SlideShare a Scribd company logo
OSCM Unit 2:
Operations Processes
By,
Prof. Sandeep D Chaudhary,
International School of Management &
Research,Pune
1.
Concept of
Operations
Processes
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
“ A Process is defined as an
arrangement of resources
that produces some
mixture of products &
Services.”
3
Meaning of Operations Processes
◂ Operations processes connect with each
other to form a Network
◂ Network will comprise of various
‘departments’ & ‘units’
◂ Main task of these operations processes is the
transformation-conversion of inputs
(resources) into outputs (goods & services)
4
Three components of an Organization
Inputs
◂ Manpower
◂ Materials
◂ Machinery
◂ Money
◂ Technology
◂ Time
◂ Govt interaction
◂ Information
Transformation
Processes
◂ Creation of product mix
◂ Plant management
◂ Materials handling
equipment
◂ Labour management
◂ Production cost
utilization
◂ Material cost
management.
Outputs
◂ Goods/Services
◂ Satisfied
customers
5
Example
A Car manufacturing company
◂ Inputs: plastic, metal,
glass,rubber, wheels, tyres,
body parts, accessory
◂ Process: design,
manufacturing, painting,
assembling
◂ Output: Car
Exercise
Inputs
Tranformati
on process
outputs Control
Unexpected
disturbance
Post office
Labour,
equipment,
trucks
Transporta
tion,
printing
Mail
deliveries,
stamps
Weather,
mail
volumes,
sorting/loss
errors
Transportat
ion
network,
Weather,
Civil
service
Bank
Cinema
MBA
College
Hospitals 7
2.
Process
Characteristics
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
Process Characteristics
◂ Volume
◂ Variety
◂ Flow – Continuous and Intermittent
Volume, Variety, Flow are interrelated with each other
9
Process Characteristics & Explanation
Volume
means total no of goods produced in
manufacturing system
10
Low-Volume
◂ Shipbuilding
◂ Construction
◂ Heavy turbine
generator
◂ BHEL
◂ Larson & Toubro
High-Volume
◂ Bread
◂ Toothpaste
◂ Soaps
◂ Bulbs
◂ Shoes
◂ Mirrors
◂ Household utilities
Mid-volume
◂ Industrial project
company
◂ Consumer durables
◂ Luxury goods
Process Characteristics & Explanation
Variety
means number of different products/services produced in
manufacturing systems
e.g.
◂ Mobile manufacturing company with models with various
specifications
◂ Car manufacturer with petrol, diesel variants with specifications
like automatic with power steering, power widows, safety pillows
◂ Hospitals with patient treatments offering CT Scan, X-ray, MRI,
Blood testing facilities as well as doctors of all domains
◂ Leads to increase in alternative resources, materials, skill human
resources, no. of machinery, production process
11
Process Characteristics & Explanation
Flow
means channel through which entire set of inputs (resources)
moves while transforming them into the final product
12
Volume-Variety relationship
Inversely proportional with each other
3.
Types of production
systems
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
14
Types of production systems
4.
Intermittent Flow
production systems
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
Intermittent Flow systems
◂ Goods manufactured as per the requirement of
customers rather than producing goods for stock
◂ Production of large variety & various sizes of
products
◂ Change in production design as per design & size of
product, hence system is flexible
◂ Intermittent flow system is more complex than
continues flow since every product is treated
differently
16
Characteristics of Intermittent Flow
systems
◂ Type & volume of production
◂ Used for products with non-continuous demand
◂ Require skilled labor
◂ Cost of initial set-up is low but cost of
production per unit is high
◂ Larger storage area for each stage of production
for frequent stoppages in production
17
Examples
◂ Catering or any cooking orders is
an example of intermittent
process because food is prepared
on the basis of number of people &
the varieties of items will be
decided by the customers on the
basis of the event or any occasion.
◂ Performance of a gold smith is
another example in which
ornaments are created on the
basis of design expectations &
requirements of the customers.
18
Examples in India
◂ FabIndia:
Known for its handcrafted textiles,
clothing, and home furnishings, Their
products vary in design, size, and
material, catering to individual
preferences.
◂ Film Industry:
India’s vibrant film industry
(Bollywood, regional cinema, and
independent films) operates under
an intermittent production system.
Each film project is unique, with
varying budgets, genres, and artistic
visions.
19
Examples in India
◂ Furniture Industry:
create furniture pieces tailored to
customer needs. The designs, materials,
and dimensions vary, reflecting an
intermittent production approach.
e.g. Godrej Interio, Urban Ladder, and
Pepperfry
◂ Larsen & Toubro (L&T)::
is involved in diverse engineering and
construction projects, including
infrastructure, heavy machinery, and
industrial equipment.
Their production processes are
customized based on project
requirements, making it an
intermittent system. 20
Advantages
◂ Variety at low cost
◂ High capacity utilization
◂ Staff advantages
Intermittent flow system
Disadvantages
◂ More costly for high
volume
◂ Complex operations
planning & control
◂ Large In-process
inventory
21
5.
Continuous Flow
production systems
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
Characteristics of Continuous Flow
systems
◂ Standardization of product design
◂ Standardized operations with help of special
purpose machines hence fully automatic
◂ Output is usually voluminous
◂ Production of low variety & fixed sizes of products
◂ No change in product design & size of product,
hence system is fixed
◂ Continuous flow system is less complex than
intermittent flow since every product is of standard
size & standard design
23
Suitability of Continuous Flow
systems
◂ Continuous demand
◂ Standardized product or process
◂ Specified task sequences
◂ Task must be defined
◂ Work conformance with quality standards
◂ Right kind of plant, equipment at every stage
◂ Synchronized operations
◂ Balanced stages
24
Examples of Continuous
Flow systems
◂ Food industry
Its production is based on the
demand forecast. Here, a large-
scale production of food takes
place.
◂ Fuel industry
Crude oil and other rawsources
are processed continuously on a
large scale to create petroleum
products and compensate global
energy demand.
25
Examples of Continuous
Flow systems
◂ Steel Production:
The production of steel involves a
seamless process of melting,
casting, rolling, and shaping raw
materials into steel products.
◂ Paper Milling:
Paper mills follow continuous
flow production to create various
paper grades.
The paper pulp undergoes a
continuous transformation,
including refining, pressing,
drying, and cutting. 26
Examples of Continuous Flow
systems
◂ Food Processing:
Industries producing packaged food
items (such as snacks, beverages, and
canned goods) use continuous flow
systems.
The production lines run non-stop,
ensuring consistent quality and
efficient output.
◂ Pharmaceuticals:
Pharmaceutical companies use
continuous flow processes for drug
manufacturing. Tablets, capsules, and
liquid medications are produced
seamlessly, maintaining uniform
quality.
27
Global Examples
◂ Case Study 1: Boeing
Boeing, a leading aerospace
manufacturer, applied continuous flow
manufacturing principles to the
production of its 737 aircraft.
They adopted assembly line techniques
and implemented a continuous flow
production system.
◂ Case Study 2: Harley-Davidson
Harley-Davidson, the iconic motorcycle
manufacturer, embraced continuous flow
manufacturing to streamline its
production process.
They applied Lean manufacturing
principles to their assembly lines.
28
Global Examples
◂ Case Study 3: Bisleri
Bisleri, the largest selling packaged
water brand in India, with 120 bottling
plants.
It has implemented continuous flow
manufacturing in bottling and packaging
facilities.
They optimized their production lines to
ensure a constant flow of bottling and
packaging operations..
◂ Case Study 4: Johnson & Johnson
Johnson & Johnson, a multinational
healthcare company, applied continuous
flow principles to its pharmaceutical
