assumptions
systematically related to each other and a set of empirical
definitions. 68
I. What purpose do theories of personality serve?
1. A personality theory is descriptive. In other words, a
theory provides a meaningful framework (i.e. a kind of
map) for simplifying and integrating all that is known
about a related set of events. For example, without the
benefit of theory, it would be very difficult to explain
why 5-year-old boy has a romantic attraction to his
mother along with undue resentment toward his father.
A good personality theory, then, provides a meaningful
context within which human behavior can be consistently
described and interpreted.
69
2. to provide a basis for the prediction of events and
outcomes that have not yet occurred.
3. Personality theories provide a means in which concepts
must be testable and capable of being confirmed or
disconfirmed. For example, what does it means to be a
human being? Ideally, the concepts of a theory should be
formulated to permit rigorous and precise empirical
testing. A good personality theory directly stimulates
psychological research. Conversely, the scientific value of
theories that are untestable is still unknown 70
4. Personality theorists are people, and, like the rest of us, they
hold divergent views about human nature. Some theorists, for
example, believe that human actions have their roots in
unconscious motives whose true nature is outside the
individual’s awareness and whose sources lie deeply buried in
the distant past. Others believe that people are reasonably aware
of their real motives and that their behavior is primarily a result
of present conditions. Therefore, the foundations of a personality
theory are rooted in the basic assumptions of the theorist; a
theory’s implications about human nature, i.e., about what
humans are? or what it means to be a human being?
71
II. How can we evaluate Theories of Personality?
a)Verifiability
b)Heuristic Value
c)Internal Consistency
d)Parsimony (simple)
e) Comprehensiveness
f) Functional Significance
72
a)Verifiability: A theory is positively evaluated to the
degree that its concepts lend themselves to verification
by independent investigators. This means that a theory
must be stated in such a way that its concepts are clearly,
explicitly defined and logically related to one another so
that the theory can be empirically tested.
A good theory should be empirically testable, leading to
modification of the theory if necessary.
73
b) Heuristic Value: The degree to which a theory directly
stimulates a research. A theory by translating its core
concepts into a form of operationalization can allow for
relevant research activity.
c) Internal Consistency: This criterion stipulates that a
theory should not contradict itself that is a good theory is
internally consistent way.
d) Parsimony (simple): A theory may also be judged on the
basis of the number of concepts it requires to explain
events within its domain. The law of parsimony states that
the preferred explanation is the one which demands the
fewest number of concepts, i.e., is most economical.
74
e) Comprehensiveness: This criterion refers to the range
and diversity of phenomena encompassed by a theory. The
more comprehensive a personality theory is the more
behavioral ground it covers.
f) Functional Significance: Finally, a theory may be
evaluated on the basis of how useful it is in helping people
to understand everyday human behavior. All of us are
interested in knowing more about ourselves and other
people.
75
Theories of Personality
• A personality theory is a system of concepts, assumptions,
ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality.
i. Psychodynamic theories focus on the inner workings of
personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles.
ii. Trait and type theories attempt to learn what traits make up
personality and how they relate to actual behavior.
iii. Humanistic theories stress on private, subjective
experience, and personal growth.
iv. Behavioral and social learning theories place importance on
the external environment and on the effects of conditioning
and learning. 76
i. Psychodynamic theories
• Psychodynamic theorists are not content with
studying traits. Instead, they try to probe under the
surface of personality to learn what drives, conflicts, and
energies animate us. Psychodynamic theorists believe
that many of our actions are based on hidden, or
unconscious, thoughts, needs, and emotions.
Psychodynamic theories explain human behavior in terms
of the interaction of various components of personality.
77
• Freud was the founder of this school. Freud drew on the
physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term
psychodynamics. Based on the idea of converting heat
into mechanical energy, he proposed that psychic energy
could be converted into behavior. Freud’s theory places
central importance on dynamic, unconscious
psychological conflicts.
78
• Psychoanalytic theory, the best-known
psychodynamic approach, grew out of the work of
Sigmund Freud, a Viennese physician. As a doctor,
Freud was fascinated by patients whose problems
seemed to be more emotional than physical.
• From about 1890 until he died in 1939, Freud
evolved a theory of personality that deeply influenced
modern thought. Let’s consider some of its main
features. 79
+
Psychoanalysis:
Freud’s Theory of Personality
 Freud’s theory suggest that personality is composed of
the id, the ego, and the superego.
 id: the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to
immediately reduce tensions relating to hunger, sex, aggression, and
other primitive impulses.
 ego: restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the safety of the
individual and to help the person to be a member of society.
 superego: the rights and wrongs of society and consists of the
conscience and the ego-ideal.
+Freud and Personality Structure
Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives
Pleasure Principle
Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways
Reality Principle
Super Ego
- voice of conscience
that focuses on how
we ought to behave
Ego
Super
Ego
Id
+ “the ID”
 The id uses the most primitive of thinking process.
 Basic biological urges (e.g., hunger, self-protection).
 The id operates on the Pleasure Principle.
 Seeks pleasure and avoids pain:“I want what I want NOW!”
 The id operates completely at an unconscious level.
 No direct contact with reality.
 The id has 2 major instincts:
 Eros: life instinct = motivates people to focus on pleasure-seeking
tendencies (e.g., sexual urges).
 Thanatos: death instinct = motivates people to use aggressive
urges to destroy.
 The energy for the id’s instincts comes from the libido, (the
energy storehouse).
+ “the Ego”
The ego consists of a conscious faculty for perceiving
and dealing intelligently with reality.
The ego acts as a mediator between the id and the
superego.
The ego is partly conscious.
Deals with the demands of reality.
Makes rational decisions.
+ “the Ego”
The ego serves the ID:
Governed by ‘Reality Principle’
The ego is the Executive of the personality
The ego controls higher mental processes.
Reasoning, problem solving.
The ego uses these higher mental processes to help
satisfy the urges of the ID.
+ “the Superego”
 Superego: the moral part of personality.
 Internalized rules of parents and society.
 Superego consists of two parts:
 Conscience: “notions of right/wrong.”
 Ego Ideal: “how we ideally like to be.”
 Superego: constrains us from gratifying every impulse (e.g.,
murder) because they are immoral, and not because we might get
caught
 Superego: partly conscious, partly unconscious.
+ Freud: superego, id, and ego
According to Freud, an individual’s feelings,
thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the
interaction of the id, the superego, and the
ego.
+
The Dynamics of Personality
How do the id, ego, and superego interact? Freud
didn’t picture the id, ego, and superego as parts of the
brain or as “little people” running the human psyche.
Instead, they are conflicting mental processes. Freud
theorized a delicate balance of power among the three.
For example, the id’s demands for immediate pleasure
often clash with the superego’s moral restrictions.
+
Perhaps an example will help clarify the role of each part of
the personality.
The id clamors for immediate satisfaction of its sexual
desires
but is opposed by the superego. The id says, “Go for it!”
The superego icily replies, “Never even think that again!”
And what does the ego say? The ego says, “I have a plan!”
Of course, this is a drastic simplification, but it does capture
the core of Freudian thinking
+
To reduce tension, the ego could begin actions
leading to friendship, romance, courtship,
and marriage. If the id is unusually powerful, the ego may
give in and attempt a seduction. If the superego prevails,
the ego may be forced to displace or sublimate sexual
energies to other activities (sports, music, dancing, push-
ups, and cold showers).
+ Freud’s Theory of Personality:
 The id, the ego, and the superego are continually in
conflict with one another.
 This conflict generates anxiety.
 If the ego did not effectively handle the resulting anxiety,
people would be so overwhelmed with anxiety that they
would not be able to carry on with the tasks of everyday
living.
 The ego tries to control anxiety (i.e., to reduce anxiety)
through the use of ego defense mechanisms.
+ Ego Defense Mechanisms:
Defense Mechanisms
Id
Super
Ego
Ego
When the inner war
gets out of hand, the
result is Anxiety
Ego protects itself via
Defense Mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect
anxiety by distorting reality
91
Ego Defense Mechanisms
Definition: An defense mechanism is a psychology
tendency that the ego uses to help prevent people from
becoming overwhelmed by any conflict (and resulting
anxiety) among the id, the ego, and the superego.
Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level:
We are not aware of them during the time that we are
actually using them.
However, we may later become aware of their previous
operation and use. 92
Defense Mechanisms
Repression: pushing unacceptable and anxiety-
producing thoughts into the unconscious; involves
intentional forgetting but not consciously done;
repressed material can be memories or unacceptable
impulses.
A rape victim cannot recall the details of the attack.
Regression: acting in ways characteristic of earlier life
stages/earlier stage of personality.
A young adult, anxious on a trip to his parents/ home,
sits in the corner reading comic books, as he often did
in grade school.
93
 Reaction formation: replacing an anxiety-producing feeling
with its exact opposite, typically going overboard; repressed
thoughts appear as mirror opposites.
 A man who is anxious about his interest in gay men begins
dating women several times a week.
