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Personality
What is Personality?
 People differ from
each other in
meaningful ways
 People seem to show
some consistency in
behavior
Personality is defined as distinctive
and relatively enduring ways of
thinking, feeling, and acting
Personality
• Personality refers to a person’s unique and
relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings,
and actions
• Personality is an interaction between biology
and environment
– Genetic studies suggest heritability of personality
– Other studies suggest learned components of
personality
Four Theories of
Personality
1. Trait
2. Psychoanalytic
3. Humanistic
4. Socio-Cognitive
The First Trait Theory
• Two Factor Trait
Theory of Personality
UNSTABLE
STABLE
choleric
melancholic
phlegmatic sanguine
INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED
Moody
Anxious
Rigid
Sober
Pessimistic
Reserved
Unsociable
Quiet
Sociable
Outgoing
Talkative
Responsive
Easygoing
Lively
Carefree
Leadership
Passive
Careful
Thoughtful
Peaceful
Controlled
Reliable
Even-tempered
Calm
Touchy
Restless
Aggressive
Excitable
Changeable
Impulsive
Optimistic
Active
Personality Traits
• Traits are relatively stable and consistent personal
characteristics
• Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be
described on the basis of some number of personality
traits
– Allport identified some 4,500 traits
– Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35 basic traits
– Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in personality
• Extraversion/introversion
• Neuroticism
• Psychotocism
Allport
Overview of the Big “5”
Assessing Traits: An
Example
• Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
(MMPI)
– the most widely researched and clinically used of
all personality tests
– developed to identify emotional disorders
MMPI: examples
• “Nothing in the newspaper interests me
except the comics.”
• “I get angry sometimes.”
Evaluating Trait Theory
• Trait theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able to
describe personality
– Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for the
Big 5 model in many cultures
– Appear to be highly correlated not only in adulthood, but
also in childhood and even late preschoolers
– Three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism and
agreeableness) have cross-species generality
• Problems with trait theory include:
– Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop
– Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits
Psychoanalytic Theory
• Psychoanalytic theory, as devised by Freud,
attempts to explain personality on the basis of
unconscious mental forces
– Levels of consciousness: We are unaware of some
aspects of our mental states
– Freud argued that personality is made up of
multiple structures, some of which are unconscious
– Freud argued that as we have impulses that cause us
anxiety; our personality develops defense
mechanisms to protect against anxiety
Freudian Theory
 Levels of
consciousness
– Conscious
• What we’re aware of
– Preconscious
• Memories etc. that can
be recalled
– Unconscious
• Wishes, feelings,
impulses that lies
beyond awareness
 Structures of
Personality
– Id
• Operates according to
the “pleasure principle”
– Ego
• Operates according to
the “reality” principle
– Superego
• Contains values and
ideals
Freudian Theory
 Anxiety occurs when:
– Impulses from the id threaten to get out of
control
– The ego perceives danger from the environment
 The ego deals with the problem through:
– coping strategies
– defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms
• Defense mechanisms refer to unconscious mental
processes that protect the conscious person from
developing anxiety
– Sublimation: person channels energy from unacceptable
impulses to create socially acceptable accomplishments
– Denial: person refuses to recognize reality
– Projection: person attributes their own unacceptable
impulses to others
– Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are pushed into the
unconscious
Defense Mechanisms
• Rationalization: Substituting socially acceptable reasons
• Intellectualization: Ignoring the emotional aspects of a
painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts,
words, or ideas
• Reaction formation: Refusing to acknowledge
unacceptable urges, thoughts or feelings by exaggerating
the opposite state
• Regression: Responding to a threatening situation in a
way appropriate to an earlier age or level of development