industry manufacturing processes. They
implemented Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory
management and continuous
improvement practices.. 29
Advantages
◂ Low unit cost
◂ Lower operator skills
◂ Simpler managerial
control
Continuous flow system
Disadvantages
◂ Difficult to adopt
◂ Possibility of stoppage
of line
◂ Balancing the line
◂ Low worker morale
◂ High initial cost
30
5.
Types of
Intermittent Flow
production systems
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
32
Job Shop Production System
◂ Definition
◂ Products are customized or made to order based on
specific customer requirements.
◂ Each product is unique, and production processes are
tailored to individual items.
◂ Job shops use special all-purpose equipment to
manufacture these custom products
33
Job Shop Production System
◂ Characteristics:
◂ Customization: Job shops excel at producing one-of-a-
kind or low-volume items.
◂ Flexibility: They can adapt to diverse product
specifications.
◂ Varied Workflows: Each job follows a different production
path.
◂ Specialized Equipment: Job shops use versatile machinery
capable of handling various tasks
34
Advantages
◂ Customization:
Job shops meet
individual customer
needs.
◂ Diverse Product Range:
They can handle a wide
variety of products.
◂ Craftsmanship:
Job shops often involve
skilled artisans and
craftsmen.
Job Shop Production System
Disadvantages
◂ Complex Scheduling:
Managing diverse
workflows can be
challenging.
◂ Higher Costs:
Customization and
flexibility may lead to
increased production
costs.
35
Examples of Job Shop
Manufacturing in India
◂ Machine Tool Shops:
These shops manufacture
specialized machine tools, such
as lathe machines, milling
machines, and CNC equipment.
Each tool is customized for
specific applications..
◂ Boutiques and Tailoring Shops:
Boutiques create custom
clothing, catering to individual
preferences.
Tailoring shops produce
personalized garments based on
measurements and design 36
Examples of Job Shop
Manufacturing in India
◂ Commercial Printing Shops:
Printers in job shops handle custom
printing orders.
They produce brochures, business
cards, posters, and other promotional
materials according to client
specifications.
◂ Automobile Service Centers:
Automobile repair shops operate as
job shops.
Each vehicle repair involves unique
tasks based on the car’s condition and
specific issues..
37
38
Remember?
that job shops play a crucial role in
creating unique, tailor-made
products, contributing to the rich
embroidery of India’s manufacturing
landscape.....
Batch Production System
◂ Process Overview:
◂ In batch production, a batch of products goes through a
series of steps in a large manufacturing process to create
the final desired product.
◂ All items within a batch follow the same initial production
steps and then wait in line for subsequent phases of
production
39
Batch Production System
◂ Characteristics:
◂ Grouped Production: Instead of continuous assembly,
products are manufactured in batches.
◂ Variability: Each batch may have slight variations due to
factors like raw materials or minor adjustments during
production.
◂ Flexibility: Batch production allows changes along the
way, making it adaptable to different requirements
40
Advantages
◂ Agility: Manufacturers can
produce lines of goods in
smaller quantities, making the
overall process more agile and
efficient.
◂ Customization: Businesses can
adjust production based on
demand or specific product
variants.
◂ Generalist Equipment: Easily
convert equipment to meet
different requirements.
◂ Quality Control: Allows quality
checks at various stages,
minimizing waste.
Batch Production System
Disadvantages
◂ Compared to continuous
or mass production,
batch production cannot
compete in terms of
volume output.
◂ It is not suitable for
scenarios where goods
need to be assembled
without breaks between
each step.
41
Examples of Batch
Production System in India
◂ Amul:
It produces dairy products in
batches.
Items like cheese and yogurt are
manufactured using batch
production methods.
This approach allows them to
maintain product quality and
cater to the diverse preferences of
people in India..
◂ Parle Products:
It manufactures batches of
biscuits and sweets using the
batch production process. They
efficiently create high-quality
products and adapt to varying
consumer choices..
42
Examples of Batch production
system in India
◂ Pharmaceutical Companies:
Most Pharma adjust their production
based on demand for specific
medications.
For instance, cold and flu tablets or
seasonal allergy medication may not
be needed year-round, so they can
scale up production when required.
◂ Bakeries:
Bakery companies create a variety of
baked goods (such as bread, cakes,
and pastries) using the same
equipment (ovens, mixing bowls, and
baking trays).
Batch production allows them to
adjust production levels based on
trends and demand forecasts..
43
Remember?
that batch production strikes a
balance between customization and
efficiency, making it a valuable
approach for various industries....
44
Project Production System
◂ Process Overview:
◂ A project production system involves
complex sets of activities performed in a
specific order within a given period and
estimated expenditure.
◂ The output of a project is a product, and
these products are characterized by
immobility during transformation.
◂ Operations occur in a
fixed position assembly layout, observed
in shipbuilding, locomotive construction,
aircraft manufacturing, and road/building
construction 45
Project Production System
◂ Characteristics
◂ Definite Beginning and End:
◂ Each project has a clear start and finish.
◂ Fixed Position Layout:
◂ Products remain immobile during transformation.
◂ Common in large-scale projects like shipbuilding.
◂ High Cost Overruns:
◂ Delays are expensive due to rising production costs
and penalties.
◂ Personnel Challenges:
◂ Staff may be borrowed or hired temporarily.
◂ Limited interest due to project duration.
◂ Site changes disrupt normal life 46
Examples of Project Production System in
India
◂ Bridges:
◂ Constructing a bridge involves a unique project.
◂ Each bridge has specific design requirements,
materials, and site conditions.
◂ The project team coordinates activities such as
foundation work, structural steel fabrication, and
assembly.
◂ Examples: Howrah Bridge in Kolkata or Bandra-Worli
Sea Link in Mumbai..
◂ Dams:
◂ Building a dam is a massive project.
◂ Dams serve purposes like water storage, hydroelectric
power generation, and flood control.
◂ The construction process includes excavation,
concrete pouring, and installation of turbines.
47
Examples of Project production
system in India
◂ Buildings:
◂ Constructing any building, whether
residential, commercial, or
institutional, follows a project-based
approach.
◂ Architects, engineers, and construction
teams collaborate to create unique
structures.
◂ Examples: historic monuments like the
Taj Mahal, modern skyscrapers like the
Lotus Tower in Mumbai..
48
Remember?
that project production systems
handle diverse tasks, require
coordination, and play a vital role in
delivering complex projects... 49
6.
Types of
Continuous Flow
production systems
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
51
Types of Continuous
Flow Production
systems
1. Mass production
2. Process production
3. Assembly-line
production
Continuous Flow Production Systems
│
├── Mass Production
│ ├── Automobile assembly lines
│ ├── Consumer electronics
manufacturing
│ └── Standardized products in large
quantities
│
├── Process Production
│ ├── Petrochemical industry
│ ├── Cement production
│ ├── Steel manufacturing
│ ├── Sugar mills
│ └── Fertilizer plants
│
└── Assembly Production
├── Appliance assembly lines
├── Electronic device manufacturing
└── Standardized components
assembled into products
Mass Production System
◂ Definition
◂ Mass production is a manufacturing method that involves
producing large quantities of standardized products in a
continuous flow.
52
Mass Production System
◂ Characteristics:
◂ Standardization: Mass production focuses on creating
identical or highly similar products.
◂ Efficiency: It uses assembly lines or automation technology