 Rationalization: creating false but believable excuses to
justify inappropriate behavior; real motive for behavior is not
accepted by ego.
 A student cheats on an exam, explaining that cheating is
legitimate on an unfair examination.
94
Projection: attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings
or beliefs to others; perceiving the external world in
terms of one’s own personal conflicts.
An employee at a store, tempted to steal some
merchandise, suspects that other employees are
stealing.
Sublimation: substitute socially acceptable behavior for
unacceptable impulses.
Playing video games instead of getting in a fight. 95
Levels of Awareness
 What is the structure and development of personality,
according to Sigmund Freud and his successors
(i.e.,psychoanalysts)?
 According to psychoanalysts, much of behavior is caused by
parts of personality which are found in the unconscious and
of which we are unaware.
 Freud’s 3 levels of awareness/consciousness:
A. the conscious mind;
B. the preconscious mind; and
C. the unconscious mind. 96
+Psychoanalysis: The Unconscious
“the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden”
Conscious Awareness
small part above surface
(Preconscious)
Unconscious
below the surface
(thoughts, feelings,
wishes, memories)
Repression
Banishing unacceptable
thoughts and passions to
unconscious:
Dreams and Slips
+ Three levels of consciousness:
 Conscious mind:
things we are
focusing on.
 Preconscious mind:
things are are not
currently aware of
but which we could
focus on.
 Unconscious mind:
that which we are
unaware of.
• The conscious refers to those ideas and sensations of
which we are aware. It operates on the surface of
personality, and plays a relatively small role in
personality development and functioning. While it is
true that psychologically healthy people have a greater
awareness of their experiences than do unhealthy ones,
still Freud believed that even relatively mature people
are governed, to a degree greater than they would care to
admit, by unconscious needs and conflicts
99
• The preconscious contains those experiences that
are unconscious but that could become conscious
with little effort. For example, you may have forgotten
the foods you had for supper yesterday, but you could
probably recall them readily if you were asked to list
them for a dietician who is trying to help you lose
weight. The preconscious exists just beneath the
surface of awareness.
100
• the unconscious operates on the deepest level of
personality. It consists of those experiences and memories of
which we are not aware. Such mental states remain out of
awareness because making them conscious would create
tremendous pain and anxiety for us. The unconscious could
include sexual abuse that we experienced during early
childhood at the hands of a parent, relative, or family friend.
• It could consist of incestuous feelings, strong emotional
reactions of anger or rage toward certain authority figures, or
painful feelings of shame and humiliation growing out of
competitive experiences. 101
Freud:
Stages of Personality Development
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality suggests
that personality develops through a series of stages, each
of which is associated with a major biological function.
More specifically, Freud theorized that as people age,
they pass through several systematic stages of
psychosexual development in their personality.
102
+
Psychosexual Stages of Development are Source
of Unconscious Conflicts.
 The stages of personality development involve critical events
that occur in every child’s life.
 At each level, there is a conflict between pleasure and reality.
 The resolution of this conflict determines personality.
 At any stage, “a fixation” can occur:
 If needs are either under-gratified or over-gratified, we
become fixated at a particular stage.
 Each stage also involves an erogenous zone.
 Parts of the body that involve sexual pleasure.
Freud and Personality Development
“personality forms during the first few years of life,
rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood”
“personality forms during the first few years of life,
rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood”
Psychosexual Stages
Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth
Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim.
Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex”
(Identification & Gender Identity)
Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant
Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others
Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3
104
+
Freud’s Stages of Personality Development:
 Oral stage: the oral state is the first period, occurring during
the first year of life.
 Anal stage: next comes the anal stage, lasting from
approximately age 1 to age 3.
 Phallic stage: the phallic stages follows, with interest
focusing on the genitals.
 Latency period: then follows the latency period lasting until
puberty.
 Genital stage: after puberty, people move into the genital
stage, a period of mature sexuality.
+
(1) Oral stage of development:
 Time period: Birth to 18 months:
 Erogenous zone is mouth.
 Gratification through sucking and swallowing.
 Oral fixation has two possible outcomes.
 Oral receptive personality:
 Preoccupied with eating/drinking.
 Reduce tension through oral activity.
 eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails
 Passive and needy; sensitive to rejection.
 Oral aggressive personality:
 Hostile and verbally abusive to others.
+
(2) Anal stage of development:
Time period: 1 1/2 to 3 years of age.
Erogenous zone is the anus.
Conflict surrounds toilet training.
Anal fixation has two possible outcomes.
Anal retentive personality.
Stingy, compulsive orderliness, stubborn,
perfectionistic.
Anal expulsive personality.
Lack of self control, messy, careless.
+ (3) Phallic stage of development:
Time period: 3 to 6 years.
Erogenous zone is the genitals: self-stimulation of the
genitals produces pleasure.
At age 5 or 6, near the end of the phallic stage,
children experience the Oedipal conflict (boys)/the
Electra conflict (girls)--a process through which they
learn to identify with the same gender parent by acting
as much like that parent as possible.
Oedipus complex (boys) vs Electra complex (girls)
Child is sexually attracted to the other sex parent and
wishes to replace the same sex parent.
+
(3) Phallic stage of development:
Oedipus complex (little boys):
Castration anxiety:
Son believes father knows about his desire for mom.
Fears dad will castrate him.
Represses his desire and defensively identifies with
dad.
+
(3) Phallic stage (continued):
Electra complex (little girls):
Penis envy:
Daughter is initially attached to mom.
Shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks
a penis.
She desires dad whom she sees as a means to obtain a
penis substitute (a child).
Represses her desire for dad.
incorporates the values of her mother
accepts her inherent“inferiority in society
+
(4) Latency Period:
During the latency period, little girls and little boys try to
socialize only with members of their own gender.
Freud posits that children do this so as to help minimize
the awareness of “sexuality.”
Thus, they continue the process of sexual repression that
began in the previous stage (for those who successfully
made it through the Oedipal Complex/Electra Complex).
+ (5) Genital Stage:
 When adolescence begin puberty, they enter the 5th
stage of psychosexual development.
 They develop secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., pubic hair).
 The onset of the physical sexual characteristics“re-awakens”
people sexual urges, and thus they are no longer able to
successfully repress their sexual desires, impulses, and urges.
 They begin searching for a marital mate, with whom they can
share sex and intimacy.
The Neo-Freudians
• Freud’s ideas quickly attracted a brilliant following. Just
as rapidly, the importance Freud placed on instinctual
drives and sexuality caused many to disagree with him.
Those who stayed close to the core of Freud’s thinking are
called neo-Freudians (neo means “new”). Neo- Freudians
accepted the broad features of Freud’s theory but revised
parts of it. Some of the better-known neo-Freudians are
Karen Horney, Anna Freud (Freud’s daughter), Otto Rank,
and Erich Fromm.
113
+ Neo-Freudians
Other early followers broke away more completely
from Freud and created their own opposing theories.
All place less emphasis on sex.
 Carl Jung:
Personal vs. Collective Unconscious.
Balance between introversion and extroversion.
 Alfred Adler:
Striving for superiority = motivation to master environment.
Notion of an Inferiority Complex.
 Karen Horney:
Personality is Cultural rather than biological.
Alfred Adler (1870–1937)
Adler was one of Freud’s original followers and a member
of the Psychological Wednesday Society.
As such, the beliefs and values underlying Adler’s theories
share the same core principles as Freud’s psychodynamic
perspective. While Freud and Adler worked very closely
together for a period of time, Adler began to challenge
Freud’s ideas with his own views about the role of
individual experience.
Their working relationship eventually diddolved and their
theories moved in opposing directions. 115
• During the acrimonious breakup between the two men,
Freud accused Adler of having paranoid delusions and
of using terrorist tactics. He told one of his friends
Freud said that the revolt by Adler was that of “an
abnormal individual driven mad by ambition”(quoted in
Gay, 1988, p. 223).
• In fact, several other differences made the relationship
between Freud and Adler quite tenuous.
• First, Freud reduced all motivation to sex and aggression,
whereas Adler saw people as being motivated mostly by
social influences and by their striving for superiority or
success.
• Second, Freud assumed that people have little or no choice in
shaping their personality, whereas Adler believed that people
are largely responsible for who they are.
• Third, Freud’s assumption that present behavior is caused by
past experiences was directly opposed to Adler’s notion that
present behavior is shaped by people’s view of the future.
• Fourth, in contrast to Freud, who placed very heavy
emphasis on unconscious components of behavior, Adler
believed that psychologically healthy people are usually
aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it.
117
• when theoretical and personal differences between
Adler and Freud emerged, Adler left the Freud circle and
established an opposing theory, which became known
as individual psychology
118
 Holism: The Adlerian views man as a unit, a self-
conscious whole that functions as an open system , not
as a collection of drives and instincts.
 Field Theory: The premise is that an individual can
only be studied by his movements, actions and
relationships within his social field.
