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CHAPTER ONE
The Science of Psychology
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What is
Psychology?
Origin of the word Psychology
The word psychology: comes from the word
psyche, which means mind and the word
logos, which means the study of.
 psyche + logos = psychology
 mind + the study of = the study of mind
Psychology is represented by the
following symbol which read as “Psyc.”
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Modern Definition
Today, as a modern discipline, psychology is
defined as: “ the scientific study of behavior and
its underling emotions and mental processes of
human beings and animals .“
Analysis of the Definition
Scientific
 An empirical science that conduct scientific
investigation (Eg. observation & experimentation).
Uses systematic methods to observe, describe,
explain and control behavior.
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Cont…
Behavior- includes all of a person’s overt actions
and reactions, which can be observed by others
such as eating, talking, smiling, and working.
Mental processes- refer to all the covert activities
that other people cannot directly observe. Activities
such as thinking, dreaming, feeling, and
remembering are examples of mental processes.
Emotions:- refer to a complex state of an organism
including bodily changes of a widespread
character.
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Cont…
Human:- The main objective of psychology is to
study human behavior.
Animals:- Two purposes of studying animals
behavior
a. It is ethically forbidden to conduct
experiments on human beings, so animals
are subject to experiment.
b. Conclusions obtained from experiments on
animal behavior are usually applicable to
human behavior.
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Goals of Psychology
1. Description
 Naming and classifying. Making a detailed record of behavioral
observations.
To describe, a psychologist would ask ‘What is happening?’, ‘When it
happens?’ and ‘To whom it happens?’
2. Explanation / Understanding
The second goal is to find out ‘Why is it happening?’ In other words,
the psychologist is looking for an explanation for the observed
behavior or mental processes.
 Stating the cause of behavior
3. Prediction
 The ability to forecast behavior accurately
4. Control
This goal is to change an undesirable behavior to a desirable one. 7
To illustrate all the four goals, consider the following
Example: A group of psychologists observe a
number of students in order to describe how large
their vocabulary typically is at a certain age. Then,
they would attempt to explain how students
expand the vocabulary and why some students
have limited number of vocabulary. Psychologists
would predict that students with limited number of
vocabulary will probably continue to do poorly in
academic. Finally, the psychologists would propose
certain language learning strategies that can be
used to increase the size of vocabulary of the
students. 8
Major Subfields of Psychology
1. Developmental psychology
 Studies how behavior changes due to physical, cognitive,
social and psychological changes over the entire life span.
2. Counseling Psychology
 Assists individuals in dealing with many personal
problems
(e.g., academic, vocational, marriage…) that don’t involve
psychological or mental disorders.
3. Clinical Psychology
 Studies and diagnose, causes, and treatment of mental
disorders.
Works with abnormal or maladjusted individuals
of all ages.
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4. Educational Psychology
 Studies all aspect of educational processes from techniques of
instruction to learning difficulties.
 Investigates the educational systems, methods of teaching,
curricular and other factors influencing the learning process.
5. Social Psychology
 Studies all aspects of social behavior and social thought, e.g.,
how we think and interact with others (social interactions).
6.Cognitive Psychology
 Investigates all aspects of cognition like memory, thinking,
reasoning, language, decision making, problem solving etc.
 Studies the internal mental processes which include thinking,
memory, concept formation and processing of information.
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7. Industrial/organizational psychology
 Studies all aspects of behavior in work settings e.g.,
selection of workers/employees, evaluation of performance,
work motivation and leadership.
 Works with business and concerned with improving working
conditions, raising production, and developing decision
making abilities.
8. Experimental Psychology
 Investigates all aspects of basic psychological processes
such as perception, learning and motivation.
 Concerned with the employment of experimental methods to
obtain psychological data or to solve psychological
problems.
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9. Comparative Psychology
 Concerned with the study of behavioral
differences and similarities among species.
10. Personality Psychology
 Studies the thoughts, emotions &
behaviors that define an individualistic
personal style of interacting with the world.
11. School Psychology
 Works with children to evaluate learning &
emotional problems.
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CHAPTER TWO: INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE NATURE
OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
2. 1 What is Educational Psychology?
A branch of psychology and studies:-
 how people learn, including topics such as student
outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences
in learning, gifted learners and learning disabilities.
 the social, emotional and cognitive processes that are
involved in learning throughout the entire lifespan.
 how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness
of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and
the social psychology of schools as organizations.
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Cont…
 the application of psychology and psychological methods
to the study of development, learning, motivation,
instruction, assessment, and related issues that influence the
interaction of teaching and learning.
 Educational Psychology is highly concerned with how students
learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted
children and those subject to specific disabilities.
 Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of
specialties within educational studies, including instructional
design, educational technology, curriculum development,
organizational learning, special education and classroom
management.
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2. 2 Application of Educational Psychology in
Students Learning
Educational Psychology is a tool for effective teaching. Effective
teaching requires three ingredients:
 Professional Knowledge and Skills
 Commitment
 Professional Growth
 Professional Knowledge and Skills
 Effective teachers have a good command of their
subject matter and a solid core of teaching skills.
“The art of teaching is the art of awakening the natural
curiosity of young minds.”
Anatole France
French novelist and poet, 19th century
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Cont…
Subject-Matter Competence
 Having a thoughtful, flexible, conceptual
understanding of subject matter is indispensable
for being an effective teacher .
 knowledge of subject matter includes a lot more
than just facts, terms, and general concepts. It
also include knowledge about instructional
strategies, goal setting and planning, classroom
management, motivation, communication,
working with diverse students, and technology.
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Cont…
 Goal-Setting and Instructional Planning Skills
 Set high goals for their teaching and develop
organized plans for reaching those goals.
 Develop specific criteria for success.
 Spend considerable time in instructional planning,
organizing their lessons to maximize students’
learning.
 Classroom-Management Skills
 Establish and maintain an environment in which
learning can occur.
 Motivational Skills
 Have good strategies for helping students become
self-motivated to learn.
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Cont…
 Communication Skills
 Skills in speaking, listening, overcoming barriers to
verbal communication, tuning into students’
nonverbal communication, and constructively
resolving conflicts.
 Effective teachers use good communication skills
when they talk “with” rather than “to” students,
parents, administrators, and others; keep criticism at
a minimum; and have an assertive rather than
aggressive, manipulative, or passive communication
style.
 Effective teachers work to improve students’
communication skills as well.
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Cont…
 Working Effectively with Students from
Culturally Diverse Backgrounds
 Effective teachers are knowledgeable about
students from different cultural backgrounds and
are sensitive to their needs.
 Effective teachers encourage students to have
positive personal contact with others and think of
ways to create such settings.
“It is more important to be ingenious than to be a
genius.”
Pierre Elliot Trudeau Former Canadian prime
minister, 20th century
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Cont…
 Technological Skills
 Does not itself necessarily improve students’ ability to
learn.
 Alters the environment within which learning takes
place.
A combination of five conditions is necessary to create
learning environments. These conditions are:
 Vision and support from educational psychology,
 Clear educational goals, content standards & curriculum
resources,
 Access to technology,
 Time, support, & ongoing assessment of the effectiveness
of the technology for teaching – learning, and
 A constructivist focus
 Commitment
 Effective teachers also have a caring concern for their students.
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2. 3 Major areas of Educational Psychology
(Topics of Interest Within Educational Psychology)
Discuss what you understand by this terms by the help of
your own clear example for each.
 Educational Technology
 Instructional Design
 Special Education
 Curriculum Development
 Organizational Learning
 Gifted Learners
More Educational Psychology Topics
 Multiple Intelligences
 School Psychology Careers
 How to Be a More Effective Learner
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2. 4 Important Figures in (Historical
Background of) Educational Psychology
Discuss the contribution of each of the following
educators(psychologists) for the development of
education, specifically for educational psychology.
 William James
 John Dewey
 E. L. Thorndike
 John Locke
 Alfred Benet
 Jean Piaget
 B.F. Skinner
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2.5 The Nature of Teaching
1. Could everybody be a teacher? Why or why not?
2. Is a teacher born or made? Argue on what you
favor of.
3. Could newly graduated person be good teacher?
Why or why not?
4. Who is a good teacher after all?
5. Is teaching an art or science or both?
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Is Teaching an art or Science?
Teaching is both an art and science. Art and science may
seem very different, but they are actually quite the same.
Art :- Skill acquired by experience or study,"
An occupation requiring knowledge or skill
Science:- An organized and systematic body of
knowledge
The art of teaching focuses on the process of creating
atmosphere, delivering relative information through a
performance and creatively incorporating unexpected
events into the lessons.
The science of teaching focuses on the experimental
aspect of teaching, facts, and cause and effect.
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Summary
What is the historical
background of educational
psychology?
William James, John Dewey, E. L.
Thorndike, James Baldwin, & Samuel
Ralph Laycock were important pioneers
in North American educational
psychology.
Is educational psychology an
art or a science?
 Educational psychology involves elements of
both art and science.
 Opinion is divided about how much of
teaching should be based purely on science
and how much of it is an art.
What is the nature of
teaching?
 Teaching involves uncertainty. It is difficult to
predict what effect a given action will have on
a student. Teachers, therefore, need a
tolerance for uncertainty & unpredictability.
 Teaching involves social and ethical matters.
 Teaching involves acknowledging students’
diverse abilities and backgrounds.
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Cont…
What is effective teaching?
 Effective teaching include a
sense of humor, making
classes interesting, subject-
matter knowledge, fairness,
respect, consideration of
and equal treatment for all
students.
 Caring about students as
individuals and learners,
having a positive attitude
about teaching, and self-
motivation are key elements
for teaching.
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CHAPTER THREE
BASIC CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES AND
THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
3. 1 Meaning of Basic Terms
3. 1. 1 Growth
is defined as increase in body dimensions:- height,
weight, size and structure of both internal and
external organs of the body.
is the result of metabolic processes in which proteins
are broken down & used to make new cells.
is generally restricted to quantitative changes. i.e., an
increase in size, height & weight are quantitative
changes, hence they are under the domain of growth.
Generally, changes in growth are directly observable and
measurable.
3. 1. 2. Maturation
It is the unfolding of the characteristics with which
potentially the individual endowed that come from the
individual’s genetic endowment. As the child grows
his/her mind and body mature and he/she is able to
function as a higher level.
Ordinarily, when a girl attains puberty we use the term
maturation. Actually its connotation is much wider and
comprehensive. It refers to “the natural unfolding of
inherited tendencies”.
The maturational process strongly depends on the
individual genetic master plan.
It occurs in the same way for children of all cultures and
in all types of homes within these cultures.
It is determined largely by internal signals, unlike
learning process
3. 1. 3. Learning
It is a relatively permanent change in behavior
caused by interaction of the individual with the
environment. For instance, when the child recites the
alphabet, imitates his/her brother/sister’s fear of spiders,
sings along with daddy or recognize mammy, learning
has occurred.
Behavioral changes due to drugs and fatigue can not be
considered as learning.
When maturation emphasizes the influence of
variables that are internal to the organism, learning
always result from an interaction with environmental
conditions:- internal as well as external.
Learning implies making practice and experimentation
or performing activities using the maturing body. One
has to practice cycling, typing, swimming, singing,
speaking, writing to learn.
3. 1. 4. Development
The term development refers to a progressive series
of changes that occur in an orderly and predictable
manner as a result of both maturation and learning.
It is the orderly set of changes that occur overtime as
individual moves from conception to death.
It is a lifelong process.
Development is best understood as the result of the
interaction of maturation and learning.
It refers to the interaction of a person and his/her
environmental surroundings. This means that the term
learning is related to development.
Therefore, in general, development is a comprehensive
process and includes growth, maturation and learning.
Assignment
 Discuss
1. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
2. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
3. Erickson’s psychosocial theory
4. Kohlberg’s moral development theory
NB.
 All members should participate equally in the
assignment
 All members should take part during presentation
 Score of presentation will be given individually
 You should discuss the implications of your
respective theory to the well being of individuals
development.
3. 2 Theories of Human Development
3. 2. 1. Cognitive Theory of Development
(Jean Piaget)
Cognitive development refers to the development of the intellectual
or mental abilities and capabilities which help an individual to adjust
his/her behavior to the ever challenging environmental conditions.
 For Piaget, intelligence is adaptive process.
 Adaptation takes place through two related processes:
assimilation and accommodation.
Assimilation is the process by which an individual fits new
information into his/her present way of understanding, as when
he/she act on a new object in a way that is similar to previous action
on other object.
Example: A young kid may identify all flying things as “birds”
Accommodation is the process by which cognitive
structures are altered to fit new experiences.
Example: The kid has to be informed that not all
flying things are birds. In this case
accommodation would involve the
modification of bird scheme.
The process of assimilation and accommodation
must be complementary for an individual to remain
in equilibrium with the environment.
If assimilation predominates, the organism imposes
its own order on the environment, and if
accommodation predominates, the converse occurs.
3. 2. 1. 1 Cognitive Stages of Development
Jean Piaget, the most famous of cognitive
theorists, held that there are four major stages of
cognitive development.
Each one is age-related and has structural
features that permit certain types of thinking.
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development are
universal. This means that all children go through
the same four stages at approximately the same
age regardless of the culture in which they live.
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1. Sensory motor Stage (Birth - 2 years)
The child discovers the world using the senses and
motor activities.
The child experiences everything directly through
his/her senses and through feedback from motor
activities.
In the world of the child, an object exists when it is
physically present.
The child develops object permanence (the
understanding that objects and people do not disappear
merely because they are out of sight) when he/she is
between six and eight months of old.
The child leaves the sensory motor stage when object
permanence becomes fully developed.
2. Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years)
The major distinction between the sensory motor
and preoperational stages is the degree of
development and the use of internal images and
symbols.
At this stage, the child can use one thing to
represent another. For example, a piece of wood
may symbolize a boat.
The child’s emerging use of symbolism shows
itself in expanding language abilities.
Language allows children to go beyond direct
experience opening up a new and expanded world.
There are a number of limitations in this stage .
The preoperational children can not make
reversibility. This means that the ability to move forth
and back in a train of thought.
Example: A young child might recognize that 3 + 2 = 5,
but not understand that the reverse 5 – 2 = 3, is true.
The preoperational children can not also understand
the concept of conservation. This means the
understanding of a given quantity of a substance remains
the same despite changes in its appearance.
Example: A preoperational child cannot understand
that the amount of liquid stays the same
regardless of the container’s shape
There are different aspects (types) conservation:-
 Conservation of mass(shape),
 Conservation of length,
 Conservation of volume(liquid) and
 Conservation of number, etc.
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Preoperational child’s response
Both straws have the
same length.
The sausage shape has more
amount of clay.
Before Transformation After Transformation
Type of
conservation
1. Shape
2.
Length
Preoperational child’s response
The balls have the
same amount of clay.
The one on top (or
bottom) is longer.
3. Liquid
Preoperational child’s response
The containers have the same
amount of liquid
The tall container has
more amount of liquid.
4. Number
Preoperational child’s response
Both rows have the same
number of candies.
The longer row has more
number of candies.
Before Transformation After Transformation
Type of
conservation
 The preoperational children are unable to understand the
concept of serration, which refers to the arrangement of items in
a series.
 Furthermore, according to Piaget, the other characteristics of
thought in the preoperational stage are:-
Egocentrism:- is concerned with the inability of the preoperational
children to take the point of view of another individual.
Realism:- is the tendency of preoperational children to see
psychological events like dreams and thoughts as physical events.
Animism:- is the tendency of preoperational children to give
physical objects and events psychological attributes.
Example 1: A child says, “My teddy bear wants a cup of milk too”.
Artificialism:- is the tendency of preoperational children to
interpret all phenomena, including natural phenomena, as made by
human beings.