to achieve high volume.
◂ Division of Labor: Workers specialize in specific tasks,
leading to streamlined production.
◂ Precision: Machines with preset parameters ensure
consistent quality.
53
Examples of Mass Production
◂ Motor Vehicles:
◂ Henry Ford pioneered mass
production with the assembly line
technique for the Ford Model T
automobile.
◂ By reducing manufacturing time for
parts, Ford drastically lowered the
time to build cars.
◂ Over 15 million Model T cars were
produced from 1908 to 1927, making
cars accessible to the general public.
◂ Canned Foods:
◂ Most canned foods are manufactured
using mass production.
◂ Items like canned vegetables, soups,
and fruits are produced in large 54
Examples of Mass Production
in India
◂ Games Consoles:
◂ Video game consoles like the
PlayStation and Xbox are mass-
produced.
◂ Standardized components allow
efficient assembly.
◂ Mobile Phones:
◂ The mobile phone industry relies on
mass production.
◂ Phones with similar features are
produced in vast quantities
55
Remember?
that mass production revolutionized
affordability and accessibility, making
everyday items available to a wider
audience.. 56
Process Production System
◂ Definition
◂ A process production system involves continuous
transformation of raw materials into finished products.
◂ It is used for items with continuous and high demand.
◂ Standardized inputs and a consistent sequence of
operations characterize this system..
57
Process Production System
◂ Characteristics:
◂ Continuous Flow: The production process operates
without interruptions.
◂ High Volume: Large quantities of products are produced.
◂ Standardization: Consistent procedures and specifications
are followed.
◂ Efficiency: Streamlined processes minimize waste and
maximize output.
58
Examples of Process
Production
◂ Cement Factory:
◂ Cement production involves
continuous grinding, mixing, and
kiln firing.
◂ Standardized cement bags are
produced for construction and
infrastructure projects..
◂ Sugar Factory:
◂ Sugar mills process sugarcane
continuously.
◂ Raw sugarcane is crushed,
purified, and crystallized to
produce standardized sugar... 59
Examples of Process
Production in India
◂ Chemical Processing:
◂ Chemical plants follow process
production.
◂ Examples include the production
of fertilizers, plastics, and
industrial chemicals..
◂ Computer Keyboards:
◂ Mass-produced computer
keyboards are created using
standardized components.
◂ The assembly process is
continuous and efficient.
◂ Other examples : Oil Refineries 60
Remember?
that process production systems
ensure a steady supply of essential
goods, meeting the demands of
modern society..... 61
Assembly Line Production System
◂ Definition
◂ An assembly line is a production process that breaks down
the manufacture of a product into sequential steps
completed in a pre-defined sequence.
◂ It is the most commonly used method in mass production
of goods.
◂ Assembly lines reduce labor costs by training unskilled
workers to perform specific tasks efficiently...
62
Assembly Line Production System
◂ Characteristics:
◂ Standardization: Parts are added to a product in a specific
order until the final assembly is produced.
◂ Efficiency: Workers or machines complete specific tasks as
the product moves along the production line.
◂ Maximized Output: Each worker focuses on a particular
task, increasing productivity relative to labor costs..
63
Examples of Assembly line
Production
◂ Automobile Final Assembly
Plants:
◂ Car manufacturing involves assembly
lines where workers install
standardized components (engines,
chassis, interiors) in a sequential
manner.
◂ Each station along the line handles
specific tasks, such as attaching doors,
installing seats, or adding electronics...
◂ Food Processing Lines:
◂ Food factories use assembly lines for
packaging and processing.
◂ Examples include bottling lines for
beverages or packaging lines for 64
Examples of Assembly line
Production in India
◂ Electronic Device Manufacturing
Facilities:
◂ Assembly lines produce smartphones,
laptops, and other electronic gadgets.
◂ Components like screens, batteries,
and circuit boards are assembled in a
systematic order.
65
Remember?
that assembly lines have
revolutionized manufacturing,
making goods more accessible and
affordable for consumers.... 66
7.
Service
Blueprinting
Let’s start with the first set of
slides
What Is Service Blueprinting?
◂ Definition
◂ Service blueprinting is a visual tool used to map out the
end-to-end service process from both the customer’s perspective
and the internal operational perspective..
◂ It helps organizations understand the interactions, touchpoints,
and processes involved in delivering a service.
◂ Unlike customer journey maps, service blueprints include
employee actions, support processes, and backstage operations
that impact the overall service experience....
68
Elements of a Service Blueprint:
A service blueprint typically contains five main categories:
1. Physical Evidence:
◂ What customers (and employees) come in contact with during
the service.
◂ Includes locations (physical stores, websites), signage, receipts,
emails, etc.
2. Customer Actions:
◂ The specific actions customers take during the service process.
◂ For example, searching for information, making a reservation, or
placing an order.
69
Elements of a Service Blueprint:
3. Frontstage Actions:
visible actions performed by employees in direct contact with
customers.
Examples: greeting customers, serving food, or handling inquiries.
4. Backstage Actions:
internal processes and actions that customers don’t directly see.
Backstage actions support the frontstage service delivery.
Examples: food preparation, inventory management, and payment
processing.
5. Support Processes:
systems, technologies, and third-party vendors that enable the service.
Examples: reservation systems, payment gateways, and delivery
partners. 70
Example: Hotel Check-In Process for
accomodation
Physical
Evidence:
Hotel lobby,
reception desk,
room keys, signage.
Customer
Actions
Arriving at the hotel,
approaching the front
desk,
providing identification.
Frontstage
Actions
Front desk staff greet
the guest,
verify reservation,
assign a room, and
provide room keys.
71
Backstage
Actions
Housekeeping prepares
the room,
maintenance ensures
facilities are functional,
and security monitors
the premises.
Support
Processes:
Reservation system
(booking),
payment processing,
and key card system
Benefits of Service Blueprinting
◂ Clarity:
Visualizing the entire service process helps identify pain
points and opportunities for improvement.
◂ Coordination:
Aligns frontstage and backstage activities.
◂ Innovation:
Allows for targeted changes to enhance customer
satisfaction.
72
73
Service Blueprint: Hotel Check-In Process
1. Physical Evidence:
- Hotel lobby
- Reception desk
- Room keys
- Signage
2. Customer Actions:
- Arriving at the hotel
- Approaching the front desk
- Providing identification
3. Frontstage Actions (Visible to Customers):
- Front desk staff:
- Greet the guest
- Verify the reservation
- Assign a room
- Provide room keys
4. Backstage Actions (Internal Processes):
- Housekeeping:
- Prepare the room
- Maintenance:
- Ensure facilities are functional
- Security:
- Monitor the premises
5. Support Processes:
- Reservation system (booking)
- Payment processing
- Key card system
74
75
Restaurant Service Blueprint:
1. Physical Evidence:
Restaurant interior, tables,
menus, signage.
2. Customer Actions:
Entering the restaurant,
choosing a table, ordering
food.
3. Frontstage Actions:
Wait staff greeting, taking
orders, serving food.
4. Backstage Actions:
Kitchen preparing meals,
dishwashing, restocking
supplies.
5. Support Processes:
Reservation system,
payment processing.
76
77
Hospital Service Blueprint:
1. Physical Evidence:
Hospital building, waiting
areas, patient rooms.
2. Customer Actions:
Checking in, meeting with
doctors, undergoing tests.
3. Frontstage Actions:
Nurses taking vitals,
doctors examining patients.
4. Backstage Actions:
Lab tests, medical records
management, pharmacy.
5. Support Processes:
Appointment scheduling,
billing systems.
78
Bank service blueprint
79
80
Thanks!
Any questions?
You can find me at
◂ csandeepd@gmail.com