119
 Teleology :("power to will" or the belief that individuals
are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they
also move toward certain goals of self-realization).
While Adler's name is linked most often with the term
'inferiority-complex,' towards the end of his career he
became more concerned with observing the individual's
struggle for significance or competence (later discussed
by others as self-realization, or self-actualization, etc.).
 He believed that, standing before the unknown, each
person strives to become more perfect, and in health is
motivated by one dynamic force - the upward striving
for completion - and all else is subordinated to this one
master motive. Behavior is understood as goal-directed
movement, though the person may not be fully aware of
this motivation.
120
 The Creative Self: The concept of the creative self places the
responsibility for the individual's personality into his own hands. The
Adlerian practitioner sees the individual as responsible for himself, he
attempts to show the person that he cannot blame others or
uncontrollable forces for his current condition.
 Life-Style: An individual's striving towards significance and belonging
can be observed as a pattern. This pattern manifests early in life and can
be observed as a theme throughout his lifetime. This permeates all
aspects of perception and action. If one understands an individual's
lifestyle, his behavior makes sense.
 Private intelligence: is the reasoning invented by an individual to
stimulate and justify a self-serving style of life. 121
 We also rate Adlerian theory high on its ability to guide
action. The theory serves the psychotherapist, the teacher,
and the parent with guidelines for the solution to practical
problems in a variety of settings. Adlerian practitioners
gather information through reports on birth order,
dreams, early recollections, childhood difficulties, and
physical deficiencies. They then use this information to
understand a person’s style of life and to apply those
specific techniques that will both increase that person’s
individual responsibility and broaden his or her freedom
of choice. 122
Carl Jung
• Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss
psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the
founder of analytical psychology (also known
as Jungian psychology).
• Two processes that are important in learning
 how we take in information
 what we do with the information once it is in
our brains
• He called the first PERCEPTION and the
second JUDGEMENT
Learning Styles Based on Jung's Theory of Personality
• Jungian learning styles describe four main dimensions:
A. Extroverted/Introverted
B. Sensation/Intuition.
C. Thinking/Feeling.
D. Intuitive Learning Style
124
a. Extraverted Learning Style
 Characteristics of Extraverted Learners:
• Enjoys working with others in groups
• Often gathers ideas from outside sources
• Willing to lead, participate and offer
opinions
• Jumps right in without guidance from others
Extraverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas
from other people. They prefer socializing and working in
groups.
b. Introverted Learning Style
• introverted learners are still sociable, they prefer to
solve problems on their own.
Characteristics of Introvert
Learners:
Prefers to work alone, Enjoys quiet,
solitary work
Often generates ideas from internal
sources
Prefers to listen, watch and reflect
Likes to observe others before
attempting a new skill
• Both attitudes - extraversion and introversion - are
present in every person, in different degrees. No-one is
pure extravert or pure introvert, and more recent studies
(notably Eysenck) indicate that a big majority of people
are actually a reasonably well-balanced mixture of the
two types, albeit with a preference for one or the other.
• In addition to the two attitudes of extraversion and
introversion, Jung also developed a framework of 'four
functional types'.
c. Sensing Learning Style
• Characteristics of Sensate Learners:
• Focuses on the present
• Practical and reasonable
• Utilizes experience and common sense to
solve problems
• Keenly observe the surrounding world
• Jung's 'Sensation' function translates signals from the senses into
factual data. There is no judgement of right or wrong, good or bad,
implications, causes, directions, context, possibilities, themes, or
related concepts. Sensation sees what is, as what it is. 'Sensation' is
the opposite to 'Intuition'.
d. Intuitive Learning Style
• Characteristics of Intuitive Learners
• Prefers to work in short sessions, rather
than finishing a task all at once
• Enjoys new challenges, experiences and
situations
• More likely to look at the big picture
rather than the details
• Like theories and abstract ideas
• Intuitive learners tend to focus more on the world of possibility.
• They enjoy considering ideas, possibilities, and potential outcomes.
• These learners like abstract thinking, daydreaming, and imagining
the future.
• Jung said that Intuition and Sensation are 'Irrational'
since they are concerned with perception and do not
evaluate. According to Jung the Intuition and
Sensation functions are Irrational because they simply
gather information and perceive the nature of
something they do not reason or decide or judge
Thinking Learning Style
 Characteristics of Thinking Learners:
• Interested in logic and patterns
• Dislike basing decisions on emotions
• Bases decisions on reason and logic
• Individuals with a thinking learning style tend to focus more
on the structure and function of information and objects… It
is objective to the extent that evaluation is based on personal
intelligence and comprehension
1. Feeling Learning Style
• Characteristics of Feeling Learners:
• Interested in people and their
feelings
• Base decisions on immediate feelings
• Generates excitement and
enthusiasm in group settings
People with a feeling style manage information based on the initial
emotions and feelings it generates. It is a 'rational' process of
forming personal subjective opinion about whether something is
good or bad, right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable, etc.
• Jung said that Thinking and Feeling are Rational
because both of these functions evaluate experience. In
Jung’s theory the Thinking and Feeling functions are
rational because they reason and decide and judge.
• The Rational and Irrational descriptions that Jung
attached to the four functions might not appear
particularly significant at first, especially given that
Jung's use of the words is rather different to the modern
meanings.
• Modern words that describe Jung's meaning of
Rational and Irrational, respectively. Judging
(rational Thinking and Feeling) and perceiving
(‘irrational’ sensation and intuition)
•
• Myers and Briggs added another dimension to
Jung's typological model by identifying that
people also have a preference for using either
the judging function (thinking or feeling) or
their perceiving function (sensing or intuition)
when relating to the outside world
(extraversion).
136
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  • 1. CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO PERSONALITY PSYCHOLOGY Top Jinka, Ethiopia 1
  • 2. The Meaning of Personality Psychology • Personality psychology is a branch of psychology which studies about personality and individual differences. A. One emphasis in this field is to construct a coherent picture of a person and his or her major psychological processes B. Another emphasis views personality as the study of individual differences, in other words, how people differ from each other. C. A third area of emphasis examines human nature and how all people are similar to one other. These three viewpoints merge together in the study of personality. 2
  • 3. • Personality psychology looks for answers to numerous questions like; In what ways do human beings differ? In what situations and along what dimensions do they differ? Why do they differ? How much do they differ? How consistent are human differences? Can they be measured? 3
  • 4. • Personality psychology is also known as personology, the study of the person, that is, the whole human individual. Most people, when they think of personality, are actually thinking of personality differences - types and traits and the like. This is certainly an important part of personality psychology, since one of the characteristics of persons is that they can differ from each other quite a bit. But the main part of personality psychology addresses the broader issue of "what is it to be a person." 4
  • 5. 1.1. Concept of Personality • Personality is the total quality of an individual. The word personality comes from the Latin word persona which means the mask worn by players in the theater. • Personality consists of observable behaviour. It is defined as an individual, typical or consistent adjustment to his environment. • The elements of personality are called the traits of personality; it is the traits that make one person different from another person in his behaviour. Shyness and sociability are different traits and characteristic of an individual. 5
  • 6. • All characteristics which an individual possesses are his powers, needs, abilities, wants, habits, his goal and aspirations. His patterns of behaviour to objects and persons continue his personality. Since an individual is a bundle of characteristics as traits we can define personality as an integrated pattern of traits. • According to worth, one's personality is made up of high physique, instincts, and intelligence. 1. Material self (his body, clothes, family property etc.) 2. Social self (his home, club, office, church etc.) 3. Spiritual self (his ability to argue and discriminate consciousness, moral sensitivities). According to Medougali personality consists of his (a) disposition, (b) temper, (c) temperament and (d) character. 6
  • 7. 1.2. The Meaning of Personality • The word "personality" originates from the Greek word ‘persona’, which means mask. The masks worn by theatrical players in ancient Greek dramas term came to encompass the actor’s roles as well. Thus, personality is the public personality that people display to those around them. The term personality has many meanings, even within psychology there is disagreement about the meaning of the term. 7
  • 8. • In fact, there may be as many different meanings of the term “personality” as there are psychologists who have tried to define it; Gordon Allport defined it as “a dynamic organization, inside the person, of psychophysical systems that create the person’s characteristic patterns of behavior, thoughts and feelings.” Therefore, personality refers to the overall impression that an individual makes on others, that is, a sum total or constellation of characteristics that are typical of the individual and thus observable in various social settings. 8
  • 9. • Personality can also be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations (Ryckman, 2004). It is the set of psychological traits and mechanisms within the individual that is organized and relatively enduring and that influences his or her interactions with, and adaptations to the environment (i.e. intra-psychic, physical, and social environment). 9
  • 10. 1.3. Features of Personality • The following are elements of personality pattern: a) Personality is a set of traits or characteristics that describe the ways in which people are different from each other. b) Psychological Mechanisms refers to the processes of personality. Most Psychological Mechanisms involve information processing activity. They are not activated all the time rather they are activated under particular conditions or situations. 10