3. Concrete operational stage (7 to 12 yrs)
During the concrete operational stage, children
develop the ability to think in a more logical
manner.
They are less egocentric than before and can take
multiple aspects of a situation into account.
At this stage, children can do mentally what they
previously could do only physically and they can
reverse concrete operations.
Although the concrete operational thinkers make
important advances in logical capabilities, their
thinking is still limited to real situations in here and
now. In other words, they have difficulty in
understanding abstract ideas.
4. Formal operational stage (12 yrs to adulthood)
This stage begins when children develop the
capacity of thinking that is abstract, systematic,
and hypothetical.
These capabilities allow students to make abstract
reasoning, sophisticated moral judgments, and
plan more realistically for the future.
They can understand historical time, learn
algebra and calculus, imagine possibilities, form
and test hypotheses (develop hypothetical-
deductive reasoning in Piaget’s term) and can use
deductive reasoning.
3. 2. 1. 2 Application and Value
 Piaget's explorations into the way children develop their
concepts of time, space, and math, show that children see the
world differently from the way adults do. Thus, Parents and
teachers must understand children's thought processes
in order to serve the needs of youngsters better.
 Yelon and Weinstein (1977) note six implications of Piaget's
theories for teachers. These include:
 using Piagetian tasks to determine the intellectual level
of students,
 teaching students with their cognitive level in mind,
 remembering that children's thought processes are
different from those of adults,
 being careful to sequence instruction carefully,
 testing children to find the results of teaching, and
 encouraging social interaction to facilitate learning.
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3. 2. 1. 3 Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory
Contribution
 Piaget has generally provided us with an accurate account of age-
related changes in cognitive development.
 His view that individuals can only increase their cognitive performance
when cognitive readiness and appropriate environmental stimulation
are present affects the nature of educational curricular and teaching
methods.
Criticism
 Developmental psychologists suggest that cognitive development
proceeds in a more continuous fashion than Piaget’s stage theory
implies.
 Piaget underestimated the age at which children can understand
specific concepts and principles.
 Piaget’s work failed to take into account the influence of culture on
cognitive development.
 Piaget's method of research, the presentation of problems to children
followed by observation and questioning, is a source of criticism. This
subjective approach is marked by interpretation rather than formal
statistical data. His experiments are not well controlled.
3. 2. 2. Psychosocial Theory of Development
(Erik Erikson)
 In Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, Erikson
highlighted the importance of relationship with others in the
formation of one’s own identity.
 Erikson believed that personality develops through eight
stages or critical periods of life.
 He also contended that at each stage of life, an individual
is confronted by a crisis.
 Erikson assume the personality develops in accordance
to one’s ability to interact with the environment and to
resolve the crises experienced. The manner in which the
crises are resolved will have a lasting effect on the person’s
view of himself or herself and the surrounding world.
3. 2. 2. 1 Psychosocial Stages of Development
Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust (birth-1 yr)
The first psychological challenge faced by an infant
involves developing a sense of trust in others.
For the infant, this sense of trust develops if s/he is
predictably cared for when s/he cries and is warmly
treated by her/his primary caregivers.
If an infant, instead, is cared for in unpredictable
ways such as not being fed, or comforted when
necessary, Erikson believed this infant would
develop basic mistrust of others, which would lead
to fear and suspicion.
Stage 2 : Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt (1 to 3yrs)
At this stage, children want to do things on their own
or act autonomously. Yet this need to become
autonomous must be balanced by the reality of safety
issues.
For instance, while Erikson thought it was healthy to
allow the two-year-olds to explore the streets alone,
this exploration must be done in a constraint way such
that the child is not hit by a car. Therefore, Erikson called
for a delicate interplay between freedom and restraint.
If children of this age are not allowed to do the things
they can do, they may develop a sense of shame or
doubt about their own abilities and fall to develop
self-confidence.
Encouraging children to do what they can do is the
key to their developing a sense of autonomy.
Stage 3 : Initiative Versus Guilt (4 to 5 yrs)
 Erikson contends that children when face with new
challenges, will want to explore and investigate. He
termed this the development of a sense of initiative, whereby
children begin to ask many questions about the world.
 The ever-present questions of “why” and “what” seem to
engulf a child at this stage as do the inquisitive behaviors
that often accompany taking initiative.
 For instance, children may ask question about and want to
help with work in the kitchen. In situations in which a child is
discouraged from taking the initiative, Erikson believed that
the child would develop a sense of guilt regarding her
natural tendency to explore and investigate. This in turn
leads them to lack of assertiveness.
Stage 4 : Industry Vs Inferiority (6 to 11 yrs)
 The major psychological task in the fourth stage is the
development of competence or industry.
 The term industry means in this stage children not only
continues their interest in trying new things, but they will try to
succeed in learning and gain recognition for producing things
or good result.
 In this stage of development, which last throughout the
elementary school years, children are faced with the
challenges of producing good academic work related to
reading, writing, and mathematical skills.
 Children also face the challenges to be competence in
hobby, playing sports, maintaining a positive relationship
with teachers, & developing friendship.
 Recent research has shown that social skills training as
well as attention to social problem solving can be helpful in
terms of developing social competence in forming friendships
and developing social skills.
 If children succeed in acquiring these new skills and the
accomplishments are valued by others, the child
develops a sense of industry and has a positive view of the
achievements.
 On the other hand, a child who is constantly compared with
others and come up a distinct second may develop a sense of
inferiority.
 Children who leave the elementary years without this sense of
industry, may feel they are failure at everything. So it is the
responsibility of parents and teachers to help them to
become academically and socially competent.
Stage 5 : Identity Vs Role Confusion (12 to 18 yrs)
Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development is for
the secondary and post-secondary school students.
The major psychological task is to gain self
identity.
In this stage, adolescents struggle to resolve the
questions of “Who am I?” and “Who will I become?”.
That is why they move increasingly from their
parents to peers as a point of reference, they need
to understand how they are both alike and at the same
time uniquely different from everyone else.
The adolescents also strive to find their own
personalities. They need a figure or model to identify
with. That’s why the adolescents often imitate the
attitudes and actions of others they admire.
Adolescents also face the issues of sexual identity
that is the adolescent searches for comfortable
expressions of sexuality through friendship and dating.
 This in fact is the most difficult time in everyone’s
life. Teachers and parents have to be patience with
the adolescents and guide them to cope effectively
with the crises they are facing.
Parents and teachers should give the adolescent
opportunity to explore different jobs such as working
temporarily in fast food restaurant, become the chef of a
restaurant, work in a bank, work in a factory etc.
Stage 6 : Intimacy versus Isolation (18 to 35 yrs)
The major psychosocial crisis in Erikson’s six stage is
the development of a true and intimate heterosexual
relationship. Erikson contends that in this stage
individuals should be able to care for others without
losing their self-identity.
 Erikson believes individual who never know this
intimacy will develop a sense of isolation & tend to
avoid relationships with others and make commitments.
This six stages crises faced mostly by college and
university students. One of the ways for the
adolescents to face this crisis is to be active in sports,
clubs and participate in community social works.
Stage 7 : Generativity Vs Stagnation (35 to 65 yrs)
The major concern of the people at this age is on
the caring and well-being of the next generation
rather than being overly self-concerned.
 Most parents focused their energy and time on
bringing up their children to be successful
academically, socially and emotionally.
 Erikson argued that if a sense of generativity is
not present, the individual would experience
stagnation & become overly self-preoccupied.
Helping other people is a means of remaining
productive and achieving the positive outcome
of generativity.
Stage 8 : Integrity Versus Despair (Over 65)
The last psychosocial stage, involves integrity and
despair.
Older people must cope with the death of others,
increasing illness, & their own approaching end.
If people of this psychosocial stage look back with
pride at a life of accomplishment, they can
develop a positive sense of ego integrity.
If, on the other hand, all they see is missed
opportunities, they may become depressed and
bitter, developing a sense of despair.
3. 2. 2. 2 Application and Value
Erickson's theory, which is clear and easy to
understand, serves as an excellent introduction to
the general concerns of people at different ages.
His emphasis on the importance of culture,
socialization, and the historical moment extends our
view of the factors that influence children.
Erikson sees psychosocial development as
continuing throughout life rather than stopping at
adolescence.
Finally, Erikson's conception of identity has become
a cornerstone for understanding adolescence.
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3. 2. 2. 3 Criticisms and Cautions of
Erickson’s Theory
Criticisms of Erikson's theory follow the criticisms of
Freud's theory.
Erikson's theory is difficult to test experimentally.
Some support for Erikson's concept of identity exists,
but little research has been done on the other stages.
In addition, Erikson's theory is rather general and
global, and some authorities doubt the existence of all
of his stages.
Despite these criticisms, Erikson's theory offers a
convenient way of viewing development throughout
the life span.
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3. 2. 3. Theory of Moral Development, Kohlberg
Morality is a set of internalized principles or ideas that
help the individual to distinguish right from wrong
act on this distinction.
Practically, every day we have to make judgments
about “right” and “wrong” when we do this we are
reasoning about moral issues.
The phrase moral development is concerned with
the ability to understand and act upon codes
of conduct including everything from the specific rules
of a game to universal ethics that should govern all
human behavior.
Morality is indissolubly (inseparably) linked with the
social system, and it has reference to social
relationship and social process.
Kohlberg views the development of morality in
terms of moral reasoning by telling a set of
hypothetical stories that pose ethical dilemmas, the
most famous of these is the story of Heinz:
In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One
drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in
the same town had recently discovered. The druggist
was charging $2000, ten times what the drug cost him to
make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to
everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get
together only about half of what the drug cost. He told
the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell
the drug for less money or to let him pay later. But the
druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and
broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife.
Should the husband have done that? Why or why not?
3.2.3.1 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Level One: - Pre-Conventional Morality
Children make decisions on the basis of reward,
punishment and the satisfaction of their own needs.
Therefore, they emphasize on avoiding punishment
and getting rewards.
The level is divided into two stages.
Stage 1:- Punishment & Obedience Orientation
The child avoids breaking rules because it might lead to
punishment.
The child shows complete deference to rules.
The interests of others are not considered.
Therefore, the most important value at this stage is
obedience to authority in order to avoid punishment.
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Stage 2:- Instrumental Relativist Orientation
In stage two, the right action consists of behavior that
satisfies child’s own needs and only sometimes the
needs of others.
The reason to be nice to others is so they will be nice to
him/her.
In other words, you scratch my back and I will scratch
yours.
Level Two:- Conventional Morality
At the conventional level, maintaining the expectation of
the child’s family, group, or nation is perceived as
valuable in its own right, regardless of consequences.
Children emphasize on social rules & conformity is the
most important factor.
The level has two stages.
Stage 3:- Interpersonal Concordance or
Good Boy (Nice Girl) Orientation
At this stage, the child begins to like the good will of
others and tries to please others to obtain their
approval: good boy or nice girl.
 Good moral behaviors are those please (satisfy) others.
Thus, there is an emphasis on gaining approval from
others by being nice.
Stage 4:- Law and Order Orientation
A child in stage four is oriented toward authority and
toward maintaining the social order.
The emphasis is on doing one’s duty and showing
respect for authority.
 Hence, at this stage right behavior means obeying
the laws set down by those in power, being a dutiful
citizen.
Level Three: - Post Conventional Morality
 At this level, an individual makes a clear effort to define
moral values and principles that have validity and
application apart from the authority of the
groups/persons holding these principles, and apart from
the individual’s own identification with these groups.
 This level has two stages.
Stage 5: Social Contract, Legalistic Orientation
 In stage five, correct behavior is defined in terms of
individual rights and the consensus of society.
 The rules of society exist for the benefit of all, and are
established by mutual agreement.
 If the rules become destructive, or if one party doesn’t live up
to agreement, the contract is no longer binding.
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Stage 6:- Universal Ethical Principle Orientation
In this highest stage, the correct behavior is
defined as a decision of conscience (the sense of
what is right and wrong that governs somebody’s
thought and actions, urging him/her to do right rather
than wrong) in accordance with self-chosen ethical
principles that are logical, universal, and
consistent.
 At this stage, the individual keeps not only the
norms of society in mind but also the universal
moral principles.
An individual may be prepared to sacrifice his/her
all, including life for upholding (continuation) of
these principles.
CHAPTER FOUR:- INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN LEARNING
 Do you think all individuals are equal?
 Why and/or Why not? Explain your response
with justification.
 How do you describe individual differences?
In the words of Charles E. Skinner, “Today we
think of individual differences as including any
measurable aspect of the total personality.”
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INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN LEARNING
I’ll tell you this: There are some people, and then there are others.
(Anna Harris)
 Distinction between differences among individuals and differences
among groups of students
Individual differences are qualities that are unique; just one person has
them at a time. Variation in hair color, for example, is an individual
difference; even though some people have nearly the same hair color, no
two people are exactly the same.
Group differences are qualities shared by members of an identifiable
group or community, but not shared by everyone in society. An
example is gender role: for better or for worse, one portion of society
(the males) is perceived differently and expected to behave a bit
differently than another portion of society (the females).
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Cont…
 Learning & Learning Factors : Individual
Differences
 One manifestation of the difference among students is
that they seldom learn at the same rate.
 Differences in rates of learning are based on
differences in intelligence, background, experience,
interest, desire to learn, and countless
psychological, emotional, and physical factors.
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Cont…
 Individual styles of learning and thinking
 All people have their own preferred ways of learning.
 These differences are called learning styles.
1. Learning style is an individual's natural or habitual
pattern of acquiring and processing information in
learning situations.
A core concept is that individuals differ in how they learn.
Because of individual learning styles, one student may like
to make diagrams to help remember a reading assignment,
whereas another student may prefer to write a sketchy outline
instead. Yet in many cases, the students could in principle
reverse the strategies and still learn the material.
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Cont…
 Individuals, including students, do differ in how they
habitually think.
 These differences are more specific than learning styles or
preferences, and psychologists sometimes call them cognitive
styles.
2. Cognitive Styles:- typical ways of perceiving and
remembering information, and typical ways of solving
problems & making decisions (Zhang & Sternberg, 2006).
 In a style of thinking called field dependence, for example,
individuals perceive patterns as a whole rather than focus on the
parts of the pattern separately.
 In a complementary tendency, called field independence,
individuals are more inclined to analyze overall patterns
into their parts.
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Cont…
 Impulsive Vs Reflective cognitive style
 Impulsive cognitive style is one in which a person reacts quickly,
but as a result makes comparatively more errors.
 Reflective style is the opposite: the person reacts more slowly and
therefore, makes fewer errors.
 As you might expect, the reflective style would seem better suited
to many academic demands of school. Research has found that this
is indeed the case for academic skills that clearly benefit from
reflection, such as mathematical problem solving or certain reading
tasks (Evans, 2004).
 Some classroom or school-related skills, however, may actually
develop better if a student is relatively impulsive. Being a good
partner in a cooperative learning group, for example, may depend
partly on responding spontaneously (i.e. just a bit “impulsively”) to
others’ suggestions; and being an effective member of an athletic
team may depend on not taking time to reflect carefully on every
move that you or your team mates make.
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Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence:- is a single broad ability that allows a person to
solve or complete many sorts of tasks, or at least many
academic tasks like reading, knowledge of vocabulary, and the
solving of logical problems (Garlick, 2002).
According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple
intelligences (Gardner, 1983, 2003), there are eight different
forms of intelligence, each of which functions independently
of the others.
 Each person has a mix of all eight abilities - more of one
and less of another - that helps to constitute that person’s
individual cognitive profile.
