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Lecture 4 personality


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Social Sciences

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Lecture 4 personality

  1. 1. Personality
  2. 2.  Physical skills &  Mental skills & abilities abilities  Strength  Numerical  Flexibility  Verbal  Stamina  Perceptual  Physical balance  Inductive
  3. 3.  Personality might mean  The social appeal and effectiveness of a person  An individual’s striking characteristic.  Individual differences
  4. 4. Defining Personality “ Characteristic patterns of behavior and modes of thinking that determine a person’s adjustment to the environment”
  5. 5.  Implies consistency in individual actions People tend to act or think in different ways. E.g. one person suppresses anger, the other expresses anger without any reason.
  6. 6.  Resultof interaction between personality characteristics and the social and physical conditions of the environment. Internally controlled behavior: determined by the characteristics of the individual and is fairly consistent Externallycontrolled behavior: determined by the particular situation in which the behavior happens
  7. 7.  The “you” others observe and listen to. Itincludes expressive features, manners (speech patterns, the way you carry yourself), general disposition (general mood – cheery or grumpy), the way you react to threatening behaviors, the attitudes you express etc. Behaviors are different in different social gatherings.
  8. 8.  Fantasies,thoughts, and experiences that you don’t share with others. Special experiences, wishes that seem too childish and immature, dreams and memories are all part of
  9. 9.  Biological influences Common experiences Unique experiences
  10. 10.  Body build:  Low co-relation between body build and personality  Mostly stereotyping  E.g. fat people are jolly Body physiology  Certain enzymes and chemicals in a human body affect the personality  E.g .thrill seekers have a different chemical makeup than calm people
  11. 11.  Families in one culture share the same beliefs, customs and values. Children are taught accepted behaviors. E.g. how to behave a formal reception , a sports event Even then, individuals may not have the same personality because  They are transmitted by adults who may not all share the same values and practices  The individual has some experiences which are unique.
  12. 12.  Experiences shape an individual  A sick person who has been cared for a long time, may want to be cared for the same way and exhibit this desire.  A chance to show heroism may cause someone to change views about himself and act more courageously next time.  A traumatic experience may teach someone to be more careful.
  13. 13.  Trait approach  Every person has identifiable dominant traits (a quality that differs from person to person). Those are in born characteristics like aggressive, cautious etc. Social learning approach  Personality development based on learning, people learning from the society through various methods. Psychoanalytic approach  Focuses on private personality; motivated by unconscious impulses.  Freud’s 3 functions of personality, id, ego and super ego. Phenomenological approach  Subjective study of human behavior; conscious views.
  14. 14.  Regularities in personalities  Consistency over time  Consistency over situations