  • 11. c) Within the individual means that personality is something that a person carries with him over time and from one situation to next. So we are stable and consistent across time and situation. Example we feel as the same person we were yesterday, last week or month. d) Personality is organized because traits and mechanisms are organized or linked to one another in a coherent fashion. Suppose that you have two desires or needs you are hungry and you have to appear for a job interview. Our personality is organized in the sense that it contains decision rules which govern and control which needs are to be activated and which needs are to be inactive. So in the example the hunger need is to be inactive or passive and the need for the preparation for the interview is to be activated. 11
  • 12. e) Influential forces in personality means that traits and mechanisms can act as influence how we act, how we view our selves, how we feel, how we interact with the world, how we select our environments, how we react to our circumstances so personality plays a key role in how people shape their lives. f) Person- environment interaction is perhaps a difficult and complex feature of personality. Perception refers to how we see and interpret environment. Example smile of a clown and of a stranger are seen and interpreted differently one as friendly and other with suspicion. g) Adaptation conveys the notion that central feature of personality concerns adaptive functioning such as accomplishing goals, coping, adjusting and dealing with challenges and problems we face as we go through life. Example: People who worry a lot receive a lot of social support and encouragement as a reward therefore they adapt to the concept of worrying. 12
  • 13. 1- Different Environments: There are three types of environments. a. The physical environment often poses challenges for people some of these are direct threats to the survival, such as extreme temperatures, snakes, spiders, heights etc. b. Social environment also poses challenges such as we desire friends, mates, love, belongingness and unconditional positive regard. c. Intra-psychic environment: We have memories, dreams, desires, fantasies, and a collection of private experiences we live every day. The three physical, social and Intra- psychic are the ones which are equally important for the survival of individual. 13
  • 14. 1.4. Patterns of Personality, their differences and elements • Every individual is: 1- Like all others (the human nature level) • This means, some traits or mechanisms are possessed by all of us. For example nearly every human being has language skills which allow him (her) to learn and use language, so spoken language is a universal human nature. At the psychological level all humans possess fundamental psychological mechanism for example to live in harmony and to belong to social groups so there are many ways in which each person is like every other person. 14
  • 15. 2- Like some others (the level of individual and group differences) This second level pertains to individual and group differences. In individual differences there are people who love to go out, have parties and socialize, while we have people who want to be alone, read a book or listen to music, so there are ways or dimensions in which each person is like some others (introverts, extroverts). When we say there is group difference, people in one group may have certain personality features in common and these common features make them different from other groups. Examples: Different cultures, different age groups, different genders, different political parties. 15
  • 16. 3- Like no others (the individual uniqueness level) • There are no two similar individuals, even identical twins raised by the same parents in the same home, country and culture are different. This indicates that no two individuals have exactly the same personalities. Personality psychology focuses on the uniqueness of individual differences. • The important point is that personality psychology is concerned with all the three levels of personality analysis: Every individual is 1-Like all others (universal level) 2-Like some others (individual and group level) 3-Like no others (the individual uniqueness level) 16
  • 17. 1.6. Temperament and Personality • Definitions, Origins and Characteristics of Temperament • Temperament is a consistent style of behavior and emotional reactions that are present from infancy onward, presumably due to biological influences (Clonigner, 2004). • Temperament implies a genetic foundation for individual differences in personality. Temperaments are general patterns of behavior and mood that can be expressed in many different ways and that, depending on one’s experiences, develop into different personality traits. 17
  • 18. • Temperament is defined as constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor and attentional reactivity and self-regulation, showing consistency across situations and relative stability over time (Rothbart and Derryberry 1981). • The term ‘constitutional’ refers to links between temperament and biology. • The term ‘reactivity’ refers to the latency, rise time, intensity and duration of the person’s responsiveness to stimulation. • The term ‘self-regulation’ refers to processes that serve to modulate reactivity; these include behavioral approach, withdrawal, inhibition and executive or effortful attention. 18
  • 19. three temperament dimensions (1) Emotionality refers to the intensity of emotional reactions. Children, who cry frequently, easily frightened, and often express anger are high in this temperament. As adults, these individuals are easily upset and may have a “quick temper.” (2) Activity refers to a person’s general level of energy. Children high in this temperament move around a lot, prefer games that require running and jumping, and tend to fidget and squirm when forced to sit still for an extended period of time. Adults high on this dimension are always on the go and prefer high-energy activities like playing sports and dancing in their free time. (3) Sociability relates to a general tendency to affiliate and interact with others. Sociable children seek out other children to play with. Adults high in this temperament have a lot of friends and enjoy social gatherings. Adult personalities are determined by both inherited temperament and the environment. 19
  • 20. • Moreover, temperament influences the environment, and the environment then influences the way temperament develops into stable personality traits. Two children born with identical temperaments can grow up to be two very different people. A child with a high activity level may become an aggressive, achieving, or athletic adult. But that child will probably not become lazy and indifferent. A child does not represent a blank slate on which parents may draw whatever personality they desire. But neither is a child’s personality set at birth, leaving the parents and society to settle for whatever they get. • Temperament and personality represent two distinct but interrelated approaches to studying individuality. 20
  • 21. • In the newborn, individual differences in irritability and orienting can be observed along with variations in alertness, and by two to three months, infants demonstrate clear positive responses to stimulation. Early forms of what will later be called Extraversion or Surgency are present in the smiling, laughter and rapid approach of infants to a novel object by six months, and measures of approach tendencies and smiling and laughter at this early age predict children’s extraverted tendencies at seven years. • Throughout early development, children who are more extraverted also appear to express greater anger and frustration, and are more prone to externalizing disorders. 21
  • 22. • More extrovert temperament may also be a protective factor in a highly stressful environment. For instance, children who are more sociable may attract warmth and responsiveness from adults, thereby protecting them from the effects of poor parenting. Better social skills have also been shown for children whose temperament matched parental expectations and desires, who were more persistent, and whose parents were higher on warmth. When infants are four months of age, their distress and body movement to laboratory-presented stimulation predict later fear and behavioral inhibition. Positive affect and body movement, on the other hand, predict later surgency. 22
  • 23. Chapter Two: Determinants of Personality I. Physical II. Psychological III. Cultural IV. Social V. Family VI. Sexual VII.Intellectual VIII.Environmental 23
  • 24. I. Biological /Physical Determinants of Personality • Physical Determinants of Personality • The primary criterion that represents numerous aspects of a person's personality is their biological composition. Being the primary factor in determining character, it also includes many additional elements that bring out numerous insights about an individual. Under the heading of "physical factors of personality," some significant components include: • Hereditary: Hereditary characteristics can be predicted from the moment of conception. Typically inherited from parents include sex, physical stature, temperament, muscular composition, facial features, height, and others. As a result, it is clear from the hereditary perspective that the genes found in chromosomes are the best explanation for personality. 24
  • 25. • Physical characteristics: One of the critical factors influencing personality is one's looks. One's physical appearance has a significant impact on how others see them. Whether short, tall, thin, overweight, black, or white, it is evident that this will impact how others perceive them, affecting how they perceive themselves. Height, weight, skin tone, hair color, and beauty are just a few physical characteristics. 25
  • 26. 2.2. Psychological Determinants of Personality • The psychological approach views personality as a distinctive style unique to each individual, one of the critical factors influencing personality. The accumulative traits of mental trends, emotions, sentiments, thought patterns, and complexes determine this particular style, which varies for each individual. Additionally, it investigates a person's mental conflicts, desires, aspirations, repressed feelings, sublimation, and emotional health. 26
  • 27. 2.3. Cultural Determinants of Personality • We are raised with cultural determinants of personality, just as we are born with biological ones. Family rituals and traditions, early conditioning, how we are nurtured, and the social groups we associate with are the elements that impact the development of our personalities. Every culture teaches and demands that its members act and breathe in a manner acceptable to the broader community. • As a result, critical cultural influences on personality determination include traits like hostility, independence, cooperation, and competition. Since the cultures in which we were raised are so opposed, it is obvious to separate those raised in the west from the residents of our nation. 27
  • 28. 2.4. Social Determinants of Personality • The social determinants examine an individual's personality in light of their position within their social group or community and consider how they see their place. The primary consideration in this method is that how others perceive us affects how we develop as people. Communication tools have been more widely available in this period, mainly through social media. Social media influencers can have a global impact on the masses. 28
  • 29. • Consequently, the social lives that people lead and are a part of greatly influence each person's personality. Through interacting, whether online or in person, we contact a wide variety of people who, in some way or another, leave an impression on our personalities. • As soon as we leave playschool and enter the real world, the process begins when we interact with peers and friends, among other people. We are constantly urged to choose our social circle carefully because it is one of the critical factors in personality that our social life influences. 29