More Related Content

What's hot

Business Model Canvas 101
Business Model Canvas 101Business Model Canvas 101
Business Model Canvas 101
Emad Saif
 
Production systems
Production systemsProduction systems
Production Presentation
Production PresentationProduction Presentation
Production Presentation
ahmad bassiouny
 
Entrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s View
Entrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s ViewEntrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s View
Entrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s View
Taresa Farfan
 
Entrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small business
Entrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small businessEntrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small business
Entrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small business
Ravi kumar
 
To study weath maximization portfolio
To study weath maximization portfolioTo study weath maximization portfolio
To study weath maximization portfolio
Bhavesh Kundnani
 
New product devlopment ppt
New product devlopment pptNew product devlopment ppt
New product devlopment ppt
Rameshwar Swami
 
Production Management
Production ManagementProduction Management
Production Management
Hiten Patel
 
Obj & scope of the business
Obj & scope of the businessObj & scope of the business
Obj & scope of the business
Aamir Kiyani
 
Batch production
Batch productionBatch production
Batch production
Kavita Antony
 
Quality gurus
Quality gurusQuality gurus
Quality gurus
Sudha Bisht
 
Production and Operations Mangement
Production and Operations MangementProduction and Operations Mangement
Production and Operations Mangement
Swapnil Thakur
 
Types of innovation
Types of innovationTypes of innovation
Types of innovation
PratibhaShukla25
 
Production and operations management
Production and operations managementProduction and operations management
Production and operations management
Sayli Wable Deshmukh
 
Production and operation management
Production and operation management Production and operation management
Production and operation management
venkateswararao meesala
 
Direct marketing and direct selling
Direct marketing and direct sellingDirect marketing and direct selling
Direct marketing and direct selling
Shwetanshu Gupta
 
Quality awards & certifications
Quality awards & certificationsQuality awards & certifications
Quality awards & certifications
Valliammal M
 
Strategic entrepreneurial growth
Strategic entrepreneurial growthStrategic entrepreneurial growth
Strategic entrepreneurial growth
Tecnológico de Monterrey
 
Intrapreneurship
IntrapreneurshipIntrapreneurship
Intrapreneurship
Priya Srinivas
 
Characteristics of business
Characteristics of businessCharacteristics of business
Characteristics of business
Anoop Kumar
 

What's hot (20)

Business Model Canvas 101
Business Model Canvas 101Business Model Canvas 101
Business Model Canvas 101
 
Production systems
Production systemsProduction systems
Production systems
 
Production Presentation
Production PresentationProduction Presentation
Production Presentation
 
Entrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s View
Entrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s ViewEntrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s View
Entrepreneurship by Schumpeter’s View
 
Entrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small business
Entrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small businessEntrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small business
Entrepreneurship-small business benefits & opportunities of small business
 
To study weath maximization portfolio
To study weath maximization portfolioTo study weath maximization portfolio
To study weath maximization portfolio
 
New product devlopment ppt
New product devlopment pptNew product devlopment ppt
New product devlopment ppt
 
Production Management
Production ManagementProduction Management
Production Management
 
Obj & scope of the business
Obj & scope of the businessObj & scope of the business
Obj & scope of the business
 
Batch production
Batch productionBatch production
Batch production
 
Quality gurus
Quality gurusQuality gurus
Quality gurus
 
Production and Operations Mangement
Production and Operations MangementProduction and Operations Mangement
Production and Operations Mangement
 
Types of innovation
Types of innovationTypes of innovation
Types of innovation
 
Production and operations management
Production and operations managementProduction and operations management
Production and operations management
 
Production and operation management
Production and operation management Production and operation management
Production and operation management
 
Direct marketing and direct selling
Direct marketing and direct sellingDirect marketing and direct selling
Direct marketing and direct selling
 
Quality awards & certifications
Quality awards & certificationsQuality awards & certifications
Quality awards & certifications
 
Strategic entrepreneurial growth
Strategic entrepreneurial growthStrategic entrepreneurial growth
Strategic entrepreneurial growth
 
Intrapreneurship
IntrapreneurshipIntrapreneurship
Intrapreneurship
 
Characteristics of business
Characteristics of businessCharacteristics of business
Characteristics of business
 

Similar to OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems

Types of Manufacturing system
Types of Manufacturing systemTypes of Manufacturing system
Types of Manufacturing system
Karishma Chaudhary
 
introduction to operation management
introduction to operation managementintroduction to operation management
introduction to operation management
Sanjay Thakur
 
Unit 1 II (1).ppt
Unit 1  II (1).pptUnit 1  II (1).ppt
Unit 1 II (1).ppt
SagarGupta227184
 
Operations Management Unit Two
Operations Management Unit Two Operations Management Unit Two
Operations Management Unit Two
DakshinaMurthy31
 