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Multiple Intelligences (By Howard Gardner)
Form of intelligence Examples of activities
using the intelligence
1. Linguistic: Verbal skill; ability
to use language well
• Verbal persuasion
• writing a term paper skillfully
2. Musical: Ability to create and
understand music
• Singing, playing a musical
instrument
• Composing a tune
3. Logical Mathematical: Logical
skill; ability to reason, often
using mathematics
• Solving mathematical problems
easily and accurately
• Developing and testing
hypotheses
4. Spatial: ability to imagine and
manipulate the arrangement of
objects in the environment
• Completing a difficult jigsaw
puzzle
• Assembling a complex appliance
(e.g. a bicycle)
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Cont…
Form of intelligence
Examples of activities
using the intelligence
5. Bodily kinesthetic: Sense of balance;
coordination in use of one's body
• Dancing
• Gymnastics
6. Interpersonal: Ability to discern
others' nonverbal feelings & thoughts
• Sensing when to be tactful
• Sensing a “subtext” or implied
message in a person's statements
7. Intrapersonal: Sensitivity to one's
own thoughts and feelings
• Noticing complex of ambivalent
feelings in oneself
• Identifying true motives for an
action in oneself
8. Naturalist: Sensitivity to subtle
differences and patterns found in the
natural environment
• Identifying examples of species of
plants or animals
• Noticing relationships among
species and natural processes in the
environment
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Cont…
 Personality Differences
Attitude:- Students have their own personal attitudes
and methods of thinking. Thinking patterns and reactions
to the various philosophies and types of training must be
reconciled.
Interest:- People sense ideas and activities that possess
special values, uses or attractions for them. The general
categories of interest are the vocational, educational, and
avocational. The interests of students in different aspects
of life will differ.
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Individual Difference in Temperament and Personality
Temperament and personality are related to each other and are
developed from very early childhood as it stays with us our whole
lives.
Temperament
 is the different aspects of an individual’s personality like
extroversion or introversion.
 is innate or inborn and is not learned.
Characteristics related to temperament include: activity (relaxed
or moving around), regularity (sleeping habits), initial reaction
(withdrawal or approach), adaptability (adjustments to changes),
intensity (reactions), mood (happiness or sadness), distractibility
(concentration), persistence (losing interest in some activity), and
sensitivity (stimulation).
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Cont…
Personality:-
 arises within an individual, which remains throughout an
individual’s life.
 made up of certain characteristic patterns like behavior,
feelings, and thoughts.
 fundamental characteristics related to personality are:
consistency, psychological and physiological impact on
behaviors and actions, and multiple expressions.
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CHAPTER FIVE
Learning
 Learning can be defined as any relatively permanent
change in behavior, which occurs as a result of practice or
experience.
 From the definition we can understand that:
 Learning is a change of behavior for better or worse
 Learning takes place through experience or practice. The changes
due to growth, maturation, or injury are not to be concerned as
learned behavior.
 The changes to merit the term learning must be relatively
permanent. That is it must last for a fairly long time. Therefore,
changes due to maturation, fatigue, adaptation or sensitivity of
the organism are not considered as learning behaviors
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Factors Affecting Learning
 Readiness
 Preference of activity (learning styles)
 Reinforcement
 Situations (facilities- both human and material resources)
 Physical condition
 Goals or purposes set before the pupils.
 Attention
 Practice
 Attitude
 Emotional conditions
 The organization and presentation of learning materials
 Interest/needs
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Theories of Learning
5. 1 General View on different Perspectives
1. Behavioral Perspective
 Classical conditioning
Associative Learning process/. Developed by the
known Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov
(1849-1936).
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Neutral stimulus: - stimulus that, before conditioning, has
no effect on the desired response
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):- a stimulus that brings
about a response with out having been learned.
Unconditioned response (UCR):- a response that is natural
and need no training.
Conditioned stimulus (CS):- a once neutral stimulus that
has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring
about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned
stimulus
Conditioned response (CR):- a response that, after
conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus
Intensity – The more intense the CS, the more rapidly conditioning
will proceed and longer CR will be.
Contiguous association – This is temporal relationship between
CS and UCS. The time interval and the order between CS and UCS
influence association. There are four types of associations.
• Simultaneous conditioning – when CS occurs either at the
same time or just following the onset of the conditioning
• Delayed conditioning – When the onset of UCS is delayed
following the onset of CS. This is the widely used and most
effective conditioning
• Trace conditioning – When there is long interval between CS
and UCS. This is no effective.
• Backward conditioning – When UCS comes before CS. This is
not a successful conditioning procedure.
Extinction- is the disappearance of CR when CS repeatedly occurs
with out UCS; it means there is no reinforcement.
Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of the extinct CR after an
elapse of time.
Inhibition – When the CR is distracted by other
intervening stimulus.
External inhibition – when CR is distracted by external
stimulus like loud noise.
Internal inhibition – when the internal condition blocks the
CR like physical health or lack of attention.
Stimulus Generalization – The appearance of CR to
the stimulus similar to the CS.
Theories of Learning
5. 1 General View on different Perspectives
1. Behavioral Perspective
Operant conditioning
 Argued that behavioral principles of operant conditioning
is effective in a range of educational settings.
 Teachers can alter student behavior by systematically
rewarding students who follow classroom rules with
praise, stars, or tokens exchangeable for sundry items.
 Criticized by proponents of self-determination theory,
who claim that praise and other rewards undermine
intrinsic motivation.
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E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner
In reinforcement theories, more emphasis is laid on the
consequences that follow a response. Responses which are
followed by satisfaction or pleasure are reinforced and become
more probable in future.
Argued that behavioral principles of operant conditioning is
effective in a range of educational settings.
Teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding
students who follow classroom rules with praise, stars, or tokens
exchangeable for sundry items.
Criticized by proponents of self-determination theory, who
claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation.
Thorndike’s puzzle box
The law of effect
The law of effect states, basically, that when an animal’s actions in any given situation are
accompanied by or closely followed by a satisfying experience, the animal connect the action
with satisfaction and will be likely to perform the same actions if a similar situation comes up
again. When the animal’s actions can be linked with discomfort, the animal won’t repeat
those actions.
Law of exercise
The law of exercise is divided to two: the law of use and the law of disuse
The law of use- if we exercise connection between S-R, the stronger the connection will be.
The law of disuse – if we do not exercise what is learned connection will be weakened
The law of readiness
Learning is dependent on both maturation and experience of the learner.
Skinner’s puzzle box
The operant experiment
Operations in operant conditioning
Shaping – is a procedure of rewarding a behavior for
successive closer and closer approximation to the target
behavior.
Generalization- organisms learn to generalize response
what they learnt one situation the other situation
Extinction – With holding the reinforcement when the
experimenter wants to extinguish the response
Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of the extinct
response
Primary and Secondary reinforcement
Primary reinforcement involves the use of reinforces
that are innately satisfying
Secondary reinforcement acquires its positive value
through experience; secondary reinforces are learned or
conditioned reinforces. E.g. praise
There are two reinforcement schedules. These are
Continuous reinforcement schedule- providing
reinforcement after every correct response. In this
schedule it was observed that learning occurred rapidly
extinction also occurred rapidly.
Partial reinforcement – for correct response
reinforcement is provided sometime and it is with held
some times.
There are two types of partial reinforcement schedule.
Interval schedule–when reinforcement is given based
on time interval
Ratio schedule –when reinforcement is given based on
amount of response or work done.
Interval schedule
Fixed interval schedule – reinforcement is presented after
a prescribed time interval
Variable interval schedule – the reinforcement is given
after varying time interval
Ratio schedule
Fixed ratio schedule – reinforcement is presented after
fixed amount f work is done
Variable ratio schedule – The number of responses
required for reinforcement varies around some average
ratio.
2. Cognitive Perspective
 Argued that causally related mental constructs such as
traits, beliefs, memories, motivations and emotions, as
determinants of behavior.
 Cognitive theories claim that memory structures determine
how information is perceived, processed, stored, retrieved
and forgotten.
3. Developmental Perspective
 Emphasizes on psychology of cognitive development, since
it defines human cognitive competence at successive phases
of development.
 Piaget's theory of cognitive development was so influential for
education, especially mathematics and science education.
98
4. Social Cognitive Perspective
 A highly influential fusion of behavioral, cognitive and
social elements that was initially developed by educational
psychologist Albert Bandura.
 Recent research activity in educational psychology has
focused on developing theories of self-regulated learning
(SRL) and metacognition.
 The premise of these theories is that, effective learners are
active agents who construct knowledge by setting goals,
analyzing tasks, planning strategies and monitoring their
understanding.
 Research has indicated that learners who are better at goal-
setting and self-monitoring tend to have greater intrinsic
task interest and self-efficacy; and that teaching learning
strategies can increase academic achievement.
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5.2 Constructivist Perspective
 Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning
occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning
and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving
information.
 A category of learning theory in which emphasis is placed on the
agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner,
and often on the social and cultural determinants of the
learning process.
 A dominant figure in constructivist view, Lev Vygotsky's work on
sociocultural learning, describes how interactions with adults, more
capable peers, and cognitive tools are internalized to form mental
constructs.
 Elaborating on Vygotsky's theory, Jerome Bruner and other educational
psychologists developed the important concept of instructional
scaffolding, in which the social or information environment offers
supports for learning that are gradually withdrawn as they become
internalized.
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 Variety of ways in which constructivism is articulated in the
literature are: situated cognition, anchored instruction,
apprenticeship learning, problem-based learning,
generative learning, constructionism, exploratory
learning: these approaches to learning are grounded in and
derived from constructivist epistemology.
 The researchers and theorists whose perspectives are listed
below suggest links between constructivist theory and
practice. They provide the beginnings of an orienting
framework for a constructivist approach to design teaching or
learning.
5. 3 Characteristics of Constructivist Learning
and Teaching
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Jonassen (1991) applied constructivism to the development
of learning environments. From these applications, he has
isolated a number of design principles:
1. Create real-world environments that employ the context in which learning
is relevant;
2. Focus on realistic approaches to solving real-world problems;
3. The instructor is a coach and analyzer of the strategies used to solve
these problems;
4. Stress conceptual interrelatedness, providing multiple representations or
perspectives on the content;
5. Instructional goals and objectives should be negotiated and not imposed;
6. Evaluation should serve as a self-analysis tool;
7. Provide tools and environments that help learners interpret the multiple
perspectives of the world;
8. Learning should be internally controlled and mediated by the learner.
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Jonassen (1994) indicated that the following principles
illustrate how knowledge construction can be facilitated:
1. Provide multiple representations of reality;
2. Represent the natural complexity of the real world;
3. Focus on knowledge construction, not reproduction;
4. Present authentic tasks (contextualizing rather than abstracting
instruction);
5. Provide real-world, case-based learning environments, rather than
pre-determined instructional sequences;
6. Foster reflective practice;
7. Enable context-and content dependent knowledge construction;
8. Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social
negotiation.
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Wilson and Cole (1991) provide a description of cognitive
teaching models which "embody" constructivist
concepts. From these descriptions, the following concepts
central to constructivist design are identified.
1. Embed learning in a rich authentic problem-solving
environment;
2. Provide for authentic versus academic contexts for learning;
3. Provide for learner control;
4. Use errors as a mechanism to provide feedback on learners'
understanding.
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Ernest (1995) suggests the following implications of
constructivism which derive from both the radical and social
perspective:
1. Sensitivity toward and attentiveness to the learner's previous
constructions;
2. Diagnostic teaching attempting to remedy learner errors and
misconceptions;
3. Attention to metacognition and strategic self-regulation by
learners;
4. The use of multiple representations of mathematical
concepts;
5. Awareness of the importance of goals for the learner, and the
dichotomy between learner and teacher goals;
6. Awareness of the importance of social contexts, such as the
difference between folk or street mathematics and school
mathematics (and an attempt to exploit the former for the
latter).
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Honebein (1996) describes seven goals for the
design of constructivist learning environments:
1. Provide experience with the knowledge construction process;
2. Provide experience in & appreciation for multiple perspectives;
3. Embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts;
4. Encourage ownership and voice in the learning process;
5. Embed learning in social experience;
6. Encourage the use of multiple modes of representation;
7. Encourage self-awareness in the knowledge construction
process.
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.
An important concept for social constructivists is that
of scaffolding (providing support) which is a process
of guiding the learner from what is presently known to
what is to be known.
According to Vygotsky (1978), students' problem solving
skills fall into three categories:
1. Skills which the student cannot perform
2. Skills which the student may be able to perform
3. Skills that the student can perform with help
 Scaffolding allows students to perform tasks that would
normally be slightly beyond their ability without that
assistance and guidance from the teacher.
 Appropriate teacher support can allow students to function at
the cutting edge of their individual development. Scaffolding
is therefore an important characteristic of constructivist
learning and teaching.
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Social Constructivism
Social constructivism:
emphasizes on the importance of culture and context
in understanding what occurs in society and
constructing knowledge based on this understanding.
is closely associated with many contemporary
theories, most notably the developmental theories of
Vygotsky and Bruner, and Bandura's social cognitive
theory.
Assumptions of Social Constructivism
Social constructivism is based on specific assumptions
about reality, knowledge, and learning.
108
Cont…
 Reality: Social constructivists believe that:
 reality is constructed through human activity;
 reality cannot be discovered; and
 reality does not exist prior to its social invention.
 Knowledge: To social constructivists:
 knowledge is a human product; and
 knowledge is socially and culturally constructed.
 Individuals create meaning through their interactions
with each other and with the environment they live in.
 Learning: Social constructivists view:
 learning as a social process;
 learning as it does not take place only within an
individual, nor is it a passive development of
behaviors that are shaped by external forces.
 Meaningful learning occurs when individuals are
engaged in social activities.
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General Perspectives of Social Constructivism on Learning
 Social constructivists see as crucial both the context in
which learning occurs and the social contexts that
learners bring to their learning environment.
 There are four general perspectives that inform how we
could facilitate the learning within a framework of social
constructivism.
1. Cognitive tools perspective: focuses on the learning of
cognitive skills and strategies. Students engage in those
social learning activities that involve hands-on project-based
methods and utilization of discipline-based cognitive tools.
2. Idea-based social constructivism: sets education's
priority on important concepts in the various disciplines (e.g.
part-whole relations in mathematics, photosynthesis in
science, and point of view in literature. These "big ideas"
expand learner vision and become important foundations for
learners' thinking and on construction of social meaning.
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Cont…
3. Pragmatic or Emergent Approach: assert that the
implementation of social constructivism in class should be
emergent as the need arises. Its proponents hold that
knowledge, meaning, and understanding of the world
can be addressed in the classroom from both the view of
individual learner and the collective view of the entire
class.
4.Transactional or situated cognitive perspectives:
focuses on the relationship between the people and their
environment. Humans are a part of the constructed
environment (including social relationships); the environment
is in turn one of the characteristics that constitutes the
individual.
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5. 4 Constructivist Teaching Methods
 Constructivist teaching is based on:-
 constructivist learning theory;
 the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in
a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to
passively receiving information.
 Learners are the makers of meaning & knowledge. Constructivist
teaching:-
 fosters critical thinking;
 creates motivated and independent learners.
 This theoretical framework holds that learning always builds upon knowledge
that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema.
 Because all learning is filtered through pre-existing schemata, constructivists
suggest that learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in
the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively.
 A wide variety of methods claim to be based on constructivist learning theory.
 Most of these methods rely on some form of guided discovery where the teacher
avoids most direct instruction and attempts to lead the student through questions
and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate, & verbalize the new knowledge.
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Cont…
 Constructivist learning theory says that:
 all knowledge is constructed from a base of prior knowledge.
 children are not a blank slate and knowledge cannot be
imparted without the child making sense of it according to
his or her current conceptions.
 children learn best when they are allowed to construct a
personal understanding based on experiencing things and
reflecting on those experiences.
Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching
According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom
are:
 the learners are actively involved
 the environment is democratic
 the activities are interactive and student-centered
 the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are
encouraged to be responsible and autonomous
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Examples of Constructivist Activities
In the constructivist classroom students work primarily
in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive
and dynamic.
There is a great focus and emphasis on social and
communication skills, as well as collaboration and
exchange of ideas.
This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which
students work primarily alone, learning is achieved
through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered
to and are guided by a textbook.
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Cont…
 Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:
 Experimentation: students individually perform an
experiment and then come together as a class to
discuss the results.
 Research projects: students research a topic and can
present their findings to the class.
 Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and
ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field
trips would often be followed by class discussions.
 Films. These provide visual context and thus bring
another sense into the learning experience.
 Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the
methods described above. It is one of the most important
distinctions of constructivist teaching methods.
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Difference Between
Traditional Classroom and Constructivist Classroom
The Traditional Classroom
 Begins with parts of the whole–emphasizes
basic skills
 Strict adherence to fixed curriculum
 Textbooks and workbooks
 Instructor gives/students receive
 Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role
 Assessment via testing/correct answers
 Knowledge is inert
 Students work individually
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The constructivist Classroom
 Begin with the whole - expanding to parts
 Pursuit of student questions/interests
 Primary Sources/manipulative materials
 Instructor interacts/negotiates with students
 Learning is interaction – building on what students
already known
 Assessment via student works, observations,
points of view, tests. Process is as important as
product
 Knowledge is dynamic/change with experiences
 Students work in groups
117
Role of Teachers in Constructivist Learning
In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is
to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the
teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students
by asking questions that will lead them to develop
their own conclusions on the subject.
Three major roles for facilitators to support students
in constructivist learning environments:
 Modeling
 Coaching
 Scaffolding
118
Modeling:- Two types of modeling exist:
1. Behavioral modeling of the overt performance
 demonstrates how to perform the activities
identified in the activity structure.
2. Cognitive modeling of the covert cognitive
processes
 articulates the reasoning (reflection-in-
action) that learners should use while
engaged in the activities.
119
Cont…
Coaching:- a good coach motivates learners, analyzes
students performance, provides feedback and advice on
the performance on how to learn about, how to perform,
and provokes reflection and articulation of what was
learned. Coaching:-
 may be solicited by the learner. Students seeking help might press a
“How am I Doing?” button. Or coaching may be unsolicited, when
the coach observes the performance and provides encouragement,
diagnosis, directions, and feedback.
 naturally and necessarily involves responses that are situated in the
learner’s task performance.
Scaffolding:- is a more systemic approach to supporting the learner,
focusing on the task, the environment, the teacher, and the learner.
 provides temporary frameworks to support learning and student
performance beyond their capacities.
The concept of scaffolding represents any kind of support
for cognitive activity that is provided by an adult when the
child and adult are performing the task together.
120
Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)
 In CLEs, learning is driven by the problem to be solved;
students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem.
This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the
theory would be presented first and problems would be used
afterwards to practice theory.
 Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and
scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need
to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information
resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools.
 A model for developing constructivist learning environments
(CLEs) around a specific learning goal.
 Question or issue
 Case study
 Long-term Project
 Problem (multiple cases and projects integrated
at the curriculum level)
121
Constructivist Assessment
 In traditional teaching, assessment in the classroom is
based on testing. It is important for the student to produce
the correct answers.
 In constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge
is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus,
assessment is based not only on tests, but also on
observation of the student, the student’s work, and the
student’s points of view.
122
Cont…
 Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus”
question and allows an open discussion on the topic.
 KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, what we
have learned, how we know it). This technique can be used
throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a
good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the
progress of the student throughout the course of study.
 Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the
concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
 Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate
their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use
a checklist and observation to assess student success with the
particular material.
 Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge
students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing
the course of study.
123
CHAPTER SIX
Motivation in Relation to Teaching and Learning
6. 1 Meaning and Concept of Motivation
Motivation:- is an internal state that arouses us to
action, pushes us in a particular directions,
and keeps us engaged in certain activities.
 desire or want that energizes and directs goal-
oriented behavior; and
influence of needs and desires on the intensity
and direction of behavior.
Learning enables us to acquire new knowledge and
skills, and motivation provides the impetus for
showing what we have learned. Therefore, more
motivated people achieve at higher levels. 124
Cont…
Motivation as a psychological construct affects learning and
performance in the following ways:
1. Increases an individual’s energy and activity level.
 influences the extent to which an individual is likely to engage in a certain
activity intensively or half-heartedly.
2. Directs an individual toward certain goal.
 affects choices of people make and the results they find rewarding.
3. Promotes initiation of certain activities and persistence in those
activities.
 It increases the likelihood that people will begin something on their own,
persist in the face of difficulty, and resume a task after a temporary
interruption.
4. Affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes an
individual employs.
 People will pay attention to something, study and practice it, try to learn it
in a meaningful fashion and they will seek help when they encounter
difficulty.
In educational practices, motivation can be seen as intrinsic and
extrinsic motivation. 125
6.2 Difference Between Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation
 The need to perform something arises from the individual
himself without any external influences. Therefore, students
with intrinsic motivation demonstrate the desire to learn by
themselves without the need of external inducements.
Even if they encounter failure, they can take responsibility and
strive to improve in the future.
Extrinsic Motivation
The need to perform something comes from some external
influences. Therefore, marks, prizes, and other tangible rewards
have been used to influence some student’s behavior.
126
Cont…
127
Sources of Motivational Needs
1. Behavioral/External
 Elicited by stimulus associated/connected to innately
connected stimulus
 Obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards) or
escape/avoid undesired, unpleasant consequences
2. Social
 Imitate positive models
 Acquire effective social competence skills
 Be a part of a group, institution, or community
3. Biological
 Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal)
 Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.)
 Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc.
 Maintain homeostasis, balance
128
4. Cognitive
 Maintain attention to something interesting or threatening
 Develop meaning or understanding
 Increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium; uncertainty
 Solve a problem or make a decision
 Figure something out
 Eliminate threat or risk
5. Affective
Increase/decrease affective dissonance
Increase feeling good
Decrease feeling bad
Increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem
Maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm
129
6. Conative
Meet individually developed/selected goal
Obtain personal dream
Develop or maintain self-efficacy
Take control of one's life
Eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream
Reduce others' control of one's life
7. Spiritual
Understand purpose of one's life
Connect self to ultimate unknowns
130
6. 3 Theories (Perspectives) of Motivation:
Explanation of Motivated Students
 Motivated students are obviously the most desirable to teach, it is
well worth the time and effort for teachers (and future teachers or
parents) to learn as much as possible about motivation.
 Early motivation theorists focused on hunger-thirst drives or
sexual stimulation (e.g., Freud).
 Currently, the results of motivational research to education
produced a greater emphasis on the cognitive aspects of
motivation.
 Hence, causal attributions, self-efficacy, learned helplessness,
test anxiety, locus of control, competitive versus cooperative
activities, and intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards are all used to
explain human motivation.
131
1. Causal Attributions
Bernard Weiner
 Even with the need to achieve, students will either
succeed or fail. Then they search for specific causes for
their success or failure.
Example: The test was difficult, the teacher dislikes
me, I am not good in the subject.
 Students’ attribution then serve as a guide to their
expectations for future success or failure in a particular
subject.
 Students who consistently do poorly in a subject expect
to continue to do poorly. But before a teacher can hope
to have success in changing a student’s performance,
the teacher must know to what that student attributes
about their performance.
132
2. Anxiety and Motivation
 Anxiety can be defined as an unpleasant
sensation that is usually experienced as feeling of
apprehension and general irritability accompanied
by restlessness, fatigue, and various somatic
systems such as headaches, and stomachaches.
 Older students may develop dislike for school that
affects their achievement.
 Younger students may develop school phobia, a
psychological condition producing such physical
manifestations as crying and vomiting before
school in the morning thus hoping to avoid school
avoidance.
133
Cont…
 Within the classroom setting, there are numerous
sources of anxiety for students learning. Some
are:
 teachers, examinations, peers, social relations,
achievement settings, what girls think of boys,
what boys think of girls, like or dislike of
subjects…etc.
 Regarding the effect of anxiety on achievement:
 extremely intense motivation that produces high
anxiety has negative effect on performance.
 moderate motivation seems to be the desirable
state for learning complex tasks.
134
3. Self- Efficacy and Its Role in Motivation
 Albert Bandura
Self-efficacy: is persons’ belief in their own capabilities
to exert control over aspects of their lives.
 is the product of one’s own performances,
vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion
from others, and emotional arousal.
Students who believe they are not efficacious in
coping with environmental demands tend to focus on
their inefficiency and exaggerate potential difficulties.
Students who have strong sense of efficacy,
however, tend to focus their attention and effort on the
demands of tasks and minimize potential difficulties.
135
4. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
 Abraham Maslow : Popular American Psychologist
Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs
are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of
years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to
explain how these needs motivate us all.
Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs
model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs
theory remains valid today for understanding human
motivation, management training, and personal
development.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy
each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with
the most obvious needs for survival itself.
136
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Motives)
137
Cont…
 Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well-
being are satisfied we are concerned with the higher order needs of
influence and personal development.
 Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are
swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of
our higher order needs.
1. Biological and Physiological needs:- air, food, drink, shelter,
warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety needs:- protection from elements, security, order, law,
limits, stability, etc.
3. Belongingness and Love needs:- work group, family, affection,
relationships, etc.
4. Esteem needs:- self-esteem, achievement, mastery,
independence, status, dominance, prestige,
managerial responsibility, etc.
5. Self-Actualization needs:- realizing personal potential, self-
fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak
experiences.
138
1970s Adapted Hierarchy of Needs Model
Including Cognitive and Aesthetic Needs
1. Biological and Physiological Needs:- air, food, drink,
shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety Needs:- protection from elements, security, order,
law, limits, stability, etc.
3. Belongingness and Love Needs:- work group, family,
affection, relationships, etc.
4. Esteem Needs:- self-esteem, achievement, mastery,
independence, status, dominance, prestige,
managerial responsibility, etc.
5. Cognitive Needs:- knowledge, meaning, etc.
6. Aesthetic Needs:- appreciation and search for beauty,
balance, form, etc.
7. Self-Actualization Needs:- realizing personal potential,
self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak
experiences.
139
1990s Adapted Hierarchy of Needs(Motives)
Including Transcendence needs
1. Biological and Physiological Needs:- air, food, drink, shelter,
warmth, sex, sleep, etc.
2. Safety Needs:- protection from elements, security, order, law,
limits, stability, etc.
3. Belongingness and Love Needs:- work group, family, affection,
relationships, etc.
4. Esteem Needs:- self-esteem, achievement, mastery,
independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial
responsibility, etc.
5. Cognitive Needs:- knowledge, meaning, etc.
6. Aesthetic Needs:- appreciation and search for beauty, balance,
form, etc.
7. Self-Actualization Needs:- realizing personal potential, self-
fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.
8. Transcendence Needs:- helping others to achieve self
actualization.
140
Cont…
141
The End of the Class
for the Course
“Educational Psychology,
EPsy 1014”
Thank you !
142
CHAPTER SEVEN
EMOTION IN RELATION TO TEACHING AND LEARNING
 Emotion
- The aroused psychological state of the organism marked by
increased bodily activity and strong feelings directed to some
subject.
- Can be categorized into two kinds:- positive emotions and
negative emotions. The former and the later types of emotions
are also termed as pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions,
respectively.
143
The relationship of motivation and emotion
 Emotion
- An indefinite subjective sensation experienced as a state
of arousal.
- Is different from motivation in that there is not necessarily a
goal orientation affiliated with it.
- Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception
of environmental stimuli, neural/hormonal responses to these
perceptions (often labeled feelings),and subjective cognitive
labeling of these feelings.
144
Cont…
 Emotions play an important part in the training of a student.
You must know the kinds of emotions and techniques for
controlling them.
 Most of us think of emotion as overpowering feelings such as
passion, hatred, or grief. These are not typical of the entire
range of emotions. Everything we do, or with which we come
in contact, is coloured by some emotional feeling.
 Emotions vary from mildly pleasant or unpleasant feelings, all
the way up to feelings so intense that physical and mental
activity is paralyzed. All of us experience a wide variety of
emotions every day. Rarely do they bother us or interfere with
our ability or willingness to do our job.
145
Cont…
 The learning situation tends to intensify the students' emotional
problems more than we would expect in everyday life. You
cannot ignore this problem but must learn how to recognize
and overcome it.
146
Degrees of Emotion
 The various levels of emotion fall into 3 categories:
1. MILD EMOTION
-The everyday type of emotion such as a small amount of satisfaction or
dissatisfaction with our jobs, our personal lives, or with other people.
- Mild emotions affect motivation.
2. STRONG EMOTION
- This degree of emotion is not felt very often in everyday life, but causes most of our
emotional problems for example, in flying training.
- Strong emotions cause a large amount of tension in an individual, and no one can
live or work normally with prolonged tension; however, strong emotion can be
coped with.
3. DISRUPTIVE EMOTION
- Very severe, deep-rooted emotional tensions which will disrupt logical action and
clear thinking.
- Persons suffering disruptive emotions usually require the assistance of a psychiatrist;
however, they occur so rarely that you need only be aware that they exist.
147
The Effect of Strong Emotional Tension
 A person cannot tolerate strong emotional tension
over any length of time. It causes extreme
nervousness, irritability, and an inability to relax.
 It interferes with normal eating and sleeping habits,
and makes the subject generally miserable. Everyone
either consciously or subconsciously, tries to relieve
prolonged emotional tension.
148
Cont…
 The effect of emotional tension on learning depends on the
method chosen by the student for relieving it. If the
problem is attacked directly, and solved, then learning is
enhanced. For example, students may have strong feelings
of frustration or worry due to deficiency in one phase of the
flight training program. If they work harder, study more,
and receive extra instruction, progress will probably
become satisfactory and tension will disappear. On the
other hand, if the real problem is avoided, an escape
mechanism may be used to reduce tension and learning
will suffer.
149
Use of Emotional Escape Mechanisms
Occasional use of escape mechanisms is normal in everyone, but their
over-use indicates strong emotional problems. You, therefore, must
learn to identify the symptoms which indicate that a student is using
escape mechanisms.
Projection — transferring the blame from oneself to someone or
something else.
Rationalization — finding a believable excuse for one's actions or
failure; trying to justify unjustifiable behaviour.
Resignation — becoming resigned to the situation; giving up.
Flight — physically or mentally removing oneself from the tension
producing situation.
Aggression — taking one's tension out on someone else by becoming
belligerent or argumentative.
A student's over-use of one or more of the escape mechanisms, along
with other symptoms, may indicate an emotional problem. You should
not wait until emotional tension becomes extreme before taking
corrective action.
150
Meeting the Differences
 You must be cognizant of the differences in aptitude,
personality, and emotions among your students, and understand
the necessity to treat students as individuals.
 When you have analyzed the situation and determined the
differences, seek assistance from more experienced instructors
or supervisors when it is necessary.
 Coping with differences among students is perhaps the greatest
challenge of instructing, and finding the correct approach for
each student is essential.
151
Cont…
 Some traits and faults of students are fairly common
and can be recognized easily. For example,
Nervous or Under confident
- Nervousness or under confidence in a student is a trait which
may or may not disappear.
- Repeating the fundamentals and ensuring mastery will often
alleviate this condition. You must ensure that this type of
student receives deserved praise whenever possible. Harsh
rebukes should be avoided.