  • 30. 2.5. Family Determinants • The primary factors contributing to our personalities are the family environment and parents' direct impact. The impact of familial factors on nature is the greatest. Families influence, especially when children are young. A child raised in a warm, tolerant, and healthy environment will be different emotionally, socially cautious, and frigid. • Let's examine the idea put forth by American-Australian psychologist Walter Mischel to comprehend the significance of parents and family as significant factors of personality: 30
  • 31. • Identification can be accomplished by comparing the child's behavior, emotions, and attitude to their parents. • The desire and aspiration of a child to be like their parents can be seen as identification. • It can be viewed as the process through which a child truly inherits traits from their parents that make up their personality. 31
  • 32. 2.6. Sex Determinants • Sex differences: Boys are generally more assertive, tough minded and vigorous. They have better need to succeed with regard to interest and aptitudes. • Boys show interest in machinery and outdoor activities. They prefer adventures. But girls are less vigorous games. They are quieter, and interested in personal appearance. They have better sense of fine art. They are more injured by personal, emotional and social problems. Thus sex differences play a vital role in the development of personality of individual 32
  • 33. IV. Intellectual Determinants of Personality • Intelligence is another essential factor that can play an important role in the development of our personality. Our intellect can influence various aspects and areas of our behaviour which in turn, can determine our personality. Here are the intellectual determinants of Personality: 33
  • 34. • Humour is one of the integral intellectual determinants of personality as it helps us get a realistic view of things, facilitates social acceptance and further also ironically brings forward a lighter perspective of life. • Morality: Our intellect and worldview plays a crucial role in the development of our morality and how we see certain things as moral or immoral. Thus, morality is another factor that determines our intellect and thus overall personality as well. • Values: An individual learns about values from his/her upbringing as well as from the society they are brought up in. These values and beliefs also form our intellectual behaviour and thus are an important determinant of our personality. 34
  • 35. 2.8. Environmental Determinants : i. Geographical environment and personality: ii.Early childhood experiences and personality: iii.Neighborhood iv.Friends and Companions v.School vi.Radio, clubs, cinemas vii.Names and personality viii.Clothes and personality 35
  • 36. i. Geographical environment and personality: Physical or geographical conditions or areas that we dwell influence the personality of the individual. People of cold countries are industrious and hard working. ii.Early childhood experiences and personality: Childhood experiences play a very important role in the development of the individual. Tensions and emotional upsetting of early life influence personality development. Methods of breast feeding and toilet training do play a significant role in the personality development as of the Freud’s theory. 36
  • 37. iii. Neighborhood: If the people in the neighborhood are cultured and educated then the child may also grow into a good person through imitation and modeling. iv. Friends and Companions: Psychologists like Burt and Kretschmer view that friends and companions greatly affect the personality of the child. Children of laborers go to third rate school and play with half naked children in dirty streets or slums. They live amidst hunger and poverty. This may lead to delinquency. 37
  • 38. v. School: School plays a vital role in the development of personality: a. Teacher’s personality, i.e. his attitudes, beliefs, ideas, habits, ambitions, aspirations, sentiments and emotional maturity affect the personality development of the child. b. Curriculum of school i.e. richness or drabness of curriculum also affects the personality of an individual. c. Methods of teaching and co-curricular activities also influence personality development. d. General atmosphere in school: congenial or uncongenial atmosphere influence personality development. 38
  • 39. vi. Radio, clubs, cinemas have a significant role to play in the personality development. Children can learn a lot from these agencies of education. vii. Names and personality: impressive names may give us an air of superiority and poor or undesirable names are source of resentment. These names shape our ideas of ourselves and hence influence personality development. viii. Clothes and personality: if we wear funny clothes people will laugh at us and as a result we may develop inferiority complex. Our clothes should resemble with great persons whom we admire. The type of clothes we prefer also indicates our personality. 39
  • 40. CHAPTER FIVE 5. FACTORS AFFECTING PERSONALITY The major factors affecting personality are • Biological Factors (ii) Environmental Factors Cultural facotrs Situational factors Education factors 40
  • 41. Biological Factors 1. Heredity: refers to physical stature, facial attractiveness, sex, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and biological rhythms are characteristics that are considered to be inherent. It plays an important part in determining an individual's personality. Heredity is indeed, an important factor in personality development. Almost every form of personality has been attributed to heredity. Today it is believed that hereditary traits are transmitted through the genes. This can be clearly understood according to Mendel’s theory of dominant and recessive genes. 41
  • 42. According to Mendel, genes are the carriers of hereditary traits in the sense that they maintain integrity, particular constitution and properties in unaltered form from one generation to the next. The traits and skills acquired by the parent may not modify the genes but just pass on to the children just as they are whichever genes carrying hereditary trait is dominant, the trait will pass on to the children from their parents just as it is. For instance, the child inherits complexion, physique, intelligence, etc. from his parents 42
  • 43. 2. Physical Features. It is vital ingredient of the personality, it focus an individual person's external appearance which also determined the personality. Physical features like tall or short, fat or skinny, black or white. These physical features will be influenced the personal effect on others and also affect self concept of individual. 43
  • 44. 3. Endocrine Glands: • The endocrine glands are characterized for interaction and interdependence. These glands secrete hormones. Any over-activity or under-activity of these glands can cause increase or decrease in harmones resulting in personality disorder as given below: (i) Thyroid: (ii) Parathyroid: (iv) Adrenal: (v) Gonads: 44
  • 45. (i) Thyroid: • Thyroid gland secretes thyroxin. Any excess of the hormone leads to tension and unstableness, whereas its deficiency takes one to imbecile level. (ii) Parathyroid: • This gland is responsible for calcium equilibrium in the body. Over-activity of this gland causes irritation, emotional instability, etc. • (iii) Pituitary. This gland secretes sarnatotropin. It controls the other glands of the body. The excess of this hormone causes aeromegaly whereas its deficiency causes midget. 45
  • 46. (iv) Adrenal: • This gland secretes cortin and adrenin. Cortin deficiency results in increased fatigability, anaemia, loss of appetite, etc. While adrenin is discharged in times of great emotional stress. (v) Gonads: • This gland secretes testosterone and andresterone that are responsible for growth of male sex organs and estrogens and progestins in females promote sexual maturity. 46
  • 47. 4. Nervous System • Nervous system too influences personality development. Mental abilities, sensory-motor skill are also determined by the nervous system. The autonomic nervous system and the central nervous system are responsible for personality development. 47
  • 48. 5. ENVIRONMENT  The environmental factors that exert pressures on our personality formation are culture in which we raised, our early conditioning, the norms among our family, friends, social groups, social interaction, etc that we experience. 48
  • 49. 5. Environment Factors • The environment is everything that affects the individual except his genes. The environment of an individual consists of the sum total of the stimulation which he receives from his conception to birth. As a matter of fact the following environmental factors have to be taken into consideration. 49
  • 50. (a) Home • The effect of home in personality has been accepted by everyone. Home has much bearing on the personality development of an individual. Parents behaviour and attitude, their expectations from the child, their education and attention to the child, influences the child’s personality. 50
  • 51. • Mischel found from his study that absence of father effects the socialization of the child. Hurlock pointed out from the basis of his study that “even though children from small and medium sized homes are often played with sibling rivalry and jealously, parental overprotection and suspicion of parental favouritism, they generally make better adjustments to life and are happier than children from large families.’ In the same way economic status of the family also influences child’s personality. 51
  • 52. (b) School • After home, school is the next socializing agent, by the fact that the child spends most of his time with his peers. Hellersberg found from his study that after parents the most influencing factor on a person’s personality is the school. • In school he comes in contact with his teachers whose personality influences and he adopts his teachers style of life, etc. He sees the teacher as his ideal. His personality is also to a great extent, influenced by peer interaction. His peers whom he like influence him and he tries to adopt whatever he likes in them. The school atmosphere, discipline of the school, etc. also influence the student’s personality. 52
  • 53. (c) Maturation and Personality • Personality is also influenced by maturation. Maturation improves the coordination of numerous relationships. Maturation provides raw material for learning and determines to a large extent the more general patterns and sequences of child’s behaviour. (d) Early Experience: • Personality is also influenced by one’s early experiences. If a person suffers bitter experiences, he is often is subjected to undue thwartings at the early stage of life, regress to interests from outer to inner spheres and become self-centred. 53
  • 54. (e) Success and Failures • Success and failure also play a key role in the determination of personality. This influences one’s adjustment and self-concept Success motivates the individual for more attempts and success in future. • It heightens one’s level of aspiration and makes the individual about his abilities whereas failure leads to the development of negative traits, i.e., inferiority feeling, low aspiration, escape and blame, etc. 54
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  • 56. 5.2. Socio-Cultural and Economic Factors • Cultural factors are also major factors which influence to determine individual personality. It refers to traditional practice, customs, procedure, norms and rules and regulation followed by the society. It significantly influence to individual behavior compared to biological factors. Cultural factors determine attitudes towards independence, aggression, competition, cooperation, positive thinking, team spirit, and a host of the human being and discharge his/her duties towards valuable responsibilities to society. 56
  • 57. • For instance, Western culture influenced Indian society. It is best example of the cultural factors also determine the personality. • To a large extent, one’s culture determines what are considered proper practices in courtship, marriage, childrearing, politics, religion, education, and justice. • These, and other cultural variables, explain many important individual differences among humans, that is, differences among people of different cultures. 57