• Displacement: Substituting a less threatening object for
the original object of impulse
Assessing the Unconscious
• Projective Tests
– used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or
TAT tests)
– How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject
projects his or her motives into the ambiguous
stimuli
Assessing the Unconscious --
Rorschach
• Rorschach Inkblot Test
– the most widely used
projective test
– a set of 10 inkblots designed
by Hermann Rorschach
Rorschach
Assessing the Unconscious--
Rorschach
used to identify
people’s inner
feelings by
analyzing their
interpretations
of the blots
Assessing the
Unconscious--TAT
Thematic
Apperception
Test (TAT)
• people express
their inner
motives through
the stories they
make up about
ambiguous
scenes
Psychoanalytic
Neo-Freudian
 Alfred Adler
– Humans are motivated by social interest
– Takes social context into account
– First Born
• Privileged until Dethroned
– Second Born
• In shadow of 1st Born  inferiority, restlessness
– Youngest
• Pampered, dependent
– Only Child
• Higher intellect, timid, passive, & withdrawn
Psychoanalytic
Neo-Freudian
 Carl Jung
– A collective unconscious is represented
by universal archetypes
– Two forms of unconscious mind
• Personal unconscious: unique for each person
• Collective unconscious: consists of primitive
images and ideas that are universal for humans
Humanistic Theory
• Humanistic personality theories reject
psychoanalytic notions
– Humanistic theories view each person as
basically good and that people are striving for
self-fulfillment
– Humanistic theory argues that people carry a
perception of themselves and of the world
– The goal for a humanist is to develop/promote a
positive self-concept
Humanistic Perspectives
 Carl Rogers
– We have needs for:
• Self-consistency (absence of conflict between self-
perceptions
• Congruence (consistency between self-perceptions
and experience)
– Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat
– People with low self-esteem generally have poor
congruence between their self-concepts and life
experiences.
▲Abraham Maslow
emphasized the basic
goodness of human nature
and a natural tendency
toward self-actualization.
Humanistic Perspectives
Social/Cognitive Perspective
• Proposed that each person has a unique
personality because of our personal histories and
interpretations shape our personalities
▲Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive approach
focuses on self-efficacy and reciprocal
determinism.
▲Julian Rotter’s locus of control theory emphasizes
a person’s internal or external focus as a major
determinant of personality.
Locus of Control (Rotter)
 Internal locus of control
– Life outcomes are under personal control
– Positively correlated with self-esteem
– Internals use more problem-focused coping
 External locus of control
– Luck, chance, and powerful others control
behavior

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  • 2. What is Personality?  People differ from each other in meaningful ways  People seem to show some consistency in behavior Personality is defined as distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting
  • 3. Personality • Personality refers to a person’s unique and relatively stable pattern of thoughts, feelings, and actions • Personality is an interaction between biology and environment – Genetic studies suggest heritability of personality – Other studies suggest learned components of personality
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6. Four Theories of Personality 1. Trait 2. Psychoanalytic 3. Humanistic 4. Socio-Cognitive
  • 7. The First Trait Theory • Two Factor Trait Theory of Personality UNSTABLE STABLE choleric melancholic phlegmatic sanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active
  • 8. Personality Traits • Traits are relatively stable and consistent personal characteristics • Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be described on the basis of some number of personality traits – Allport identified some 4,500 traits – Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35 basic traits – Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in personality • Extraversion/introversion • Neuroticism • Psychotocism Allport
  • 9. Overview of the Big “5”
  • 10. Assessing Traits: An Example • Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests – developed to identify emotional disorders
  • 11. MMPI: examples • “Nothing in the newspaper interests me except the comics.” • “I get angry sometimes.”