Production and Operations Management.pptx
Production and Operations Management.pptxProduction and Operations Management.pptx
Production and Operations Management.pptx
MangeshBhople
 
Organisation's operation's management
Organisation's operation's managementOrganisation's operation's management
Organisation's operation's management
darious demus
 
POM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.ppt
POM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.pptPOM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.ppt
POM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.ppt
chandravathiksg
 
Planning for high volume standardised product
Planning for high volume standardised productPlanning for high volume standardised product
Planning for high volume standardised product
Nidhi Vats
 
final Production
 final Production  final Production
final Production
Vikash Kumar Bibhakar
 
production
productionproduction
production
sugandhik
 
Production and operation management
Production and operation managementProduction and operation management
Production and operation management
Harsha Mathad
 
Productivity and Total Quality Management_1
Productivity and Total Quality Management_1Productivity and Total Quality Management_1
Productivity and Total Quality Management_1
Dr. Parveen Kaur Nagpal
 
world class manufacturing practices for mms
world class manufacturing practices for mmsworld class manufacturing practices for mms
world class manufacturing practices for mms
Chandrasen Sharma
 
01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )
01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )
01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )
Sadam Hussain
 
Production and Operations Management
Production and Operations ManagementProduction and Operations Management
Production and Operations Management
Nishant Agrawal
 
om chapter 3.ppt
om chapter 3.pptom chapter 3.ppt
om chapter 3.ppt
DejeneDay
 
Food processing plant layout design1
Food processing plant layout design1Food processing plant layout design1
Food processing plant layout design1
Dr. Poshadri Achinna
 
Operation management
Operation management Operation management
Operation management
jenie fate gutang
 
Mb0044 production & operation mangement
Mb0044 production & operation mangementMb0044 production & operation mangement
Mb0044 production & operation mangement
Devendra Kachhi
 
Process selection & facility layout.pptx
Process selection & facility layout.pptxProcess selection & facility layout.pptx
Process selection & facility layout.pptx
Shiab Hossen Gaddafe
 

Similar to OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems (20)

Types of Manufacturing system
Types of Manufacturing systemTypes of Manufacturing system
Types of Manufacturing system
 
introduction to operation management
introduction to operation managementintroduction to operation management
introduction to operation management
 
Unit 1 II (1).ppt
Unit 1  II (1).pptUnit 1  II (1).ppt
Unit 1 II (1).ppt
 
Operations Management Unit Two
Operations Management Unit Two Operations Management Unit Two
Operations Management Unit Two
 
Production and Operations Management.pptx
Production and Operations Management.pptxProduction and Operations Management.pptx
Production and Operations Management.pptx
 
Organisation's operation's management
Organisation's operation's managementOrganisation's operation's management
Organisation's operation's management
 
POM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.ppt
POM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.pptPOM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.ppt
POM UNIT 1 PPT (2) shailaja.ppt
 
Planning for high volume standardised product
Planning for high volume standardised productPlanning for high volume standardised product
Planning for high volume standardised product
 
final Production
 final Production  final Production
final Production
 
production
productionproduction
production
 
Production and operation management
Production and operation managementProduction and operation management
Production and operation management
 
Productivity and Total Quality Management_1
Productivity and Total Quality Management_1Productivity and Total Quality Management_1
Productivity and Total Quality Management_1
 
world class manufacturing practices for mms
world class manufacturing practices for mmsworld class manufacturing practices for mms
world class manufacturing practices for mms
 
01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )
01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )
01 05 11 31 35 ( Team Work )
 
Production and Operations Management
Production and Operations ManagementProduction and Operations Management
Production and Operations Management
 
om chapter 3.ppt
om chapter 3.pptom chapter 3.ppt
om chapter 3.ppt
 
Food processing plant layout design1
Food processing plant layout design1Food processing plant layout design1
Food processing plant layout design1
 
Operation management
Operation management Operation management
Operation management
 
Mb0044 production & operation mangement
Mb0044 production & operation mangementMb0044 production & operation mangement
Mb0044 production & operation mangement
 
Process selection & facility layout.pptx
Process selection & facility layout.pptxProcess selection & facility layout.pptx
Process selection & facility layout.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
GeorgeMilliken2
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
Wahiba Chair Training & Consulting
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
heathfieldcps1
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
สมใจ จันสุกสี
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Diana Rendina
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
Academy of Science of South Africa
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
Celine George
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
Celine George
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
Dr. Shivangi Singh Parihar
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
TechSoup
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
Jyoti Chand
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 

Recently uploaded (20)

What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
What is Digital Literacy? A guest blog from Andy McLaughlin, University of Ab...
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptxThe basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
The basics of sentences session 6pptx.pptx
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
 
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdfANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
ANATOMY AND BIOMECHANICS OF HIP JOINT.pdf
 
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
South African Journal of Science: Writing with integrity workshop (2024)
 
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRMHow to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
How to Manage Your Lost Opportunities in Odoo 17 CRM
 
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP ModuleHow to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
How to Add Chatter in the odoo 17 ERP Module
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
 
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
Wound healing PPT
Wound healing PPTWound healing PPT
Wound healing PPT
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2023-2024 (CÓ FI...
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 