  • 58. • More specifically, some theorists say that one’s personality can be viewed as a combination of the many roles one plays. If you were asked to start a blank sheet of paper with the words “I am” and then to list all of your qualities, you would have a rather extensive list. • For example, you may be female, 19 years old, a college student, a Lutheran, 5 feet 8 inches tall, attractive, a Cancer, a psychology major, and so on. Each entry on your list has a prescribed role associated with it, and for each role, society has defined what is called an acceptable range of behavior (norms). 58
  • 59. • If you deviate from that range, you will confront social pressure of some type. Indeed, what is considered normal behavior and what is considered abnormal is, to a large extent, determined by how you behave relative to societal expectations. Other socio-cultural determinants of personality include the socioeconomic level of one’s family, one’s family size, birth order, ethnic identification, religion, the region of the country in which one was raised, the educational level attained by one’s parents, and the like. • One simply does not have the same experiences in a financially secure home as one would have in an impoverished home. These fortuitous circumstances into which a person is born (e.g., culture, society, and family) certainly have a major impact on personality. 59
  • 60. • Again, this point is one that all personality theorists accept; it is just a matter of how much each one emphasizes it. The theories of Adler, Horney, and Erikson stress the importance of socio-cultural determinants of personality. • Personality is said to be the image or mirror of culture. • Both material and non- material culture play important role in shaping the personality of the individual. Material culture brings about the development of various material needs and goods. Non- material culture brings about the development of various social traditions and culture. 60
  • 61. • Studies have been conducted by Mead, Ruth Benedict, Malinowski, Baldwin, Cooley and many others. Mead found that in the “Samoa” culture, girls are free from the stress and strain of modern society because early sexual relations are allowed • Malinowski has reported that adolescent period among Trobrianders also does not involve stress and strain because of the absence of sex taboos. In ‘Mundudumor’ culture persons are violent and aggressive, while in ‘Arapesh’, they are responsive and mild. In ‘Tchambuli’ women are aggressive and sexually dominant, while men are submissive. 61
  • 62. • In other words Ogburn and Nimkoof concluded that “Biological heredity ushers infant actors on the stage of which the physical environment, the group and culture have set. The dramatic actor now begins and new born baby transforms into social person.” They further said, “Birth is the signal of experience to begin its work of converting the biological individual into social person.” 62
  • 63. Education and Learning –Formal education and learning experiences contribute to personality development. School environments, teachers, and peer interactions influence cognitive and social development. Educational psychology examines how schools and teachers influence cognitive and social development Media and Technology – Exposure to media, including television, social media, and the internet, can influence personality by shaping values, beliefs, and attitudes. 63
  • 64. 7. SITUATION  An individual’s personality, although generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behaviour. Some situations (e.g., employment interview) constraints many behaviour; other situations (e.g., a picnic in a public park) constrain relatively few. 64
  • 65. • Situational factors of personality also have a complete share in the formation of personality of an individual. Situational factors of personality are charging according to the social situations. Every person may face different situations in life, which demands change in his/her behavior. For example, a teacher may be rigid and strict with students but may not with his/her family. 65
  • 66. • An officer may behave with the subordinates differently as compared to his/her friends. • Personality is not the result of only one factor but every factor is responsible to give complete share in its formation. • A person behave and his/her personality exists when interacts with the environment, culture, society, friends, and to those who come in contact by chance. 66
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  • 68. CHAPTER SIX THEORIES OF PERSONALITY What is theory? • Theory refers to set of unconfirmed hypothesis or speculation concerning reality that is not definitely known but when a theory has confirmatory data or evidence it is a fact. Different systems of consistent constellations of concepts about personality make theories of personality. Each theory of personality is concerned about human nature and the goal of each theory is the understanding of the diversity and complexity of the whole person functioning in the real world. 1) A theory is useful when it can efficiently generate predictions and propositions. 2) A theory should contain two parts a cluster of relevant assumptions systematically related to each other and a set of empirical definitions. 68
  • 69. I. What purpose do theories of personality serve? 1. A personality theory is descriptive. In other words, a theory provides a meaningful framework (i.e. a kind of map) for simplifying and integrating all that is known about a related set of events. For example, without the benefit of theory, it would be very difficult to explain why 5-year-old boy has a romantic attraction to his mother along with undue resentment toward his father. A good personality theory, then, provides a meaningful context within which human behavior can be consistently described and interpreted. 69
  • 70. 2. to provide a basis for the prediction of events and outcomes that have not yet occurred. 3. Personality theories provide a means in which concepts must be testable and capable of being confirmed or disconfirmed. For example, what does it means to be a human being? Ideally, the concepts of a theory should be formulated to permit rigorous and precise empirical testing. A good personality theory directly stimulates psychological research. Conversely, the scientific value of theories that are untestable is still unknown 70
  • 71. 4. Personality theorists are people, and, like the rest of us, they hold divergent views about human nature. Some theorists, for example, believe that human actions have their roots in unconscious motives whose true nature is outside the individual’s awareness and whose sources lie deeply buried in the distant past. Others believe that people are reasonably aware of their real motives and that their behavior is primarily a result of present conditions. Therefore, the foundations of a personality theory are rooted in the basic assumptions of the theorist; a theory’s implications about human nature, i.e., about what humans are? or what it means to be a human being? 71
  • 72. II. How can we evaluate Theories of Personality? a)Verifiability b)Heuristic Value c)Internal Consistency d)Parsimony (simple) e) Comprehensiveness f) Functional Significance 72
  • 73. a)Verifiability: A theory is positively evaluated to the degree that its concepts lend themselves to verification by independent investigators. This means that a theory must be stated in such a way that its concepts are clearly, explicitly defined and logically related to one another so that the theory can be empirically tested. A good theory should be empirically testable, leading to modification of the theory if necessary. 73
  • 74. b) Heuristic Value: The degree to which a theory directly stimulates a research. A theory by translating its core concepts into a form of operationalization can allow for relevant research activity. c) Internal Consistency: This criterion stipulates that a theory should not contradict itself that is a good theory is internally consistent way. d) Parsimony (simple): A theory may also be judged on the basis of the number of concepts it requires to explain events within its domain. The law of parsimony states that the preferred explanation is the one which demands the fewest number of concepts, i.e., is most economical. 74
  • 75. e) Comprehensiveness: This criterion refers to the range and diversity of phenomena encompassed by a theory. The more comprehensive a personality theory is the more behavioral ground it covers. f) Functional Significance: Finally, a theory may be evaluated on the basis of how useful it is in helping people to understand everyday human behavior. All of us are interested in knowing more about ourselves and other people. 75
  • 76. Theories of Personality • A personality theory is a system of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality. i. Psychodynamic theories focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles. ii. Trait and type theories attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior. iii. Humanistic theories stress on private, subjective experience, and personal growth. iv. Behavioral and social learning theories place importance on the external environment and on the effects of conditioning and learning. 76
  • 77. i. Psychodynamic theories • Psychodynamic theorists are not content with studying traits. Instead, they try to probe under the surface of personality to learn what drives, conflicts, and energies animate us. Psychodynamic theorists believe that many of our actions are based on hidden, or unconscious, thoughts, needs, and emotions. Psychodynamic theories explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality. 77
  • 78. • Freud was the founder of this school. Freud drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psychodynamics. Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed that psychic energy could be converted into behavior. Freud’s theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological conflicts. 78
  • 79. • Psychoanalytic theory, the best-known psychodynamic approach, grew out of the work of Sigmund Freud, a Viennese physician. As a doctor, Freud was fascinated by patients whose problems seemed to be more emotional than physical. • From about 1890 until he died in 1939, Freud evolved a theory of personality that deeply influenced modern thought. Let’s consider some of its main features. 79
  • 80. + Psychoanalysis: Freud’s Theory of Personality  Freud’s theory suggest that personality is composed of the id, the ego, and the superego.  id: the unorganized, inborn part of personality whose purpose is to immediately reduce tensions relating to hunger, sex, aggression, and other primitive impulses.  ego: restrains instinctual energy in order to maintain the safety of the individual and to help the person to be a member of society.  superego: the rights and wrongs of society and consists of the conscience and the ego-ideal.
  • 81. +Freud and Personality Structure Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives Pleasure Principle Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways Reality Principle Super Ego - voice of conscience that focuses on how we ought to behave Ego Super Ego Id
  • 82. + “the ID”  The id uses the most primitive of thinking process.  Basic biological urges (e.g., hunger, self-protection).  The id operates on the Pleasure Principle.  Seeks pleasure and avoids pain:“I want what I want NOW!”  The id operates completely at an unconscious level.  No direct contact with reality.  The id has 2 major instincts:  Eros: life instinct = motivates people to focus on pleasure-seeking tendencies (e.g., sexual urges).  Thanatos: death instinct = motivates people to use aggressive urges to destroy.  The energy for the id’s instincts comes from the libido, (the energy storehouse).