  • 12. Evaluating Trait Theory • Trait theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able to describe personality – Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for the Big 5 model in many cultures – Appear to be highly correlated not only in adulthood, but also in childhood and even late preschoolers – Three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness) have cross-species generality • Problems with trait theory include: – Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop – Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits
  • 13. Psychoanalytic Theory • Psychoanalytic theory, as devised by Freud, attempts to explain personality on the basis of unconscious mental forces – Levels of consciousness: We are unaware of some aspects of our mental states – Freud argued that personality is made up of multiple structures, some of which are unconscious – Freud argued that as we have impulses that cause us anxiety; our personality develops defense mechanisms to protect against anxiety
  • 14. Freudian Theory  Levels of consciousness – Conscious • What we’re aware of – Preconscious • Memories etc. that can be recalled – Unconscious • Wishes, feelings, impulses that lies beyond awareness  Structures of Personality – Id • Operates according to the “pleasure principle” – Ego • Operates according to the “reality” principle – Superego • Contains values and ideals
  • 15. Freudian Theory  Anxiety occurs when: – Impulses from the id threaten to get out of control – The ego perceives danger from the environment  The ego deals with the problem through: – coping strategies – defense mechanisms
  • 16. Defense Mechanisms • Defense mechanisms refer to unconscious mental processes that protect the conscious person from developing anxiety – Sublimation: person channels energy from unacceptable impulses to create socially acceptable accomplishments – Denial: person refuses to recognize reality – Projection: person attributes their own unacceptable impulses to others – Repression: anxiety-evoking thoughts are pushed into the unconscious
  • 17. Defense Mechanisms • Rationalization: Substituting socially acceptable reasons • Intellectualization: Ignoring the emotional aspects of a painful experience by focusing on abstract thoughts, words, or ideas • Reaction formation: Refusing to acknowledge unacceptable urges, thoughts or feelings by exaggerating the opposite state • Regression: Responding to a threatening situation in a way appropriate to an earlier age or level of development • Displacement: Substituting a less threatening object for the original object of impulse
  • 18. Assessing the Unconscious • Projective Tests – used to assess personality (e.g., Rorschach or TAT tests) – How? provides ambiguous stimuli and subject projects his or her motives into the ambiguous stimuli
  • 19. Assessing the Unconscious -- Rorschach • Rorschach Inkblot Test – the most widely used projective test – a set of 10 inkblots designed by Hermann Rorschach Rorschach
  • 20. Assessing the Unconscious-- Rorschach used to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25.
  • 26. Assessing the Unconscious--TAT Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • people express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
  • 27.
  • 28.
  • 29. Psychoanalytic Neo-Freudian  Alfred Adler – Humans are motivated by social interest – Takes social context into account – First Born • Privileged until Dethroned – Second Born • In shadow of 1st Born  inferiority, restlessness – Youngest • Pampered, dependent – Only Child • Higher intellect, timid, passive, & withdrawn
  • 30. Psychoanalytic Neo-Freudian  Carl Jung – A collective unconscious is represented by universal archetypes – Two forms of unconscious mind • Personal unconscious: unique for each person • Collective unconscious: consists of primitive images and ideas that are universal for humans
  • 31. Humanistic Theory • Humanistic personality theories reject psychoanalytic notions – Humanistic theories view each person as basically good and that people are striving for self-fulfillment – Humanistic theory argues that people carry a perception of themselves and of the world – The goal for a humanist is to develop/promote a positive self-concept
  • 32. Humanistic Perspectives  Carl Rogers – We have needs for: • Self-consistency (absence of conflict between self- perceptions • Congruence (consistency between self-perceptions and experience) – Inconsistency evokes anxiety and threat – People with low self-esteem generally have poor congruence between their self-concepts and life experiences.
  • 33. ▲Abraham Maslow emphasized the basic goodness of human nature and a natural tendency toward self-actualization. Humanistic Perspectives
  • 34.
  • 35. Social/Cognitive Perspective • Proposed that each person has a unique personality because of our personal histories and interpretations shape our personalities ▲Albert Bandura’s social-cognitive approach focuses on self-efficacy and reciprocal determinism. ▲Julian Rotter’s locus of control theory emphasizes a person’s internal or external focus as a major determinant of personality.
  • 36. Locus of Control (Rotter)  Internal locus of control – Life outcomes are under personal control – Positively correlated with self-esteem – Internals use more problem-focused coping  External locus of control – Luck, chance, and powerful others control behavior