OSCM Unit 2_Operations Processes & Systems

  • 1. OSCM Unit 2: Operations Processes By, Prof. Sandeep D Chaudhary, International School of Management & Research,Pune
  • 3. “ A Process is defined as an arrangement of resources that produces some mixture of products & Services.” 3
  • 4. Meaning of Operations Processes ◂ Operations processes connect with each other to form a Network ◂ Network will comprise of various ‘departments’ & ‘units’ ◂ Main task of these operations processes is the transformation-conversion of inputs (resources) into outputs (goods & services) 4
  • 5. Three components of an Organization Inputs ◂ Manpower ◂ Materials ◂ Machinery ◂ Money ◂ Technology ◂ Time ◂ Govt interaction ◂ Information Transformation Processes ◂ Creation of product mix ◂ Plant management ◂ Materials handling equipment ◂ Labour management ◂ Production cost utilization ◂ Material cost management. Outputs ◂ Goods/Services ◂ Satisfied customers 5
  • 6. Example A Car manufacturing company ◂ Inputs: plastic, metal, glass,rubber, wheels, tyres, body parts, accessory ◂ Process: design, manufacturing, painting, assembling ◂ Output: Car
  • 7. Exercise Inputs Tranformati on process outputs Control Unexpected disturbance Post office Labour, equipment, trucks Transporta tion, printing Mail deliveries, stamps Weather, mail volumes, sorting/loss errors Transportat ion network, Weather, Civil service Bank Cinema MBA College Hospitals 7
  • 9. Process Characteristics ◂ Volume ◂ Variety ◂ Flow – Continuous and Intermittent Volume, Variety, Flow are interrelated with each other 9
  • 10. Process Characteristics & Explanation Volume means total no of goods produced in manufacturing system 10 Low-Volume ◂ Shipbuilding ◂ Construction ◂ Heavy turbine generator ◂ BHEL ◂ Larson & Toubro High-Volume ◂ Bread ◂ Toothpaste ◂ Soaps ◂ Bulbs ◂ Shoes ◂ Mirrors ◂ Household utilities Mid-volume ◂ Industrial project company ◂ Consumer durables ◂ Luxury goods
  • 11. Process Characteristics & Explanation Variety means number of different products/services produced in manufacturing systems e.g. ◂ Mobile manufacturing company with models with various specifications ◂ Car manufacturer with petrol, diesel variants with specifications like automatic with power steering, power widows, safety pillows ◂ Hospitals with patient treatments offering CT Scan, X-ray, MRI, Blood testing facilities as well as doctors of all domains ◂ Leads to increase in alternative resources, materials, skill human resources, no. of machinery, production process 11
  • 12. Process Characteristics & Explanation Flow means channel through which entire set of inputs (resources) moves while transforming them into the final product 12 Volume-Variety relationship Inversely proportional with each other
  • 13. 3. Types of production systems Let’s start with the first set of slides
  • 15. 4. Intermittent Flow production systems Let’s start with the first set of slides
  • 16. Intermittent Flow systems ◂ Goods manufactured as per the requirement of customers rather than producing goods for stock ◂ Production of large variety & various sizes of products ◂ Change in production design as per design & size of product, hence system is flexible ◂ Intermittent flow system is more complex than continues flow since every product is treated differently 16
  • 17. Characteristics of Intermittent Flow systems ◂ Type & volume of production ◂ Used for products with non-continuous demand ◂ Require skilled labor ◂ Cost of initial set-up is low but cost of production per unit is high ◂ Larger storage area for each stage of production for frequent stoppages in production 17
  • 18. Examples ◂ Catering or any cooking orders is an example of intermittent process because food is prepared on the basis of number of people & the varieties of items will be decided by the customers on the basis of the event or any occasion. ◂ Performance of a gold smith is another example in which ornaments are created on the basis of design expectations & requirements of the customers. 18
  • 19. Examples in India ◂ FabIndia: Known for its handcrafted textiles, clothing, and home furnishings, Their products vary in design, size, and material, catering to individual preferences. ◂ Film Industry: India’s vibrant film industry (Bollywood, regional cinema, and independent films) operates under an intermittent production system. Each film project is unique, with varying budgets, genres, and artistic visions. 19
  • 20. Examples in India ◂ Furniture Industry: create furniture pieces tailored to customer needs. The designs, materials, and dimensions vary, reflecting an intermittent production approach. e.g. Godrej Interio, Urban Ladder, and Pepperfry ◂ Larsen & Toubro (L&T):: is involved in diverse engineering and construction projects, including infrastructure, heavy machinery, and industrial equipment. Their production processes are customized based on project requirements, making it an intermittent system. 20
  • 21. Advantages ◂ Variety at low cost ◂ High capacity utilization ◂ Staff advantages Intermittent flow system Disadvantages ◂ More costly for high volume ◂ Complex operations planning & control ◂ Large In-process inventory 21
  • 22. 5. Continuous Flow production systems Let’s start with the first set of slides
  • 23. Characteristics of Continuous Flow systems ◂ Standardization of product design ◂ Standardized operations with help of special purpose machines hence fully automatic ◂ Output is usually voluminous ◂ Production of low variety & fixed sizes of products ◂ No change in product design & size of product, hence system is fixed ◂ Continuous flow system is less complex than intermittent flow since every product is of standard size & standard design 23
  • 24. Suitability of Continuous Flow systems ◂ Continuous demand ◂ Standardized product or process ◂ Specified task sequences ◂ Task must be defined ◂ Work conformance with quality standards ◂ Right kind of plant, equipment at every stage ◂ Synchronized operations ◂ Balanced stages 24
  • 25. Examples of Continuous Flow systems ◂ Food industry Its production is based on the demand forecast. Here, a large- scale production of food takes place. ◂ Fuel industry Crude oil and other rawsources are processed continuously on a large scale to create petroleum products and compensate global energy demand. 25
  • 26. Examples of Continuous Flow systems ◂ Steel Production: The production of steel involves a seamless process of melting, casting, rolling, and shaping raw materials into steel products. ◂ Paper Milling: Paper mills follow continuous flow production to create various paper grades. The paper pulp undergoes a continuous transformation, including refining, pressing, drying, and cutting. 26
  • 27. Examples of Continuous Flow systems ◂ Food Processing: Industries producing packaged food items (such as snacks, beverages, and canned goods) use continuous flow systems. The production lines run non-stop, ensuring consistent quality and efficient output. ◂ Pharmaceuticals: Pharmaceutical companies use continuous flow processes for drug manufacturing. Tablets, capsules, and liquid medications are produced seamlessly, maintaining uniform quality. 27
  • 28. Global Examples ◂ Case Study 1: Boeing Boeing, a leading aerospace manufacturer, applied continuous flow manufacturing principles to the production of its 737 aircraft. They adopted assembly line techniques and implemented a continuous flow production system. ◂ Case Study 2: Harley-Davidson Harley-Davidson, the iconic motorcycle manufacturer, embraced continuous flow manufacturing to streamline its production process. They applied Lean manufacturing principles to their assembly lines. 28
  • 29. Global Examples ◂ Case Study 3: Bisleri Bisleri, the largest selling packaged water brand in India, with 120 bottling plants. It has implemented continuous flow manufacturing in bottling and packaging facilities. They optimized their production lines to ensure a constant flow of bottling and packaging operations.. ◂ Case Study 4: Johnson & Johnson Johnson & Johnson, a multinational healthcare company, applied continuous flow principles to its pharmaceutical industry manufacturing processes. They implemented Just-In-Time (JIT) inventory management and continuous improvement practices.. 29