- Patience is very necessary when dealing with a student of this
nature.
-The student must be aware that you are trying to help.
152
Over- confident or Conceited
- You must first ensure that this type of student has the ability to
match the confidence and, if so, set more difficult tasks that require
greater accuracy.
- More criticism of imperfections is advisable. If the student has little
ability, counseling may be required.
- Any signs of familiarity must be discouraged.
Forgetful of Instruction
- At the beginning of training, students may forget previous
instruction. Students with this problem require a great deal of
patience and probably need more review than the average student.
-Extra time spent in briefing and debriefing, and more study on the
student's part should be rewarding for all concerned.
153
Inconsistency
- Many students, at one time or another throughout the course,
appear to lack consistency.
- There are many reasons for this and you must try to find the
one that fits a particular student.
- You must look at yourself and your attitude towards the
student. Most of us have good days and bad days, but when a
student shows large fluctuations in proficiency the instructor
must look closely at the teaching activities.
- A change in approach or even a change in instructors may be
called for.
154
Slow starters
- Students who find difficulty doing more than one thing at a
time.
- Patience is mandatory. Progress may be slow, but
encouragement will help.
Fast starters
- Fast starters are usually students with previous exposure to
what they learn, who quickly grasp the initial learned exercises.
However, you should not omit anything from the briefings.
- Watch for signs of weakness when new work is introduced.
- A high degree of proficiency throughout the course should not
be anticipated unless the student has above average ability.
155
Immature
- You must not be too harsh with students who appear
immature.
- Your attitude is of prime importance in setting an
example. You must encourage and assist these
students whenever possible.
156
THE END
157

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EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY.pptxmmmmmmmmmmmmm

  • 1. 1
  • 2. CHAPTER ONE The Science of Psychology 2 What is Psychology?
  • 3. Origin of the word Psychology The word psychology: comes from the word psyche, which means mind and the word logos, which means the study of.  psyche + logos = psychology  mind + the study of = the study of mind Psychology is represented by the following symbol which read as “Psyc.” 3
  • 4. Modern Definition Today, as a modern discipline, psychology is defined as: “ the scientific study of behavior and its underling emotions and mental processes of human beings and animals .“ Analysis of the Definition Scientific  An empirical science that conduct scientific investigation (Eg. observation & experimentation). Uses systematic methods to observe, describe, explain and control behavior. 4
  • 5. Cont… Behavior- includes all of a person’s overt actions and reactions, which can be observed by others such as eating, talking, smiling, and working. Mental processes- refer to all the covert activities that other people cannot directly observe. Activities such as thinking, dreaming, feeling, and remembering are examples of mental processes. Emotions:- refer to a complex state of an organism including bodily changes of a widespread character. 5
  • 6. Cont… Human:- The main objective of psychology is to study human behavior. Animals:- Two purposes of studying animals behavior a. It is ethically forbidden to conduct experiments on human beings, so animals are subject to experiment. b. Conclusions obtained from experiments on animal behavior are usually applicable to human behavior. 6
  • 7. Goals of Psychology 1. Description  Naming and classifying. Making a detailed record of behavioral observations. To describe, a psychologist would ask ‘What is happening?’, ‘When it happens?’ and ‘To whom it happens?’ 2. Explanation / Understanding The second goal is to find out ‘Why is it happening?’ In other words, the psychologist is looking for an explanation for the observed behavior or mental processes.  Stating the cause of behavior 3. Prediction  The ability to forecast behavior accurately 4. Control This goal is to change an undesirable behavior to a desirable one. 7
  • 8. To illustrate all the four goals, consider the following Example: A group of psychologists observe a number of students in order to describe how large their vocabulary typically is at a certain age. Then, they would attempt to explain how students expand the vocabulary and why some students have limited number of vocabulary. Psychologists would predict that students with limited number of vocabulary will probably continue to do poorly in academic. Finally, the psychologists would propose certain language learning strategies that can be used to increase the size of vocabulary of the students. 8
  • 9. Major Subfields of Psychology 1. Developmental psychology  Studies how behavior changes due to physical, cognitive, social and psychological changes over the entire life span. 2. Counseling Psychology  Assists individuals in dealing with many personal problems (e.g., academic, vocational, marriage…) that don’t involve psychological or mental disorders. 3. Clinical Psychology  Studies and diagnose, causes, and treatment of mental disorders. Works with abnormal or maladjusted individuals of all ages. 9
  • 10. 4. Educational Psychology  Studies all aspect of educational processes from techniques of instruction to learning difficulties.  Investigates the educational systems, methods of teaching, curricular and other factors influencing the learning process. 5. Social Psychology  Studies all aspects of social behavior and social thought, e.g., how we think and interact with others (social interactions). 6.Cognitive Psychology  Investigates all aspects of cognition like memory, thinking, reasoning, language, decision making, problem solving etc.  Studies the internal mental processes which include thinking, memory, concept formation and processing of information. 10
  • 11. 7. Industrial/organizational psychology  Studies all aspects of behavior in work settings e.g., selection of workers/employees, evaluation of performance, work motivation and leadership.  Works with business and concerned with improving working conditions, raising production, and developing decision making abilities. 8. Experimental Psychology  Investigates all aspects of basic psychological processes such as perception, learning and motivation.  Concerned with the employment of experimental methods to obtain psychological data or to solve psychological problems. 11
  • 12. 9. Comparative Psychology  Concerned with the study of behavioral differences and similarities among species. 10. Personality Psychology  Studies the thoughts, emotions & behaviors that define an individualistic personal style of interacting with the world. 11. School Psychology  Works with children to evaluate learning & emotional problems. 12
  • 13. CHAPTER TWO: INTRODUCTION ABOUT THE NATURE OF EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 2. 1 What is Educational Psychology? A branch of psychology and studies:-  how people learn, including topics such as student outcomes, the instructional process, individual differences in learning, gifted learners and learning disabilities.  the social, emotional and cognitive processes that are involved in learning throughout the entire lifespan.  how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. 13
  • 14. Cont…  the application of psychology and psychological methods to the study of development, learning, motivation, instruction, assessment, and related issues that influence the interaction of teaching and learning.  Educational Psychology is highly concerned with how students learn and develop, often focusing on subgroups such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities.  Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialties within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. 14
  • 15. 2. 2 Application of Educational Psychology in Students Learning Educational Psychology is a tool for effective teaching. Effective teaching requires three ingredients:  Professional Knowledge and Skills  Commitment  Professional Growth  Professional Knowledge and Skills  Effective teachers have a good command of their subject matter and a solid core of teaching skills. “The art of teaching is the art of awakening the natural curiosity of young minds.” Anatole France French novelist and poet, 19th century 15
  • 16. Cont… Subject-Matter Competence  Having a thoughtful, flexible, conceptual understanding of subject matter is indispensable for being an effective teacher .  knowledge of subject matter includes a lot more than just facts, terms, and general concepts. It also include knowledge about instructional strategies, goal setting and planning, classroom management, motivation, communication, working with diverse students, and technology. 16
  • 17. Cont…  Goal-Setting and Instructional Planning Skills  Set high goals for their teaching and develop organized plans for reaching those goals.  Develop specific criteria for success.  Spend considerable time in instructional planning, organizing their lessons to maximize students’ learning.  Classroom-Management Skills  Establish and maintain an environment in which learning can occur.  Motivational Skills  Have good strategies for helping students become self-motivated to learn. 17
  • 18. Cont…  Communication Skills  Skills in speaking, listening, overcoming barriers to verbal communication, tuning into students’ nonverbal communication, and constructively resolving conflicts.  Effective teachers use good communication skills when they talk “with” rather than “to” students, parents, administrators, and others; keep criticism at a minimum; and have an assertive rather than aggressive, manipulative, or passive communication style.  Effective teachers work to improve students’ communication skills as well. 18
  • 19. Cont…  Working Effectively with Students from Culturally Diverse Backgrounds  Effective teachers are knowledgeable about students from different cultural backgrounds and are sensitive to their needs.  Effective teachers encourage students to have positive personal contact with others and think of ways to create such settings. “It is more important to be ingenious than to be a genius.” Pierre Elliot Trudeau Former Canadian prime minister, 20th century 19
  • 20. Cont…  Technological Skills  Does not itself necessarily improve students’ ability to learn.  Alters the environment within which learning takes place. A combination of five conditions is necessary to create learning environments. These conditions are:  Vision and support from educational psychology,  Clear educational goals, content standards & curriculum resources,  Access to technology,  Time, support, & ongoing assessment of the effectiveness of the technology for teaching – learning, and  A constructivist focus  Commitment  Effective teachers also have a caring concern for their students. 20
  • 21. 2. 3 Major areas of Educational Psychology (Topics of Interest Within Educational Psychology) Discuss what you understand by this terms by the help of your own clear example for each.  Educational Technology  Instructional Design  Special Education  Curriculum Development  Organizational Learning  Gifted Learners More Educational Psychology Topics  Multiple Intelligences  School Psychology Careers  How to Be a More Effective Learner 21
  • 22. 2. 4 Important Figures in (Historical Background of) Educational Psychology Discuss the contribution of each of the following educators(psychologists) for the development of education, specifically for educational psychology.  William James  John Dewey  E. L. Thorndike  John Locke  Alfred Benet  Jean Piaget  B.F. Skinner 22
  • 23. 2.5 The Nature of Teaching 1. Could everybody be a teacher? Why or why not? 2. Is a teacher born or made? Argue on what you favor of. 3. Could newly graduated person be good teacher? Why or why not? 4. Who is a good teacher after all? 5. Is teaching an art or science or both? 23
  • 24. Is Teaching an art or Science? Teaching is both an art and science. Art and science may seem very different, but they are actually quite the same. Art :- Skill acquired by experience or study," An occupation requiring knowledge or skill Science:- An organized and systematic body of knowledge The art of teaching focuses on the process of creating atmosphere, delivering relative information through a performance and creatively incorporating unexpected events into the lessons. The science of teaching focuses on the experimental aspect of teaching, facts, and cause and effect. 24
  • 25. Summary What is the historical background of educational psychology? William James, John Dewey, E. L. Thorndike, James Baldwin, & Samuel Ralph Laycock were important pioneers in North American educational psychology. Is educational psychology an art or a science?  Educational psychology involves elements of both art and science.  Opinion is divided about how much of teaching should be based purely on science and how much of it is an art. What is the nature of teaching?  Teaching involves uncertainty. It is difficult to predict what effect a given action will have on a student. Teachers, therefore, need a tolerance for uncertainty & unpredictability.  Teaching involves social and ethical matters.  Teaching involves acknowledging students’ diverse abilities and backgrounds. 25
  • 26. Cont… What is effective teaching?  Effective teaching include a sense of humor, making classes interesting, subject- matter knowledge, fairness, respect, consideration of and equal treatment for all students.  Caring about students as individuals and learners, having a positive attitude about teaching, and self- motivation are key elements for teaching. 26
  • 27. CHAPTER THREE BASIC CONCEPTS, PRINCIPLES AND THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 3. 1 Meaning of Basic Terms 3. 1. 1 Growth is defined as increase in body dimensions:- height, weight, size and structure of both internal and external organs of the body. is the result of metabolic processes in which proteins are broken down & used to make new cells. is generally restricted to quantitative changes. i.e., an increase in size, height & weight are quantitative changes, hence they are under the domain of growth. Generally, changes in growth are directly observable and measurable.
  • 28. 3. 1. 2. Maturation It is the unfolding of the characteristics with which potentially the individual endowed that come from the individual’s genetic endowment. As the child grows his/her mind and body mature and he/she is able to function as a higher level. Ordinarily, when a girl attains puberty we use the term maturation. Actually its connotation is much wider and comprehensive. It refers to “the natural unfolding of inherited tendencies”. The maturational process strongly depends on the individual genetic master plan. It occurs in the same way for children of all cultures and in all types of homes within these cultures. It is determined largely by internal signals, unlike learning process
  • 29. 3. 1. 3. Learning It is a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by interaction of the individual with the environment. For instance, when the child recites the alphabet, imitates his/her brother/sister’s fear of spiders, sings along with daddy or recognize mammy, learning has occurred. Behavioral changes due to drugs and fatigue can not be considered as learning. When maturation emphasizes the influence of variables that are internal to the organism, learning always result from an interaction with environmental conditions:- internal as well as external. Learning implies making practice and experimentation or performing activities using the maturing body. One has to practice cycling, typing, swimming, singing, speaking, writing to learn.
  • 30. 3. 1. 4. Development The term development refers to a progressive series of changes that occur in an orderly and predictable manner as a result of both maturation and learning. It is the orderly set of changes that occur overtime as individual moves from conception to death. It is a lifelong process. Development is best understood as the result of the interaction of maturation and learning. It refers to the interaction of a person and his/her environmental surroundings. This means that the term learning is related to development. Therefore, in general, development is a comprehensive process and includes growth, maturation and learning.
  • 31. Assignment  Discuss 1. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development 2. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory 3. Erickson’s psychosocial theory 4. Kohlberg’s moral development theory NB.  All members should participate equally in the assignment  All members should take part during presentation  Score of presentation will be given individually  You should discuss the implications of your respective theory to the well being of individuals development.
  • 32. 3. 2 Theories of Human Development 3. 2. 1. Cognitive Theory of Development (Jean Piaget) Cognitive development refers to the development of the intellectual or mental abilities and capabilities which help an individual to adjust his/her behavior to the ever challenging environmental conditions.  For Piaget, intelligence is adaptive process.  Adaptation takes place through two related processes: assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is the process by which an individual fits new information into his/her present way of understanding, as when he/she act on a new object in a way that is similar to previous action on other object. Example: A young kid may identify all flying things as “birds”
  • 33. Accommodation is the process by which cognitive structures are altered to fit new experiences. Example: The kid has to be informed that not all flying things are birds. In this case accommodation would involve the modification of bird scheme. The process of assimilation and accommodation must be complementary for an individual to remain in equilibrium with the environment. If assimilation predominates, the organism imposes its own order on the environment, and if accommodation predominates, the converse occurs.
  • 34. 3. 2. 1. 1 Cognitive Stages of Development Jean Piaget, the most famous of cognitive theorists, held that there are four major stages of cognitive development. Each one is age-related and has structural features that permit certain types of thinking. Piaget’s stages of cognitive development are universal. This means that all children go through the same four stages at approximately the same age regardless of the culture in which they live. 34
  • 35. 1. Sensory motor Stage (Birth - 2 years) The child discovers the world using the senses and motor activities. The child experiences everything directly through his/her senses and through feedback from motor activities. In the world of the child, an object exists when it is physically present. The child develops object permanence (the understanding that objects and people do not disappear merely because they are out of sight) when he/she is between six and eight months of old. The child leaves the sensory motor stage when object permanence becomes fully developed.
  • 36.
  • 37. 2. Preoperational stage (2 to 7 years) The major distinction between the sensory motor and preoperational stages is the degree of development and the use of internal images and symbols. At this stage, the child can use one thing to represent another. For example, a piece of wood may symbolize a boat. The child’s emerging use of symbolism shows itself in expanding language abilities. Language allows children to go beyond direct experience opening up a new and expanded world.
  • 38. There are a number of limitations in this stage . The preoperational children can not make reversibility. This means that the ability to move forth and back in a train of thought. Example: A young child might recognize that 3 + 2 = 5, but not understand that the reverse 5 – 2 = 3, is true. The preoperational children can not also understand the concept of conservation. This means the understanding of a given quantity of a substance remains the same despite changes in its appearance. Example: A preoperational child cannot understand that the amount of liquid stays the same regardless of the container’s shape
  • 39. There are different aspects (types) conservation:-  Conservation of mass(shape),  Conservation of length,  Conservation of volume(liquid) and  Conservation of number, etc. 39
  • 40. Preoperational child’s response Both straws have the same length. The sausage shape has more amount of clay. Before Transformation After Transformation Type of conservation 1. Shape 2. Length Preoperational child’s response The balls have the same amount of clay. The one on top (or bottom) is longer.