  • 83. + “the Ego” The ego consists of a conscious faculty for perceiving and dealing intelligently with reality. The ego acts as a mediator between the id and the superego. The ego is partly conscious. Deals with the demands of reality. Makes rational decisions.
  • 84. + “the Ego” The ego serves the ID: Governed by ‘Reality Principle’ The ego is the Executive of the personality The ego controls higher mental processes. Reasoning, problem solving. The ego uses these higher mental processes to help satisfy the urges of the ID.
  • 85. + “the Superego”  Superego: the moral part of personality.  Internalized rules of parents and society.  Superego consists of two parts:  Conscience: “notions of right/wrong.”  Ego Ideal: “how we ideally like to be.”  Superego: constrains us from gratifying every impulse (e.g., murder) because they are immoral, and not because we might get caught  Superego: partly conscious, partly unconscious.
  • 86. + Freud: superego, id, and ego According to Freud, an individual’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviors are the result of the interaction of the id, the superego, and the ego.
  • 87. + The Dynamics of Personality How do the id, ego, and superego interact? Freud didn’t picture the id, ego, and superego as parts of the brain or as “little people” running the human psyche. Instead, they are conflicting mental processes. Freud theorized a delicate balance of power among the three. For example, the id’s demands for immediate pleasure often clash with the superego’s moral restrictions.
  • 88. + Perhaps an example will help clarify the role of each part of the personality. The id clamors for immediate satisfaction of its sexual desires but is opposed by the superego. The id says, “Go for it!” The superego icily replies, “Never even think that again!” And what does the ego say? The ego says, “I have a plan!” Of course, this is a drastic simplification, but it does capture the core of Freudian thinking
  • 89. + To reduce tension, the ego could begin actions leading to friendship, romance, courtship, and marriage. If the id is unusually powerful, the ego may give in and attempt a seduction. If the superego prevails, the ego may be forced to displace or sublimate sexual energies to other activities (sports, music, dancing, push- ups, and cold showers).
  • 90. + Freud’s Theory of Personality:  The id, the ego, and the superego are continually in conflict with one another.  This conflict generates anxiety.  If the ego did not effectively handle the resulting anxiety, people would be so overwhelmed with anxiety that they would not be able to carry on with the tasks of everyday living.  The ego tries to control anxiety (i.e., to reduce anxiety) through the use of ego defense mechanisms.
  • 91. + Ego Defense Mechanisms: Defense Mechanisms Id Super Ego Ego When the inner war gets out of hand, the result is Anxiety Ego protects itself via Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect anxiety by distorting reality 91
  • 92. Ego Defense Mechanisms Definition: An defense mechanism is a psychology tendency that the ego uses to help prevent people from becoming overwhelmed by any conflict (and resulting anxiety) among the id, the ego, and the superego. Defense mechanisms operate at an unconscious level: We are not aware of them during the time that we are actually using them. However, we may later become aware of their previous operation and use. 92
  • 93. Defense Mechanisms Repression: pushing unacceptable and anxiety- producing thoughts into the unconscious; involves intentional forgetting but not consciously done; repressed material can be memories or unacceptable impulses. A rape victim cannot recall the details of the attack. Regression: acting in ways characteristic of earlier life stages/earlier stage of personality. A young adult, anxious on a trip to his parents/ home, sits in the corner reading comic books, as he often did in grade school. 93
  • 94.  Reaction formation: replacing an anxiety-producing feeling with its exact opposite, typically going overboard; repressed thoughts appear as mirror opposites.  A man who is anxious about his interest in gay men begins dating women several times a week.  Rationalization: creating false but believable excuses to justify inappropriate behavior; real motive for behavior is not accepted by ego.  A student cheats on an exam, explaining that cheating is legitimate on an unfair examination. 94
  • 95. Projection: attributing one’s own unacceptable feelings or beliefs to others; perceiving the external world in terms of one’s own personal conflicts. An employee at a store, tempted to steal some merchandise, suspects that other employees are stealing. Sublimation: substitute socially acceptable behavior for unacceptable impulses. Playing video games instead of getting in a fight. 95
  • 96. Levels of Awareness  What is the structure and development of personality, according to Sigmund Freud and his successors (i.e.,psychoanalysts)?  According to psychoanalysts, much of behavior is caused by parts of personality which are found in the unconscious and of which we are unaware.  Freud’s 3 levels of awareness/consciousness: A. the conscious mind; B. the preconscious mind; and C. the unconscious mind. 96
  • 97. +Psychoanalysis: The Unconscious “the mind is like an iceberg - mostly hidden” Conscious Awareness small part above surface (Preconscious) Unconscious below the surface (thoughts, feelings, wishes, memories) Repression Banishing unacceptable thoughts and passions to unconscious: Dreams and Slips
  • 98. + Three levels of consciousness:  Conscious mind: things we are focusing on.  Preconscious mind: things are are not currently aware of but which we could focus on.  Unconscious mind: that which we are unaware of.
  • 99. • The conscious refers to those ideas and sensations of which we are aware. It operates on the surface of personality, and plays a relatively small role in personality development and functioning. While it is true that psychologically healthy people have a greater awareness of their experiences than do unhealthy ones, still Freud believed that even relatively mature people are governed, to a degree greater than they would care to admit, by unconscious needs and conflicts 99
  • 100. • The preconscious contains those experiences that are unconscious but that could become conscious with little effort. For example, you may have forgotten the foods you had for supper yesterday, but you could probably recall them readily if you were asked to list them for a dietician who is trying to help you lose weight. The preconscious exists just beneath the surface of awareness. 100
  • 101. • the unconscious operates on the deepest level of personality. It consists of those experiences and memories of which we are not aware. Such mental states remain out of awareness because making them conscious would create tremendous pain and anxiety for us. The unconscious could include sexual abuse that we experienced during early childhood at the hands of a parent, relative, or family friend. • It could consist of incestuous feelings, strong emotional reactions of anger or rage toward certain authority figures, or painful feelings of shame and humiliation growing out of competitive experiences. 101
  • 102. Freud: Stages of Personality Development Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality suggests that personality develops through a series of stages, each of which is associated with a major biological function. More specifically, Freud theorized that as people age, they pass through several systematic stages of psychosexual development in their personality. 102
  • 103. + Psychosexual Stages of Development are Source of Unconscious Conflicts.  The stages of personality development involve critical events that occur in every child’s life.  At each level, there is a conflict between pleasure and reality.  The resolution of this conflict determines personality.  At any stage, “a fixation” can occur:  If needs are either under-gratified or over-gratified, we become fixated at a particular stage.  Each stage also involves an erogenous zone.  Parts of the body that involve sexual pleasure.
  • 104. Freud and Personality Development “personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” “personality forms during the first few years of life, rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood” Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim. Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex” (Identification & Gender Identity) Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3 104
  • 105. + Freud’s Stages of Personality Development:  Oral stage: the oral state is the first period, occurring during the first year of life.  Anal stage: next comes the anal stage, lasting from approximately age 1 to age 3.  Phallic stage: the phallic stages follows, with interest focusing on the genitals.  Latency period: then follows the latency period lasting until puberty.  Genital stage: after puberty, people move into the genital stage, a period of mature sexuality.
  • 106. + (1) Oral stage of development:  Time period: Birth to 18 months:  Erogenous zone is mouth.  Gratification through sucking and swallowing.  Oral fixation has two possible outcomes.  Oral receptive personality:  Preoccupied with eating/drinking.  Reduce tension through oral activity.  eating, drinking, smoking, biting nails  Passive and needy; sensitive to rejection.  Oral aggressive personality:  Hostile and verbally abusive to others.
  • 107. + (2) Anal stage of development: Time period: 1 1/2 to 3 years of age. Erogenous zone is the anus. Conflict surrounds toilet training. Anal fixation has two possible outcomes. Anal retentive personality. Stingy, compulsive orderliness, stubborn, perfectionistic. Anal expulsive personality. Lack of self control, messy, careless.
  • 108. + (3) Phallic stage of development: Time period: 3 to 6 years. Erogenous zone is the genitals: self-stimulation of the genitals produces pleasure. At age 5 or 6, near the end of the phallic stage, children experience the Oedipal conflict (boys)/the Electra conflict (girls)--a process through which they learn to identify with the same gender parent by acting as much like that parent as possible. Oedipus complex (boys) vs Electra complex (girls) Child is sexually attracted to the other sex parent and wishes to replace the same sex parent.
  • 109. + (3) Phallic stage of development: Oedipus complex (little boys): Castration anxiety: Son believes father knows about his desire for mom. Fears dad will castrate him. Represses his desire and defensively identifies with dad.