  • 30. Advantages ◂ Low unit cost ◂ Lower operator skills ◂ Simpler managerial control Continuous flow system Disadvantages ◂ Difficult to adopt ◂ Possibility of stoppage of line ◂ Balancing the line ◂ Low worker morale ◂ High initial cost 30
  • 31. 5. Types of Intermittent Flow production systems Let’s start with the first set of slides
  • 32. 32
  • 33. Job Shop Production System ◂ Definition ◂ Products are customized or made to order based on specific customer requirements. ◂ Each product is unique, and production processes are tailored to individual items. ◂ Job shops use special all-purpose equipment to manufacture these custom products 33
  • 34. Job Shop Production System ◂ Characteristics: ◂ Customization: Job shops excel at producing one-of-a- kind or low-volume items. ◂ Flexibility: They can adapt to diverse product specifications. ◂ Varied Workflows: Each job follows a different production path. ◂ Specialized Equipment: Job shops use versatile machinery capable of handling various tasks 34
  • 35. Advantages ◂ Customization: Job shops meet individual customer needs. ◂ Diverse Product Range: They can handle a wide variety of products. ◂ Craftsmanship: Job shops often involve skilled artisans and craftsmen. Job Shop Production System Disadvantages ◂ Complex Scheduling: Managing diverse workflows can be challenging. ◂ Higher Costs: Customization and flexibility may lead to increased production costs. 35
  • 36. Examples of Job Shop Manufacturing in India ◂ Machine Tool Shops: These shops manufacture specialized machine tools, such as lathe machines, milling machines, and CNC equipment. Each tool is customized for specific applications.. ◂ Boutiques and Tailoring Shops: Boutiques create custom clothing, catering to individual preferences. Tailoring shops produce personalized garments based on measurements and design 36
  • 37. Examples of Job Shop Manufacturing in India ◂ Commercial Printing Shops: Printers in job shops handle custom printing orders. They produce brochures, business cards, posters, and other promotional materials according to client specifications. ◂ Automobile Service Centers: Automobile repair shops operate as job shops. Each vehicle repair involves unique tasks based on the car’s condition and specific issues.. 37
  • 38. 38 Remember? that job shops play a crucial role in creating unique, tailor-made products, contributing to the rich embroidery of India’s manufacturing landscape.....
  • 39. Batch Production System ◂ Process Overview: ◂ In batch production, a batch of products goes through a series of steps in a large manufacturing process to create the final desired product. ◂ All items within a batch follow the same initial production steps and then wait in line for subsequent phases of production 39
  • 40. Batch Production System ◂ Characteristics: ◂ Grouped Production: Instead of continuous assembly, products are manufactured in batches. ◂ Variability: Each batch may have slight variations due to factors like raw materials or minor adjustments during production. ◂ Flexibility: Batch production allows changes along the way, making it adaptable to different requirements 40
  • 41. Advantages ◂ Agility: Manufacturers can produce lines of goods in smaller quantities, making the overall process more agile and efficient. ◂ Customization: Businesses can adjust production based on demand or specific product variants. ◂ Generalist Equipment: Easily convert equipment to meet different requirements. ◂ Quality Control: Allows quality checks at various stages, minimizing waste. Batch Production System Disadvantages ◂ Compared to continuous or mass production, batch production cannot compete in terms of volume output. ◂ It is not suitable for scenarios where goods need to be assembled without breaks between each step. 41
  • 42. Examples of Batch Production System in India ◂ Amul: It produces dairy products in batches. Items like cheese and yogurt are manufactured using batch production methods. This approach allows them to maintain product quality and cater to the diverse preferences of people in India.. ◂ Parle Products: It manufactures batches of biscuits and sweets using the batch production process. They efficiently create high-quality products and adapt to varying consumer choices.. 42
  • 43. Examples of Batch production system in India ◂ Pharmaceutical Companies: Most Pharma adjust their production based on demand for specific medications. For instance, cold and flu tablets or seasonal allergy medication may not be needed year-round, so they can scale up production when required. ◂ Bakeries: Bakery companies create a variety of baked goods (such as bread, cakes, and pastries) using the same equipment (ovens, mixing bowls, and baking trays). Batch production allows them to adjust production levels based on trends and demand forecasts.. 43
  • 44. Remember? that batch production strikes a balance between customization and efficiency, making it a valuable approach for various industries.... 44
  • 45. Project Production System ◂ Process Overview: ◂ A project production system involves complex sets of activities performed in a specific order within a given period and estimated expenditure. ◂ The output of a project is a product, and these products are characterized by immobility during transformation. ◂ Operations occur in a fixed position assembly layout, observed in shipbuilding, locomotive construction, aircraft manufacturing, and road/building construction 45
  • 46. Project Production System ◂ Characteristics ◂ Definite Beginning and End: ◂ Each project has a clear start and finish. ◂ Fixed Position Layout: ◂ Products remain immobile during transformation. ◂ Common in large-scale projects like shipbuilding. ◂ High Cost Overruns: ◂ Delays are expensive due to rising production costs and penalties. ◂ Personnel Challenges: ◂ Staff may be borrowed or hired temporarily. ◂ Limited interest due to project duration. ◂ Site changes disrupt normal life 46
  • 47. Examples of Project Production System in India ◂ Bridges: ◂ Constructing a bridge involves a unique project. ◂ Each bridge has specific design requirements, materials, and site conditions. ◂ The project team coordinates activities such as foundation work, structural steel fabrication, and assembly. ◂ Examples: Howrah Bridge in Kolkata or Bandra-Worli Sea Link in Mumbai.. ◂ Dams: ◂ Building a dam is a massive project. ◂ Dams serve purposes like water storage, hydroelectric power generation, and flood control. ◂ The construction process includes excavation, concrete pouring, and installation of turbines. 47
  • 48. Examples of Project production system in India ◂ Buildings: ◂ Constructing any building, whether residential, commercial, or institutional, follows a project-based approach. ◂ Architects, engineers, and construction teams collaborate to create unique structures. ◂ Examples: historic monuments like the Taj Mahal, modern skyscrapers like the Lotus Tower in Mumbai.. 48
  • 49. Remember? that project production systems handle diverse tasks, require coordination, and play a vital role in delivering complex projects... 49
  • 50. 6. Types of Continuous Flow production systems Let’s start with the first set of slides
  • 51. 51 Types of Continuous Flow Production systems 1. Mass production 2. Process production 3. Assembly-line production Continuous Flow Production Systems │ ├── Mass Production │ ├── Automobile assembly lines │ ├── Consumer electronics manufacturing │ └── Standardized products in large quantities │ ├── Process Production │ ├── Petrochemical industry │ ├── Cement production │ ├── Steel manufacturing │ ├── Sugar mills │ └── Fertilizer plants │ └── Assembly Production ├── Appliance assembly lines ├── Electronic device manufacturing └── Standardized components assembled into products
  • 52. Mass Production System ◂ Definition ◂ Mass production is a manufacturing method that involves producing large quantities of standardized products in a continuous flow. 52
  • 53. Mass Production System ◂ Characteristics: ◂ Standardization: Mass production focuses on creating identical or highly similar products. ◂ Efficiency: It uses assembly lines or automation technology to achieve high volume. ◂ Division of Labor: Workers specialize in specific tasks, leading to streamlined production. ◂ Precision: Machines with preset parameters ensure consistent quality. 53