  • 41. 3. Liquid Preoperational child’s response The containers have the same amount of liquid The tall container has more amount of liquid. 4. Number Preoperational child’s response Both rows have the same number of candies. The longer row has more number of candies. Before Transformation After Transformation Type of conservation
  • 42.  The preoperational children are unable to understand the concept of serration, which refers to the arrangement of items in a series.  Furthermore, according to Piaget, the other characteristics of thought in the preoperational stage are:- Egocentrism:- is concerned with the inability of the preoperational children to take the point of view of another individual. Realism:- is the tendency of preoperational children to see psychological events like dreams and thoughts as physical events. Animism:- is the tendency of preoperational children to give physical objects and events psychological attributes. Example 1: A child says, “My teddy bear wants a cup of milk too”. Artificialism:- is the tendency of preoperational children to interpret all phenomena, including natural phenomena, as made by human beings.
  • 43. 3. Concrete operational stage (7 to 12 yrs) During the concrete operational stage, children develop the ability to think in a more logical manner. They are less egocentric than before and can take multiple aspects of a situation into account. At this stage, children can do mentally what they previously could do only physically and they can reverse concrete operations. Although the concrete operational thinkers make important advances in logical capabilities, their thinking is still limited to real situations in here and now. In other words, they have difficulty in understanding abstract ideas.
  • 44. 4. Formal operational stage (12 yrs to adulthood) This stage begins when children develop the capacity of thinking that is abstract, systematic, and hypothetical. These capabilities allow students to make abstract reasoning, sophisticated moral judgments, and plan more realistically for the future. They can understand historical time, learn algebra and calculus, imagine possibilities, form and test hypotheses (develop hypothetical- deductive reasoning in Piaget’s term) and can use deductive reasoning.
  • 45.
  • 46. 3. 2. 1. 2 Application and Value  Piaget's explorations into the way children develop their concepts of time, space, and math, show that children see the world differently from the way adults do. Thus, Parents and teachers must understand children's thought processes in order to serve the needs of youngsters better.  Yelon and Weinstein (1977) note six implications of Piaget's theories for teachers. These include:  using Piagetian tasks to determine the intellectual level of students,  teaching students with their cognitive level in mind,  remembering that children's thought processes are different from those of adults,  being careful to sequence instruction carefully,  testing children to find the results of teaching, and  encouraging social interaction to facilitate learning. 46
  • 47. 3. 2. 1. 3 Evaluation of Piaget’s Theory Contribution  Piaget has generally provided us with an accurate account of age- related changes in cognitive development.  His view that individuals can only increase their cognitive performance when cognitive readiness and appropriate environmental stimulation are present affects the nature of educational curricular and teaching methods. Criticism  Developmental psychologists suggest that cognitive development proceeds in a more continuous fashion than Piaget’s stage theory implies.  Piaget underestimated the age at which children can understand specific concepts and principles.  Piaget’s work failed to take into account the influence of culture on cognitive development.  Piaget's method of research, the presentation of problems to children followed by observation and questioning, is a source of criticism. This subjective approach is marked by interpretation rather than formal statistical data. His experiments are not well controlled.
  • 48. 3. 2. 2. Psychosocial Theory of Development (Erik Erikson)  In Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, Erikson highlighted the importance of relationship with others in the formation of one’s own identity.  Erikson believed that personality develops through eight stages or critical periods of life.  He also contended that at each stage of life, an individual is confronted by a crisis.  Erikson assume the personality develops in accordance to one’s ability to interact with the environment and to resolve the crises experienced. The manner in which the crises are resolved will have a lasting effect on the person’s view of himself or herself and the surrounding world.
  • 49. 3. 2. 2. 1 Psychosocial Stages of Development Stage 1: Trust versus Mistrust (birth-1 yr) The first psychological challenge faced by an infant involves developing a sense of trust in others. For the infant, this sense of trust develops if s/he is predictably cared for when s/he cries and is warmly treated by her/his primary caregivers. If an infant, instead, is cared for in unpredictable ways such as not being fed, or comforted when necessary, Erikson believed this infant would develop basic mistrust of others, which would lead to fear and suspicion.
  • 50. Stage 2 : Autonomy Vs Shame and Doubt (1 to 3yrs) At this stage, children want to do things on their own or act autonomously. Yet this need to become autonomous must be balanced by the reality of safety issues. For instance, while Erikson thought it was healthy to allow the two-year-olds to explore the streets alone, this exploration must be done in a constraint way such that the child is not hit by a car. Therefore, Erikson called for a delicate interplay between freedom and restraint. If children of this age are not allowed to do the things they can do, they may develop a sense of shame or doubt about their own abilities and fall to develop self-confidence. Encouraging children to do what they can do is the key to their developing a sense of autonomy.
  • 51. Stage 3 : Initiative Versus Guilt (4 to 5 yrs)  Erikson contends that children when face with new challenges, will want to explore and investigate. He termed this the development of a sense of initiative, whereby children begin to ask many questions about the world.  The ever-present questions of “why” and “what” seem to engulf a child at this stage as do the inquisitive behaviors that often accompany taking initiative.  For instance, children may ask question about and want to help with work in the kitchen. In situations in which a child is discouraged from taking the initiative, Erikson believed that the child would develop a sense of guilt regarding her natural tendency to explore and investigate. This in turn leads them to lack of assertiveness.
  • 52. Stage 4 : Industry Vs Inferiority (6 to 11 yrs)  The major psychological task in the fourth stage is the development of competence or industry.  The term industry means in this stage children not only continues their interest in trying new things, but they will try to succeed in learning and gain recognition for producing things or good result.  In this stage of development, which last throughout the elementary school years, children are faced with the challenges of producing good academic work related to reading, writing, and mathematical skills.  Children also face the challenges to be competence in hobby, playing sports, maintaining a positive relationship with teachers, & developing friendship.
  • 53.  Recent research has shown that social skills training as well as attention to social problem solving can be helpful in terms of developing social competence in forming friendships and developing social skills.  If children succeed in acquiring these new skills and the accomplishments are valued by others, the child develops a sense of industry and has a positive view of the achievements.  On the other hand, a child who is constantly compared with others and come up a distinct second may develop a sense of inferiority.  Children who leave the elementary years without this sense of industry, may feel they are failure at everything. So it is the responsibility of parents and teachers to help them to become academically and socially competent.
  • 54. Stage 5 : Identity Vs Role Confusion (12 to 18 yrs) Erikson’s fifth stage of psychosocial development is for the secondary and post-secondary school students. The major psychological task is to gain self identity. In this stage, adolescents struggle to resolve the questions of “Who am I?” and “Who will I become?”. That is why they move increasingly from their parents to peers as a point of reference, they need to understand how they are both alike and at the same time uniquely different from everyone else.
  • 55. The adolescents also strive to find their own personalities. They need a figure or model to identify with. That’s why the adolescents often imitate the attitudes and actions of others they admire. Adolescents also face the issues of sexual identity that is the adolescent searches for comfortable expressions of sexuality through friendship and dating.  This in fact is the most difficult time in everyone’s life. Teachers and parents have to be patience with the adolescents and guide them to cope effectively with the crises they are facing. Parents and teachers should give the adolescent opportunity to explore different jobs such as working temporarily in fast food restaurant, become the chef of a restaurant, work in a bank, work in a factory etc.
  • 56. Stage 6 : Intimacy versus Isolation (18 to 35 yrs) The major psychosocial crisis in Erikson’s six stage is the development of a true and intimate heterosexual relationship. Erikson contends that in this stage individuals should be able to care for others without losing their self-identity.  Erikson believes individual who never know this intimacy will develop a sense of isolation & tend to avoid relationships with others and make commitments. This six stages crises faced mostly by college and university students. One of the ways for the adolescents to face this crisis is to be active in sports, clubs and participate in community social works.
  • 57. Stage 7 : Generativity Vs Stagnation (35 to 65 yrs) The major concern of the people at this age is on the caring and well-being of the next generation rather than being overly self-concerned.  Most parents focused their energy and time on bringing up their children to be successful academically, socially and emotionally.  Erikson argued that if a sense of generativity is not present, the individual would experience stagnation & become overly self-preoccupied. Helping other people is a means of remaining productive and achieving the positive outcome of generativity.
  • 58. Stage 8 : Integrity Versus Despair (Over 65) The last psychosocial stage, involves integrity and despair. Older people must cope with the death of others, increasing illness, & their own approaching end. If people of this psychosocial stage look back with pride at a life of accomplishment, they can develop a positive sense of ego integrity. If, on the other hand, all they see is missed opportunities, they may become depressed and bitter, developing a sense of despair.
  • 59. 3. 2. 2. 2 Application and Value Erickson's theory, which is clear and easy to understand, serves as an excellent introduction to the general concerns of people at different ages. His emphasis on the importance of culture, socialization, and the historical moment extends our view of the factors that influence children. Erikson sees psychosocial development as continuing throughout life rather than stopping at adolescence. Finally, Erikson's conception of identity has become a cornerstone for understanding adolescence. 59
  • 60. 3. 2. 2. 3 Criticisms and Cautions of Erickson’s Theory Criticisms of Erikson's theory follow the criticisms of Freud's theory. Erikson's theory is difficult to test experimentally. Some support for Erikson's concept of identity exists, but little research has been done on the other stages. In addition, Erikson's theory is rather general and global, and some authorities doubt the existence of all of his stages. Despite these criticisms, Erikson's theory offers a convenient way of viewing development throughout the life span. 60
  • 61. 3. 2. 3. Theory of Moral Development, Kohlberg Morality is a set of internalized principles or ideas that help the individual to distinguish right from wrong act on this distinction. Practically, every day we have to make judgments about “right” and “wrong” when we do this we are reasoning about moral issues. The phrase moral development is concerned with the ability to understand and act upon codes of conduct including everything from the specific rules of a game to universal ethics that should govern all human behavior. Morality is indissolubly (inseparably) linked with the social system, and it has reference to social relationship and social process.
  • 62. Kohlberg views the development of morality in terms of moral reasoning by telling a set of hypothetical stories that pose ethical dilemmas, the most famous of these is the story of Heinz: In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could get together only about half of what the drug cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell the drug for less money or to let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why or why not?
  • 63. 3.2.3.1 Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development Level One: - Pre-Conventional Morality Children make decisions on the basis of reward, punishment and the satisfaction of their own needs. Therefore, they emphasize on avoiding punishment and getting rewards. The level is divided into two stages. Stage 1:- Punishment & Obedience Orientation The child avoids breaking rules because it might lead to punishment. The child shows complete deference to rules. The interests of others are not considered. Therefore, the most important value at this stage is obedience to authority in order to avoid punishment. 63
  • 64. Stage 2:- Instrumental Relativist Orientation In stage two, the right action consists of behavior that satisfies child’s own needs and only sometimes the needs of others. The reason to be nice to others is so they will be nice to him/her. In other words, you scratch my back and I will scratch yours. Level Two:- Conventional Morality At the conventional level, maintaining the expectation of the child’s family, group, or nation is perceived as valuable in its own right, regardless of consequences. Children emphasize on social rules & conformity is the most important factor. The level has two stages.
  • 65. Stage 3:- Interpersonal Concordance or Good Boy (Nice Girl) Orientation At this stage, the child begins to like the good will of others and tries to please others to obtain their approval: good boy or nice girl.  Good moral behaviors are those please (satisfy) others. Thus, there is an emphasis on gaining approval from others by being nice. Stage 4:- Law and Order Orientation A child in stage four is oriented toward authority and toward maintaining the social order. The emphasis is on doing one’s duty and showing respect for authority.  Hence, at this stage right behavior means obeying the laws set down by those in power, being a dutiful citizen.
  • 66. Level Three: - Post Conventional Morality  At this level, an individual makes a clear effort to define moral values and principles that have validity and application apart from the authority of the groups/persons holding these principles, and apart from the individual’s own identification with these groups.  This level has two stages. Stage 5: Social Contract, Legalistic Orientation  In stage five, correct behavior is defined in terms of individual rights and the consensus of society.  The rules of society exist for the benefit of all, and are established by mutual agreement.  If the rules become destructive, or if one party doesn’t live up to agreement, the contract is no longer binding. 66
  • 67. Stage 6:- Universal Ethical Principle Orientation In this highest stage, the correct behavior is defined as a decision of conscience (the sense of what is right and wrong that governs somebody’s thought and actions, urging him/her to do right rather than wrong) in accordance with self-chosen ethical principles that are logical, universal, and consistent.  At this stage, the individual keeps not only the norms of society in mind but also the universal moral principles. An individual may be prepared to sacrifice his/her all, including life for upholding (continuation) of these principles.