  • 110. + (3) Phallic stage (continued): Electra complex (little girls): Penis envy: Daughter is initially attached to mom. Shift of attachment occurs when she realizes she lacks a penis. She desires dad whom she sees as a means to obtain a penis substitute (a child). Represses her desire for dad. incorporates the values of her mother accepts her inherent“inferiority in society
  • 111. + (4) Latency Period: During the latency period, little girls and little boys try to socialize only with members of their own gender. Freud posits that children do this so as to help minimize the awareness of “sexuality.” Thus, they continue the process of sexual repression that began in the previous stage (for those who successfully made it through the Oedipal Complex/Electra Complex).
  • 112. + (5) Genital Stage:  When adolescence begin puberty, they enter the 5th stage of psychosexual development.  They develop secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., pubic hair).  The onset of the physical sexual characteristics“re-awakens” people sexual urges, and thus they are no longer able to successfully repress their sexual desires, impulses, and urges.  They begin searching for a marital mate, with whom they can share sex and intimacy.
  • 113. The Neo-Freudians • Freud’s ideas quickly attracted a brilliant following. Just as rapidly, the importance Freud placed on instinctual drives and sexuality caused many to disagree with him. Those who stayed close to the core of Freud’s thinking are called neo-Freudians (neo means “new”). Neo- Freudians accepted the broad features of Freud’s theory but revised parts of it. Some of the better-known neo-Freudians are Karen Horney, Anna Freud (Freud’s daughter), Otto Rank, and Erich Fromm. 113
  • 114. + Neo-Freudians Other early followers broke away more completely from Freud and created their own opposing theories. All place less emphasis on sex.  Carl Jung: Personal vs. Collective Unconscious. Balance between introversion and extroversion.  Alfred Adler: Striving for superiority = motivation to master environment. Notion of an Inferiority Complex.  Karen Horney: Personality is Cultural rather than biological.
  • 115. Alfred Adler (1870–1937) Adler was one of Freud’s original followers and a member of the Psychological Wednesday Society. As such, the beliefs and values underlying Adler’s theories share the same core principles as Freud’s psychodynamic perspective. While Freud and Adler worked very closely together for a period of time, Adler began to challenge Freud’s ideas with his own views about the role of individual experience. Their working relationship eventually diddolved and their theories moved in opposing directions. 115
  • 116. • During the acrimonious breakup between the two men, Freud accused Adler of having paranoid delusions and of using terrorist tactics. He told one of his friends Freud said that the revolt by Adler was that of “an abnormal individual driven mad by ambition”(quoted in Gay, 1988, p. 223). • In fact, several other differences made the relationship between Freud and Adler quite tenuous.
  • 117. • First, Freud reduced all motivation to sex and aggression, whereas Adler saw people as being motivated mostly by social influences and by their striving for superiority or success. • Second, Freud assumed that people have little or no choice in shaping their personality, whereas Adler believed that people are largely responsible for who they are. • Third, Freud’s assumption that present behavior is caused by past experiences was directly opposed to Adler’s notion that present behavior is shaped by people’s view of the future. • Fourth, in contrast to Freud, who placed very heavy emphasis on unconscious components of behavior, Adler believed that psychologically healthy people are usually aware of what they are doing and why they are doing it. 117
  • 118. • when theoretical and personal differences between Adler and Freud emerged, Adler left the Freud circle and established an opposing theory, which became known as individual psychology 118
  • 119.  Holism: The Adlerian views man as a unit, a self- conscious whole that functions as an open system , not as a collection of drives and instincts.  Field Theory: The premise is that an individual can only be studied by his movements, actions and relationships within his social field. 119
  • 120.  Teleology :("power to will" or the belief that individuals are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they also move toward certain goals of self-realization). While Adler's name is linked most often with the term 'inferiority-complex,' towards the end of his career he became more concerned with observing the individual's struggle for significance or competence (later discussed by others as self-realization, or self-actualization, etc.).  He believed that, standing before the unknown, each person strives to become more perfect, and in health is motivated by one dynamic force - the upward striving for completion - and all else is subordinated to this one master motive. Behavior is understood as goal-directed movement, though the person may not be fully aware of this motivation. 120
  • 121.  The Creative Self: The concept of the creative self places the responsibility for the individual's personality into his own hands. The Adlerian practitioner sees the individual as responsible for himself, he attempts to show the person that he cannot blame others or uncontrollable forces for his current condition.  Life-Style: An individual's striving towards significance and belonging can be observed as a pattern. This pattern manifests early in life and can be observed as a theme throughout his lifetime. This permeates all aspects of perception and action. If one understands an individual's lifestyle, his behavior makes sense.  Private intelligence: is the reasoning invented by an individual to stimulate and justify a self-serving style of life. 121
  • 122.  We also rate Adlerian theory high on its ability to guide action. The theory serves the psychotherapist, the teacher, and the parent with guidelines for the solution to practical problems in a variety of settings. Adlerian practitioners gather information through reports on birth order, dreams, early recollections, childhood difficulties, and physical deficiencies. They then use this information to understand a person’s style of life and to apply those specific techniques that will both increase that person’s individual responsibility and broaden his or her freedom of choice. 122
  • 123. Carl Jung • Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology (also known as Jungian psychology). • Two processes that are important in learning  how we take in information  what we do with the information once it is in our brains • He called the first PERCEPTION and the second JUDGEMENT
  • 124. Learning Styles Based on Jung's Theory of Personality • Jungian learning styles describe four main dimensions: A. Extroverted/Introverted B. Sensation/Intuition. C. Thinking/Feeling. D. Intuitive Learning Style 124
  • 125. a. Extraverted Learning Style  Characteristics of Extraverted Learners: • Enjoys working with others in groups • Often gathers ideas from outside sources • Willing to lead, participate and offer opinions • Jumps right in without guidance from others Extraverted learners enjoy generating energy and ideas from other people. They prefer socializing and working in groups.
  • 126. b. Introverted Learning Style • introverted learners are still sociable, they prefer to solve problems on their own. Characteristics of Introvert Learners: Prefers to work alone, Enjoys quiet, solitary work Often generates ideas from internal sources Prefers to listen, watch and reflect Likes to observe others before attempting a new skill
  • 127. • Both attitudes - extraversion and introversion - are present in every person, in different degrees. No-one is pure extravert or pure introvert, and more recent studies (notably Eysenck) indicate that a big majority of people are actually a reasonably well-balanced mixture of the two types, albeit with a preference for one or the other. • In addition to the two attitudes of extraversion and introversion, Jung also developed a framework of 'four functional types'.
  • 128. c. Sensing Learning Style • Characteristics of Sensate Learners: • Focuses on the present • Practical and reasonable • Utilizes experience and common sense to solve problems • Keenly observe the surrounding world • Jung's 'Sensation' function translates signals from the senses into factual data. There is no judgement of right or wrong, good or bad, implications, causes, directions, context, possibilities, themes, or related concepts. Sensation sees what is, as what it is. 'Sensation' is the opposite to 'Intuition'.
  • 129. d. Intuitive Learning Style • Characteristics of Intuitive Learners • Prefers to work in short sessions, rather than finishing a task all at once • Enjoys new challenges, experiences and situations • More likely to look at the big picture rather than the details • Like theories and abstract ideas • Intuitive learners tend to focus more on the world of possibility. • They enjoy considering ideas, possibilities, and potential outcomes. • These learners like abstract thinking, daydreaming, and imagining the future.
  • 130. • Jung said that Intuition and Sensation are 'Irrational' since they are concerned with perception and do not evaluate. According to Jung the Intuition and Sensation functions are Irrational because they simply gather information and perceive the nature of something they do not reason or decide or judge
  • 131. Thinking Learning Style  Characteristics of Thinking Learners: • Interested in logic and patterns • Dislike basing decisions on emotions • Bases decisions on reason and logic • Individuals with a thinking learning style tend to focus more on the structure and function of information and objects… It is objective to the extent that evaluation is based on personal intelligence and comprehension
  • 132. 1. Feeling Learning Style • Characteristics of Feeling Learners: • Interested in people and their feelings • Base decisions on immediate feelings • Generates excitement and enthusiasm in group settings People with a feeling style manage information based on the initial emotions and feelings it generates. It is a 'rational' process of forming personal subjective opinion about whether something is good or bad, right or wrong, acceptable or unacceptable, etc.
  • 133. • Jung said that Thinking and Feeling are Rational because both of these functions evaluate experience. In Jung’s theory the Thinking and Feeling functions are rational because they reason and decide and judge. • The Rational and Irrational descriptions that Jung attached to the four functions might not appear particularly significant at first, especially given that Jung's use of the words is rather different to the modern meanings. • Modern words that describe Jung's meaning of Rational and Irrational, respectively. Judging (rational Thinking and Feeling) and perceiving (‘irrational’ sensation and intuition)
  • 134.
  • 135. • Myers and Briggs added another dimension to Jung's typological model by identifying that people also have a preference for using either the judging function (thinking or feeling) or their perceiving function (sensing or intuition) when relating to the outside world (extraversion).
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