  • 54. Examples of Mass Production ◂ Motor Vehicles: ◂ Henry Ford pioneered mass production with the assembly line technique for the Ford Model T automobile. ◂ By reducing manufacturing time for parts, Ford drastically lowered the time to build cars. ◂ Over 15 million Model T cars were produced from 1908 to 1927, making cars accessible to the general public. ◂ Canned Foods: ◂ Most canned foods are manufactured using mass production. ◂ Items like canned vegetables, soups, and fruits are produced in large 54
  • 55. Examples of Mass Production in India ◂ Games Consoles: ◂ Video game consoles like the PlayStation and Xbox are mass- produced. ◂ Standardized components allow efficient assembly. ◂ Mobile Phones: ◂ The mobile phone industry relies on mass production. ◂ Phones with similar features are produced in vast quantities 55
  • 56. Remember? that mass production revolutionized affordability and accessibility, making everyday items available to a wider audience.. 56
  • 57. Process Production System ◂ Definition ◂ A process production system involves continuous transformation of raw materials into finished products. ◂ It is used for items with continuous and high demand. ◂ Standardized inputs and a consistent sequence of operations characterize this system.. 57
  • 58. Process Production System ◂ Characteristics: ◂ Continuous Flow: The production process operates without interruptions. ◂ High Volume: Large quantities of products are produced. ◂ Standardization: Consistent procedures and specifications are followed. ◂ Efficiency: Streamlined processes minimize waste and maximize output. 58
  • 59. Examples of Process Production ◂ Cement Factory: ◂ Cement production involves continuous grinding, mixing, and kiln firing. ◂ Standardized cement bags are produced for construction and infrastructure projects.. ◂ Sugar Factory: ◂ Sugar mills process sugarcane continuously. ◂ Raw sugarcane is crushed, purified, and crystallized to produce standardized sugar... 59
  • 60. Examples of Process Production in India ◂ Chemical Processing: ◂ Chemical plants follow process production. ◂ Examples include the production of fertilizers, plastics, and industrial chemicals.. ◂ Computer Keyboards: ◂ Mass-produced computer keyboards are created using standardized components. ◂ The assembly process is continuous and efficient. ◂ Other examples : Oil Refineries 60
  • 61. Remember? that process production systems ensure a steady supply of essential goods, meeting the demands of modern society..... 61
  • 62. Assembly Line Production System ◂ Definition ◂ An assembly line is a production process that breaks down the manufacture of a product into sequential steps completed in a pre-defined sequence. ◂ It is the most commonly used method in mass production of goods. ◂ Assembly lines reduce labor costs by training unskilled workers to perform specific tasks efficiently... 62
  • 63. Assembly Line Production System ◂ Characteristics: ◂ Standardization: Parts are added to a product in a specific order until the final assembly is produced. ◂ Efficiency: Workers or machines complete specific tasks as the product moves along the production line. ◂ Maximized Output: Each worker focuses on a particular task, increasing productivity relative to labor costs.. 63
  • 64. Examples of Assembly line Production ◂ Automobile Final Assembly Plants: ◂ Car manufacturing involves assembly lines where workers install standardized components (engines, chassis, interiors) in a sequential manner. ◂ Each station along the line handles specific tasks, such as attaching doors, installing seats, or adding electronics... ◂ Food Processing Lines: ◂ Food factories use assembly lines for packaging and processing. ◂ Examples include bottling lines for beverages or packaging lines for 64
  • 65. Examples of Assembly line Production in India ◂ Electronic Device Manufacturing Facilities: ◂ Assembly lines produce smartphones, laptops, and other electronic gadgets. ◂ Components like screens, batteries, and circuit boards are assembled in a systematic order. 65
  • 66. Remember? that assembly lines have revolutionized manufacturing, making goods more accessible and affordable for consumers.... 66
  • 68. What Is Service Blueprinting? ◂ Definition ◂ Service blueprinting is a visual tool used to map out the end-to-end service process from both the customer’s perspective and the internal operational perspective.. ◂ It helps organizations understand the interactions, touchpoints, and processes involved in delivering a service. ◂ Unlike customer journey maps, service blueprints include employee actions, support processes, and backstage operations that impact the overall service experience.... 68
  • 69. Elements of a Service Blueprint: A service blueprint typically contains five main categories: 1. Physical Evidence: ◂ What customers (and employees) come in contact with during the service. ◂ Includes locations (physical stores, websites), signage, receipts, emails, etc. 2. Customer Actions: ◂ The specific actions customers take during the service process. ◂ For example, searching for information, making a reservation, or placing an order. 69
  • 70. Elements of a Service Blueprint: 3. Frontstage Actions: visible actions performed by employees in direct contact with customers. Examples: greeting customers, serving food, or handling inquiries. 4. Backstage Actions: internal processes and actions that customers don’t directly see. Backstage actions support the frontstage service delivery. Examples: food preparation, inventory management, and payment processing. 5. Support Processes: systems, technologies, and third-party vendors that enable the service. Examples: reservation systems, payment gateways, and delivery partners. 70
  • 71. Example: Hotel Check-In Process for accomodation Physical Evidence: Hotel lobby, reception desk, room keys, signage. Customer Actions Arriving at the hotel, approaching the front desk, providing identification. Frontstage Actions Front desk staff greet the guest, verify reservation, assign a room, and provide room keys. 71 Backstage Actions Housekeeping prepares the room, maintenance ensures facilities are functional, and security monitors the premises. Support Processes: Reservation system (booking), payment processing, and key card system
  • 72. Benefits of Service Blueprinting ◂ Clarity: Visualizing the entire service process helps identify pain points and opportunities for improvement. ◂ Coordination: Aligns frontstage and backstage activities. ◂ Innovation: Allows for targeted changes to enhance customer satisfaction. 72
  • 73. 73 Service Blueprint: Hotel Check-In Process 1. Physical Evidence: - Hotel lobby - Reception desk - Room keys - Signage 2. Customer Actions: - Arriving at the hotel - Approaching the front desk - Providing identification 3. Frontstage Actions (Visible to Customers): - Front desk staff: - Greet the guest - Verify the reservation - Assign a room - Provide room keys 4. Backstage Actions (Internal Processes): - Housekeeping: - Prepare the room - Maintenance: - Ensure facilities are functional - Security: - Monitor the premises 5. Support Processes: - Reservation system (booking) - Payment processing - Key card system
  • 74. 74
  • 75. 75 Restaurant Service Blueprint: 1. Physical Evidence: Restaurant interior, tables, menus, signage. 2. Customer Actions: Entering the restaurant, choosing a table, ordering food. 3. Frontstage Actions: Wait staff greeting, taking orders, serving food. 4. Backstage Actions: Kitchen preparing meals, dishwashing, restocking supplies. 5. Support Processes: Reservation system, payment processing.
  • 76. 76
  • 77. 77 Hospital Service Blueprint: 1. Physical Evidence: Hospital building, waiting areas, patient rooms. 2. Customer Actions: Checking in, meeting with doctors, undergoing tests. 3. Frontstage Actions: Nurses taking vitals, doctors examining patients. 4. Backstage Actions: Lab tests, medical records management, pharmacy. 5. Support Processes: Appointment scheduling, billing systems.
  • 78. 78
  • 80. 80 Thanks! Any questions? You can find me at ◂ csandeepd@gmail.com