  • 68. CHAPTER FOUR:- INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN LEARNING  Do you think all individuals are equal?  Why and/or Why not? Explain your response with justification.  How do you describe individual differences? In the words of Charles E. Skinner, “Today we think of individual differences as including any measurable aspect of the total personality.” 68
  • 69. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCE IN LEARNING I’ll tell you this: There are some people, and then there are others. (Anna Harris)  Distinction between differences among individuals and differences among groups of students Individual differences are qualities that are unique; just one person has them at a time. Variation in hair color, for example, is an individual difference; even though some people have nearly the same hair color, no two people are exactly the same. Group differences are qualities shared by members of an identifiable group or community, but not shared by everyone in society. An example is gender role: for better or for worse, one portion of society (the males) is perceived differently and expected to behave a bit differently than another portion of society (the females). 69
  • 70. Cont…  Learning & Learning Factors : Individual Differences  One manifestation of the difference among students is that they seldom learn at the same rate.  Differences in rates of learning are based on differences in intelligence, background, experience, interest, desire to learn, and countless psychological, emotional, and physical factors. 70
  • 71. Cont…  Individual styles of learning and thinking  All people have their own preferred ways of learning.  These differences are called learning styles. 1. Learning style is an individual's natural or habitual pattern of acquiring and processing information in learning situations. A core concept is that individuals differ in how they learn. Because of individual learning styles, one student may like to make diagrams to help remember a reading assignment, whereas another student may prefer to write a sketchy outline instead. Yet in many cases, the students could in principle reverse the strategies and still learn the material. 71
  • 72. Cont…  Individuals, including students, do differ in how they habitually think.  These differences are more specific than learning styles or preferences, and psychologists sometimes call them cognitive styles. 2. Cognitive Styles:- typical ways of perceiving and remembering information, and typical ways of solving problems & making decisions (Zhang & Sternberg, 2006).  In a style of thinking called field dependence, for example, individuals perceive patterns as a whole rather than focus on the parts of the pattern separately.  In a complementary tendency, called field independence, individuals are more inclined to analyze overall patterns into their parts. 72
  • 73. Cont…  Impulsive Vs Reflective cognitive style  Impulsive cognitive style is one in which a person reacts quickly, but as a result makes comparatively more errors.  Reflective style is the opposite: the person reacts more slowly and therefore, makes fewer errors.  As you might expect, the reflective style would seem better suited to many academic demands of school. Research has found that this is indeed the case for academic skills that clearly benefit from reflection, such as mathematical problem solving or certain reading tasks (Evans, 2004).  Some classroom or school-related skills, however, may actually develop better if a student is relatively impulsive. Being a good partner in a cooperative learning group, for example, may depend partly on responding spontaneously (i.e. just a bit “impulsively”) to others’ suggestions; and being an effective member of an athletic team may depend on not taking time to reflect carefully on every move that you or your team mates make. 73
  • 74. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence:- is a single broad ability that allows a person to solve or complete many sorts of tasks, or at least many academic tasks like reading, knowledge of vocabulary, and the solving of logical problems (Garlick, 2002). According to Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (Gardner, 1983, 2003), there are eight different forms of intelligence, each of which functions independently of the others.  Each person has a mix of all eight abilities - more of one and less of another - that helps to constitute that person’s individual cognitive profile. 74
  • 75. Multiple Intelligences (By Howard Gardner) Form of intelligence Examples of activities using the intelligence 1. Linguistic: Verbal skill; ability to use language well • Verbal persuasion • writing a term paper skillfully 2. Musical: Ability to create and understand music • Singing, playing a musical instrument • Composing a tune 3. Logical Mathematical: Logical skill; ability to reason, often using mathematics • Solving mathematical problems easily and accurately • Developing and testing hypotheses 4. Spatial: ability to imagine and manipulate the arrangement of objects in the environment • Completing a difficult jigsaw puzzle • Assembling a complex appliance (e.g. a bicycle) 75
  • 76. Cont… Form of intelligence Examples of activities using the intelligence 5. Bodily kinesthetic: Sense of balance; coordination in use of one's body • Dancing • Gymnastics 6. Interpersonal: Ability to discern others' nonverbal feelings & thoughts • Sensing when to be tactful • Sensing a “subtext” or implied message in a person's statements 7. Intrapersonal: Sensitivity to one's own thoughts and feelings • Noticing complex of ambivalent feelings in oneself • Identifying true motives for an action in oneself 8. Naturalist: Sensitivity to subtle differences and patterns found in the natural environment • Identifying examples of species of plants or animals • Noticing relationships among species and natural processes in the environment 76
  • 77. Cont…  Personality Differences Attitude:- Students have their own personal attitudes and methods of thinking. Thinking patterns and reactions to the various philosophies and types of training must be reconciled. Interest:- People sense ideas and activities that possess special values, uses or attractions for them. The general categories of interest are the vocational, educational, and avocational. The interests of students in different aspects of life will differ. 77
  • 78. Individual Difference in Temperament and Personality Temperament and personality are related to each other and are developed from very early childhood as it stays with us our whole lives. Temperament  is the different aspects of an individual’s personality like extroversion or introversion.  is innate or inborn and is not learned. Characteristics related to temperament include: activity (relaxed or moving around), regularity (sleeping habits), initial reaction (withdrawal or approach), adaptability (adjustments to changes), intensity (reactions), mood (happiness or sadness), distractibility (concentration), persistence (losing interest in some activity), and sensitivity (stimulation). 78
  • 79. Cont… Personality:-  arises within an individual, which remains throughout an individual’s life.  made up of certain characteristic patterns like behavior, feelings, and thoughts.  fundamental characteristics related to personality are: consistency, psychological and physiological impact on behaviors and actions, and multiple expressions. 79
  • 80. CHAPTER FIVE Learning  Learning can be defined as any relatively permanent change in behavior, which occurs as a result of practice or experience.  From the definition we can understand that:  Learning is a change of behavior for better or worse  Learning takes place through experience or practice. The changes due to growth, maturation, or injury are not to be concerned as learned behavior.  The changes to merit the term learning must be relatively permanent. That is it must last for a fairly long time. Therefore, changes due to maturation, fatigue, adaptation or sensitivity of the organism are not considered as learning behaviors 80
  • 81. Factors Affecting Learning  Readiness  Preference of activity (learning styles)  Reinforcement  Situations (facilities- both human and material resources)  Physical condition  Goals or purposes set before the pupils.  Attention  Practice  Attitude  Emotional conditions  The organization and presentation of learning materials  Interest/needs 81
  • 82. Theories of Learning 5. 1 General View on different Perspectives 1. Behavioral Perspective  Classical conditioning Associative Learning process/. Developed by the known Russian physiologist Ivan P. Pavlov (1849-1936). 82
  • 83.
  • 84. Neutral stimulus: - stimulus that, before conditioning, has no effect on the desired response Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS):- a stimulus that brings about a response with out having been learned. Unconditioned response (UCR):- a response that is natural and need no training. Conditioned stimulus (CS):- a once neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus Conditioned response (CR):- a response that, after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus
  • 85. Intensity – The more intense the CS, the more rapidly conditioning will proceed and longer CR will be. Contiguous association – This is temporal relationship between CS and UCS. The time interval and the order between CS and UCS influence association. There are four types of associations. • Simultaneous conditioning – when CS occurs either at the same time or just following the onset of the conditioning • Delayed conditioning – When the onset of UCS is delayed following the onset of CS. This is the widely used and most effective conditioning • Trace conditioning – When there is long interval between CS and UCS. This is no effective. • Backward conditioning – When UCS comes before CS. This is not a successful conditioning procedure. Extinction- is the disappearance of CR when CS repeatedly occurs with out UCS; it means there is no reinforcement. Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of the extinct CR after an elapse of time.
  • 86. Inhibition – When the CR is distracted by other intervening stimulus. External inhibition – when CR is distracted by external stimulus like loud noise. Internal inhibition – when the internal condition blocks the CR like physical health or lack of attention. Stimulus Generalization – The appearance of CR to the stimulus similar to the CS.
  • 87. Theories of Learning 5. 1 General View on different Perspectives 1. Behavioral Perspective Operant conditioning  Argued that behavioral principles of operant conditioning is effective in a range of educational settings.  Teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise, stars, or tokens exchangeable for sundry items.  Criticized by proponents of self-determination theory, who claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation. 87
  • 88. E.L. Thorndike and B.F. Skinner In reinforcement theories, more emphasis is laid on the consequences that follow a response. Responses which are followed by satisfaction or pleasure are reinforced and become more probable in future. Argued that behavioral principles of operant conditioning is effective in a range of educational settings. Teachers can alter student behavior by systematically rewarding students who follow classroom rules with praise, stars, or tokens exchangeable for sundry items. Criticized by proponents of self-determination theory, who claim that praise and other rewards undermine intrinsic motivation.
  • 90. The law of effect The law of effect states, basically, that when an animal’s actions in any given situation are accompanied by or closely followed by a satisfying experience, the animal connect the action with satisfaction and will be likely to perform the same actions if a similar situation comes up again. When the animal’s actions can be linked with discomfort, the animal won’t repeat those actions. Law of exercise The law of exercise is divided to two: the law of use and the law of disuse The law of use- if we exercise connection between S-R, the stronger the connection will be. The law of disuse – if we do not exercise what is learned connection will be weakened The law of readiness Learning is dependent on both maturation and experience of the learner.
  • 92. The operant experiment Operations in operant conditioning Shaping – is a procedure of rewarding a behavior for successive closer and closer approximation to the target behavior. Generalization- organisms learn to generalize response what they learnt one situation the other situation Extinction – With holding the reinforcement when the experimenter wants to extinguish the response Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of the extinct response
  • 93. Primary and Secondary reinforcement Primary reinforcement involves the use of reinforces that are innately satisfying Secondary reinforcement acquires its positive value through experience; secondary reinforces are learned or conditioned reinforces. E.g. praise
  • 94.
  • 95.
  • 96. There are two reinforcement schedules. These are Continuous reinforcement schedule- providing reinforcement after every correct response. In this schedule it was observed that learning occurred rapidly extinction also occurred rapidly. Partial reinforcement – for correct response reinforcement is provided sometime and it is with held some times. There are two types of partial reinforcement schedule. Interval schedule–when reinforcement is given based on time interval Ratio schedule –when reinforcement is given based on amount of response or work done.
  • 97. Interval schedule Fixed interval schedule – reinforcement is presented after a prescribed time interval Variable interval schedule – the reinforcement is given after varying time interval Ratio schedule Fixed ratio schedule – reinforcement is presented after fixed amount f work is done Variable ratio schedule – The number of responses required for reinforcement varies around some average ratio.
  • 98. 2. Cognitive Perspective  Argued that causally related mental constructs such as traits, beliefs, memories, motivations and emotions, as determinants of behavior.  Cognitive theories claim that memory structures determine how information is perceived, processed, stored, retrieved and forgotten. 3. Developmental Perspective  Emphasizes on psychology of cognitive development, since it defines human cognitive competence at successive phases of development.  Piaget's theory of cognitive development was so influential for education, especially mathematics and science education. 98
  • 99. 4. Social Cognitive Perspective  A highly influential fusion of behavioral, cognitive and social elements that was initially developed by educational psychologist Albert Bandura.  Recent research activity in educational psychology has focused on developing theories of self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition.  The premise of these theories is that, effective learners are active agents who construct knowledge by setting goals, analyzing tasks, planning strategies and monitoring their understanding.  Research has indicated that learners who are better at goal- setting and self-monitoring tend to have greater intrinsic task interest and self-efficacy; and that teaching learning strategies can increase academic achievement. 99
  • 100. 5.2 Constructivist Perspective  Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information.  A category of learning theory in which emphasis is placed on the agency and prior "knowing" and experience of the learner, and often on the social and cultural determinants of the learning process.  A dominant figure in constructivist view, Lev Vygotsky's work on sociocultural learning, describes how interactions with adults, more capable peers, and cognitive tools are internalized to form mental constructs.  Elaborating on Vygotsky's theory, Jerome Bruner and other educational psychologists developed the important concept of instructional scaffolding, in which the social or information environment offers supports for learning that are gradually withdrawn as they become internalized. 100
  • 101.  Variety of ways in which constructivism is articulated in the literature are: situated cognition, anchored instruction, apprenticeship learning, problem-based learning, generative learning, constructionism, exploratory learning: these approaches to learning are grounded in and derived from constructivist epistemology.  The researchers and theorists whose perspectives are listed below suggest links between constructivist theory and practice. They provide the beginnings of an orienting framework for a constructivist approach to design teaching or learning. 5. 3 Characteristics of Constructivist Learning and Teaching 101
  • 102. Jonassen (1991) applied constructivism to the development of learning environments. From these applications, he has isolated a number of design principles: 1. Create real-world environments that employ the context in which learning is relevant; 2. Focus on realistic approaches to solving real-world problems; 3. The instructor is a coach and analyzer of the strategies used to solve these problems; 4. Stress conceptual interrelatedness, providing multiple representations or perspectives on the content; 5. Instructional goals and objectives should be negotiated and not imposed; 6. Evaluation should serve as a self-analysis tool; 7. Provide tools and environments that help learners interpret the multiple perspectives of the world; 8. Learning should be internally controlled and mediated by the learner. 102
  • 103. Jonassen (1994) indicated that the following principles illustrate how knowledge construction can be facilitated: 1. Provide multiple representations of reality; 2. Represent the natural complexity of the real world; 3. Focus on knowledge construction, not reproduction; 4. Present authentic tasks (contextualizing rather than abstracting instruction); 5. Provide real-world, case-based learning environments, rather than pre-determined instructional sequences; 6. Foster reflective practice; 7. Enable context-and content dependent knowledge construction; 8. Support collaborative construction of knowledge through social negotiation. 103
  • 104. Wilson and Cole (1991) provide a description of cognitive teaching models which "embody" constructivist concepts. From these descriptions, the following concepts central to constructivist design are identified. 1. Embed learning in a rich authentic problem-solving environment; 2. Provide for authentic versus academic contexts for learning; 3. Provide for learner control; 4. Use errors as a mechanism to provide feedback on learners' understanding. 104
  • 105. Ernest (1995) suggests the following implications of constructivism which derive from both the radical and social perspective: 1. Sensitivity toward and attentiveness to the learner's previous constructions; 2. Diagnostic teaching attempting to remedy learner errors and misconceptions; 3. Attention to metacognition and strategic self-regulation by learners; 4. The use of multiple representations of mathematical concepts; 5. Awareness of the importance of goals for the learner, and the dichotomy between learner and teacher goals; 6. Awareness of the importance of social contexts, such as the difference between folk or street mathematics and school mathematics (and an attempt to exploit the former for the latter). 105
  • 106. Honebein (1996) describes seven goals for the design of constructivist learning environments: 1. Provide experience with the knowledge construction process; 2. Provide experience in & appreciation for multiple perspectives; 3. Embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts; 4. Encourage ownership and voice in the learning process; 5. Embed learning in social experience; 6. Encourage the use of multiple modes of representation; 7. Encourage self-awareness in the knowledge construction process. 106
  • 107. . An important concept for social constructivists is that of scaffolding (providing support) which is a process of guiding the learner from what is presently known to what is to be known. According to Vygotsky (1978), students' problem solving skills fall into three categories: 1. Skills which the student cannot perform 2. Skills which the student may be able to perform 3. Skills that the student can perform with help  Scaffolding allows students to perform tasks that would normally be slightly beyond their ability without that assistance and guidance from the teacher.  Appropriate teacher support can allow students to function at the cutting edge of their individual development. Scaffolding is therefore an important characteristic of constructivist learning and teaching. 107
  • 108. Social Constructivism Social constructivism: emphasizes on the importance of culture and context in understanding what occurs in society and constructing knowledge based on this understanding. is closely associated with many contemporary theories, most notably the developmental theories of Vygotsky and Bruner, and Bandura's social cognitive theory. Assumptions of Social Constructivism Social constructivism is based on specific assumptions about reality, knowledge, and learning. 108
  • 109. Cont…  Reality: Social constructivists believe that:  reality is constructed through human activity;  reality cannot be discovered; and  reality does not exist prior to its social invention.  Knowledge: To social constructivists:  knowledge is a human product; and  knowledge is socially and culturally constructed.  Individuals create meaning through their interactions with each other and with the environment they live in.  Learning: Social constructivists view:  learning as a social process;  learning as it does not take place only within an individual, nor is it a passive development of behaviors that are shaped by external forces.  Meaningful learning occurs when individuals are engaged in social activities. 109
  • 110. General Perspectives of Social Constructivism on Learning  Social constructivists see as crucial both the context in which learning occurs and the social contexts that learners bring to their learning environment.  There are four general perspectives that inform how we could facilitate the learning within a framework of social constructivism. 1. Cognitive tools perspective: focuses on the learning of cognitive skills and strategies. Students engage in those social learning activities that involve hands-on project-based methods and utilization of discipline-based cognitive tools. 2. Idea-based social constructivism: sets education's priority on important concepts in the various disciplines (e.g. part-whole relations in mathematics, photosynthesis in science, and point of view in literature. These "big ideas" expand learner vision and become important foundations for learners' thinking and on construction of social meaning. 110
  • 111. Cont… 3. Pragmatic or Emergent Approach: assert that the implementation of social constructivism in class should be emergent as the need arises. Its proponents hold that knowledge, meaning, and understanding of the world can be addressed in the classroom from both the view of individual learner and the collective view of the entire class. 4.Transactional or situated cognitive perspectives: focuses on the relationship between the people and their environment. Humans are a part of the constructed environment (including social relationships); the environment is in turn one of the characteristics that constitutes the individual. 111
  • 112. 5. 4 Constructivist Teaching Methods  Constructivist teaching is based on:-  constructivist learning theory;  the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge construction as opposed to passively receiving information.  Learners are the makers of meaning & knowledge. Constructivist teaching:-  fosters critical thinking;  creates motivated and independent learners.  This theoretical framework holds that learning always builds upon knowledge that a student already knows; this prior knowledge is called a schema.  Because all learning is filtered through pre-existing schemata, constructivists suggest that learning is more effective when a student is actively engaged in the learning process rather than attempting to receive knowledge passively.  A wide variety of methods claim to be based on constructivist learning theory.  Most of these methods rely on some form of guided discovery where the teacher avoids most direct instruction and attempts to lead the student through questions and activities to discover, discuss, appreciate, & verbalize the new knowledge. 112
  • 113. Cont…  Constructivist learning theory says that:  all knowledge is constructed from a base of prior knowledge.  children are not a blank slate and knowledge cannot be imparted without the child making sense of it according to his or her current conceptions.  children learn best when they are allowed to construct a personal understanding based on experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. Characteristics of Constructivist Teaching According to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are:  the learners are actively involved  the environment is democratic  the activities are interactive and student-centered  the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomous 113
  • 114. Examples of Constructivist Activities In the constructivist classroom students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. 114
  • 115. Cont…  Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:  Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.  Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.  Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.  Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.  Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods. 115
  • 116. Difference Between Traditional Classroom and Constructivist Classroom The Traditional Classroom  Begins with parts of the whole–emphasizes basic skills  Strict adherence to fixed curriculum  Textbooks and workbooks  Instructor gives/students receive  Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role  Assessment via testing/correct answers  Knowledge is inert  Students work individually 116
  • 117. The constructivist Classroom  Begin with the whole - expanding to parts  Pursuit of student questions/interests  Primary Sources/manipulative materials  Instructor interacts/negotiates with students  Learning is interaction – building on what students already known  Assessment via student works, observations, points of view, tests. Process is as important as product  Knowledge is dynamic/change with experiences  Students work in groups 117
  • 118. Role of Teachers in Constructivist Learning In the constructivist classroom, the teacher’s role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teacher’s main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject. Three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:  Modeling  Coaching  Scaffolding 118
  • 119. Modeling:- Two types of modeling exist: 1. Behavioral modeling of the overt performance  demonstrates how to perform the activities identified in the activity structure. 2. Cognitive modeling of the covert cognitive processes  articulates the reasoning (reflection-in- action) that learners should use while engaged in the activities. 119
  • 120. Cont… Coaching:- a good coach motivates learners, analyzes students performance, provides feedback and advice on the performance on how to learn about, how to perform, and provokes reflection and articulation of what was learned. Coaching:-  may be solicited by the learner. Students seeking help might press a “How am I Doing?” button. Or coaching may be unsolicited, when the coach observes the performance and provides encouragement, diagnosis, directions, and feedback.  naturally and necessarily involves responses that are situated in the learner’s task performance. Scaffolding:- is a more systemic approach to supporting the learner, focusing on the task, the environment, the teacher, and the learner.  provides temporary frameworks to support learning and student performance beyond their capacities. The concept of scaffolding represents any kind of support for cognitive activity that is provided by an adult when the child and adult are performing the task together. 120
  • 121. Constructivist Learning Environments (CLEs)  In CLEs, learning is driven by the problem to be solved; students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards to practice theory.  Depending on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools.  A model for developing constructivist learning environments (CLEs) around a specific learning goal.  Question or issue  Case study  Long-term Project  Problem (multiple cases and projects integrated at the curriculum level) 121
  • 122. Constructivist Assessment  In traditional teaching, assessment in the classroom is based on testing. It is important for the student to produce the correct answers.  In constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the student’s work, and the student’s points of view. 122
  • 123. Cont…  Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a “focus” question and allows an open discussion on the topic.  KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, what we have learned, how we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study.  Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.  Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.  Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study. 123
  • 124. CHAPTER SIX Motivation in Relation to Teaching and Learning 6. 1 Meaning and Concept of Motivation Motivation:- is an internal state that arouses us to action, pushes us in a particular directions, and keeps us engaged in certain activities.  desire or want that energizes and directs goal- oriented behavior; and influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior. Learning enables us to acquire new knowledge and skills, and motivation provides the impetus for showing what we have learned. Therefore, more motivated people achieve at higher levels. 124
  • 125. Cont… Motivation as a psychological construct affects learning and performance in the following ways: 1. Increases an individual’s energy and activity level.  influences the extent to which an individual is likely to engage in a certain activity intensively or half-heartedly. 2. Directs an individual toward certain goal.  affects choices of people make and the results they find rewarding. 3. Promotes initiation of certain activities and persistence in those activities.  It increases the likelihood that people will begin something on their own, persist in the face of difficulty, and resume a task after a temporary interruption. 4. Affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes an individual employs.  People will pay attention to something, study and practice it, try to learn it in a meaningful fashion and they will seek help when they encounter difficulty. In educational practices, motivation can be seen as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. 125
  • 126. 6.2 Difference Between Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation Intrinsic Motivation  The need to perform something arises from the individual himself without any external influences. Therefore, students with intrinsic motivation demonstrate the desire to learn by themselves without the need of external inducements. Even if they encounter failure, they can take responsibility and strive to improve in the future. Extrinsic Motivation The need to perform something comes from some external influences. Therefore, marks, prizes, and other tangible rewards have been used to influence some student’s behavior. 126
  • 128. Sources of Motivational Needs 1. Behavioral/External  Elicited by stimulus associated/connected to innately connected stimulus  Obtain desired, pleasant consequences (rewards) or escape/avoid undesired, unpleasant consequences 2. Social  Imitate positive models  Acquire effective social competence skills  Be a part of a group, institution, or community 3. Biological  Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal)  Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc.)  Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc.  Maintain homeostasis, balance 128
  • 129. 4. Cognitive  Maintain attention to something interesting or threatening  Develop meaning or understanding  Increase/decrease cognitive disequilibrium; uncertainty  Solve a problem or make a decision  Figure something out  Eliminate threat or risk 5. Affective Increase/decrease affective dissonance Increase feeling good Decrease feeling bad Increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem Maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm 129
  • 130. 6. Conative Meet individually developed/selected goal Obtain personal dream Develop or maintain self-efficacy Take control of one's life Eliminate threats to meeting goal, obtaining dream Reduce others' control of one's life 7. Spiritual Understand purpose of one's life Connect self to ultimate unknowns 130
  • 131. 6. 3 Theories (Perspectives) of Motivation: Explanation of Motivated Students  Motivated students are obviously the most desirable to teach, it is well worth the time and effort for teachers (and future teachers or parents) to learn as much as possible about motivation.  Early motivation theorists focused on hunger-thirst drives or sexual stimulation (e.g., Freud).  Currently, the results of motivational research to education produced a greater emphasis on the cognitive aspects of motivation.  Hence, causal attributions, self-efficacy, learned helplessness, test anxiety, locus of control, competitive versus cooperative activities, and intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards are all used to explain human motivation. 131
  • 132. 1. Causal Attributions Bernard Weiner  Even with the need to achieve, students will either succeed or fail. Then they search for specific causes for their success or failure. Example: The test was difficult, the teacher dislikes me, I am not good in the subject.  Students’ attribution then serve as a guide to their expectations for future success or failure in a particular subject.  Students who consistently do poorly in a subject expect to continue to do poorly. But before a teacher can hope to have success in changing a student’s performance, the teacher must know to what that student attributes about their performance. 132
  • 133. 2. Anxiety and Motivation  Anxiety can be defined as an unpleasant sensation that is usually experienced as feeling of apprehension and general irritability accompanied by restlessness, fatigue, and various somatic systems such as headaches, and stomachaches.  Older students may develop dislike for school that affects their achievement.  Younger students may develop school phobia, a psychological condition producing such physical manifestations as crying and vomiting before school in the morning thus hoping to avoid school avoidance. 133
  • 134. Cont…  Within the classroom setting, there are numerous sources of anxiety for students learning. Some are:  teachers, examinations, peers, social relations, achievement settings, what girls think of boys, what boys think of girls, like or dislike of subjects…etc.  Regarding the effect of anxiety on achievement:  extremely intense motivation that produces high anxiety has negative effect on performance.  moderate motivation seems to be the desirable state for learning complex tasks. 134
  • 135. 3. Self- Efficacy and Its Role in Motivation  Albert Bandura Self-efficacy: is persons’ belief in their own capabilities to exert control over aspects of their lives.  is the product of one’s own performances, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion from others, and emotional arousal. Students who believe they are not efficacious in coping with environmental demands tend to focus on their inefficiency and exaggerate potential difficulties. Students who have strong sense of efficacy, however, tend to focus their attention and effort on the demands of tasks and minimize potential difficulties. 135
  • 136. 4. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs  Abraham Maslow : Popular American Psychologist Each of us is motivated by needs. Our most basic needs are inborn, having evolved over tens of thousands of years. Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs helps to explain how these needs motivate us all. Abraham Maslow developed the Hierarchy of Needs model in 1940-50s USA, and the Hierarchy of Needs theory remains valid today for understanding human motivation, management training, and personal development. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. 136
  • 137. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (Motives) 137
  • 138. Cont…  Only when the lower order needs of physical and emotional well- being are satisfied we are concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development.  Conversely, if the things that satisfy our lower order needs are swept away, we are no longer concerned about the maintenance of our higher order needs. 1. Biological and Physiological needs:- air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2. Safety needs:- protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. 3. Belongingness and Love needs:- work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. 4. Esteem needs:- self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Self-Actualization needs:- realizing personal potential, self- fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 138
  • 139. 1970s Adapted Hierarchy of Needs Model Including Cognitive and Aesthetic Needs 1. Biological and Physiological Needs:- air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2. Safety Needs:- protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. 3. Belongingness and Love Needs:- work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. 4. Esteem Needs:- self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Cognitive Needs:- knowledge, meaning, etc. 6. Aesthetic Needs:- appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc. 7. Self-Actualization Needs:- realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 139
  • 140. 1990s Adapted Hierarchy of Needs(Motives) Including Transcendence needs 1. Biological and Physiological Needs:- air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2. Safety Needs:- protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. 3. Belongingness and Love Needs:- work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. 4. Esteem Needs:- self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. 5. Cognitive Needs:- knowledge, meaning, etc. 6. Aesthetic Needs:- appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc. 7. Self-Actualization Needs:- realizing personal potential, self- fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 8. Transcendence Needs:- helping others to achieve self actualization. 140
  • 142. The End of the Class for the Course “Educational Psychology, EPsy 1014” Thank you ! 142
  • 143. CHAPTER SEVEN EMOTION IN RELATION TO TEACHING AND LEARNING  Emotion - The aroused psychological state of the organism marked by increased bodily activity and strong feelings directed to some subject. - Can be categorized into two kinds:- positive emotions and negative emotions. The former and the later types of emotions are also termed as pleasant emotions and unpleasant emotions, respectively. 143
  • 144. The relationship of motivation and emotion  Emotion - An indefinite subjective sensation experienced as a state of arousal. - Is different from motivation in that there is not necessarily a goal orientation affiliated with it. - Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception of environmental stimuli, neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (often labeled feelings),and subjective cognitive labeling of these feelings. 144
  • 145. Cont…  Emotions play an important part in the training of a student. You must know the kinds of emotions and techniques for controlling them.  Most of us think of emotion as overpowering feelings such as passion, hatred, or grief. These are not typical of the entire range of emotions. Everything we do, or with which we come in contact, is coloured by some emotional feeling.  Emotions vary from mildly pleasant or unpleasant feelings, all the way up to feelings so intense that physical and mental activity is paralyzed. All of us experience a wide variety of emotions every day. Rarely do they bother us or interfere with our ability or willingness to do our job. 145
  • 146. Cont…  The learning situation tends to intensify the students' emotional problems more than we would expect in everyday life. You cannot ignore this problem but must learn how to recognize and overcome it. 146
  • 147. Degrees of Emotion  The various levels of emotion fall into 3 categories: 1. MILD EMOTION -The everyday type of emotion such as a small amount of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with our jobs, our personal lives, or with other people. - Mild emotions affect motivation. 2. STRONG EMOTION - This degree of emotion is not felt very often in everyday life, but causes most of our emotional problems for example, in flying training. - Strong emotions cause a large amount of tension in an individual, and no one can live or work normally with prolonged tension; however, strong emotion can be coped with. 3. DISRUPTIVE EMOTION - Very severe, deep-rooted emotional tensions which will disrupt logical action and clear thinking. - Persons suffering disruptive emotions usually require the assistance of a psychiatrist; however, they occur so rarely that you need only be aware that they exist. 147
  • 148. The Effect of Strong Emotional Tension  A person cannot tolerate strong emotional tension over any length of time. It causes extreme nervousness, irritability, and an inability to relax.  It interferes with normal eating and sleeping habits, and makes the subject generally miserable. Everyone either consciously or subconsciously, tries to relieve prolonged emotional tension. 148
  • 149. Cont…  The effect of emotional tension on learning depends on the method chosen by the student for relieving it. If the problem is attacked directly, and solved, then learning is enhanced. For example, students may have strong feelings of frustration or worry due to deficiency in one phase of the flight training program. If they work harder, study more, and receive extra instruction, progress will probably become satisfactory and tension will disappear. On the other hand, if the real problem is avoided, an escape mechanism may be used to reduce tension and learning will suffer. 149
  • 150. Use of Emotional Escape Mechanisms Occasional use of escape mechanisms is normal in everyone, but their over-use indicates strong emotional problems. You, therefore, must learn to identify the symptoms which indicate that a student is using escape mechanisms. Projection — transferring the blame from oneself to someone or something else. Rationalization — finding a believable excuse for one's actions or failure; trying to justify unjustifiable behaviour. Resignation — becoming resigned to the situation; giving up. Flight — physically or mentally removing oneself from the tension producing situation. Aggression — taking one's tension out on someone else by becoming belligerent or argumentative. A student's over-use of one or more of the escape mechanisms, along with other symptoms, may indicate an emotional problem. You should not wait until emotional tension becomes extreme before taking corrective action. 150
  • 151. Meeting the Differences  You must be cognizant of the differences in aptitude, personality, and emotions among your students, and understand the necessity to treat students as individuals.  When you have analyzed the situation and determined the differences, seek assistance from more experienced instructors or supervisors when it is necessary.  Coping with differences among students is perhaps the greatest challenge of instructing, and finding the correct approach for each student is essential. 151
  • 152. Cont…  Some traits and faults of students are fairly common and can be recognized easily. For example, Nervous or Under confident - Nervousness or under confidence in a student is a trait which may or may not disappear. - Repeating the fundamentals and ensuring mastery will often alleviate this condition. You must ensure that this type of student receives deserved praise whenever possible. Harsh rebukes should be avoided. - Patience is very necessary when dealing with a student of this nature. -The student must be aware that you are trying to help. 152
  • 153. Over- confident or Conceited - You must first ensure that this type of student has the ability to match the confidence and, if so, set more difficult tasks that require greater accuracy. - More criticism of imperfections is advisable. If the student has little ability, counseling may be required. - Any signs of familiarity must be discouraged. Forgetful of Instruction - At the beginning of training, students may forget previous instruction. Students with this problem require a great deal of patience and probably need more review than the average student. -Extra time spent in briefing and debriefing, and more study on the student's part should be rewarding for all concerned. 153
  • 154. Inconsistency - Many students, at one time or another throughout the course, appear to lack consistency. - There are many reasons for this and you must try to find the one that fits a particular student. - You must look at yourself and your attitude towards the student. Most of us have good days and bad days, but when a student shows large fluctuations in proficiency the instructor must look closely at the teaching activities. - A change in approach or even a change in instructors may be called for. 154
  • 155. Slow starters - Students who find difficulty doing more than one thing at a time. - Patience is mandatory. Progress may be slow, but encouragement will help. Fast starters - Fast starters are usually students with previous exposure to what they learn, who quickly grasp the initial learned exercises. However, you should not omit anything from the briefings. - Watch for signs of weakness when new work is introduced. - A high degree of proficiency throughout the course should not be anticipated unless the student has above average ability. 155
  • 156. Immature - You must not be too harsh with students who appear immature. - Your attitude is of prime importance in setting an example. You must encourage and assist these students whenever possible. 156