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Presented To
 Sabreena Nasrin

B.Sc. Engg. (Civil), BUET
Lecturer at Ahsanullah University of
Science & Technology

Presented By
 Md. Neshar Ahmed

Student ID: 10.01.03.151
4th Year, 2nd semester

&
 Munshi Galib Muktadir

B.Sc. Engg. (Civil), BUET
Lecturer at Ahsanullah University of
Science & Technology

Department of Civil Engineering
Ahsanullah University of Science &
Technology
 A truss is a structure composed of slender members joined

together at their end points. Planar trusses lie in a single plane.
Typically a truss is a joint framed structure which is designed to
sustain inclined, vertical or horizontal loads occurring at or
between its points of supports and has the following
characteristics:
 Straight Members
Members connected at their
intersections by means of frictionless
pins or hinges

Members so arranged that the truss is
loaded only at the joints
Typical figure of Truss & Frames
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
 Pitched Truss- Characterized by its triangular shape.

It is most often used for roof construction.

 Parallel Chord Truss- Its named from its parallel top

and bottom chords. It is often used for roof
construction.
Flat Truss

Queen Post Truss

King Post Truss

Lenticular Truss

Bowstring Truss

Lattice Truss
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
The analysis of trusses is usually based on the following
simplifying assumptions:
 The centroidal axis of each member coincides with the line connecting

the centers of the adjacent members and the members only carry axial
force.
All members are connected only at their ends by frictionless hinges in
plane trusses.
All loads and support reactions are applied only at the joints.
Method of Joints
Method of Joints: The axial forces in the members of a statically
determinate truss are determined by considering the equilibrium of its
joints.

Tensile(T) axial member force is indicated on the joint by
an arrow pulling away from the joint.
Compressive(C) axial member force is indicated by an
arrow pushing toward the joint.
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
Effect of tension vs. compression on member sizes
Potential for stress reversal
Potential buckling failure modes and approaches to preventing
Overall lateral stability (lateral- torsional buckling)

Member redundancy: Determinate vs. Indeterminate Trusses
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
Truss Determinacy Formula
n = 2j – 3 →for determinacy
„ n = Number of truss bars
„ j = Number of joints
n > 2j -3 →indeterminate
n < 2j -3 →unstable
Some renowned Trussed Structures

Eifel Tower
 Multi forced members are generally known as Frames.
 Frames are commonly used to support various external

loads.

Figure of Frames
Advantageous features of Framed
structure
1. Speedy construction due to simplicity in geometry –consist of only columns
and beams (or partially by the floor slab) as the main structural elements
2. Very rigid and stable –able to resist tremendous vertical (dead load) and
lateral loads (wind)

3. Reduced dead load –absent of thick shear wall etc.
4. Roofed over at an earlier stage –every floor slab being finished becomes an
cover to protect the lower floors from sun and rain

5. Offer large unobstructed floor areas –without obstacle between columns
6. Flexible utilization of space
Advantages features of Framed structure
(continued)
7. Adaptable to almost any shape

8. Easily altered within limits of frame –regular or non-regular grid system is
very adaptable in spatial arrangement
9. Offsite preparation possible –especially for prefabricated construction
using pre-cast concrete or structural steel elements
10. May be designed to accommodate movement
11. Acceptable distribution of natural light –window openings can be
provided easily on eternal walls
12. Easy to design structurally including computer design –again, due to
simple geometry
Principle factors affecting choice of frame
Structural Design consideration



Foundation consideration



Standardization of members or design



Span and floor loads



Fire resistance requirement



Maintenance consideration



Integration of architectural & structural elements
Features of In-situ concrete frame construction
Construction aspects
1. In-situ concrete is inconsistent in quality in performance -mixing,

delivery, placing and compacting of concrete require very tight quality
control
2. Overlapping formwork, steel fixing and concreting process make site
operations more difficult –these works are to be done almost at the
same time at the same location
3. Formwork erection is often timely, expensive, environmental
unfriendly and labour intensive
4. Increase a lot of wet-work –difficult to maintain site
in a clean and tidy environment
 Draw the FBD of the frame or machine and its

members as necessary.
 Then identify any two-forced members
 For a joint with more than two members or an

external force, it is advisable to draw a FBD of
the pin.
Some Examples Framed Structures
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES
Trusses

Frames

Members are subjected
to tension/compression
only

At least one member is
subjected to bending,
shear or torsion

Composed of rods

Composed of bars

Usually more simple to
calculate, more weight
effective

Usually more simple to
manufacture, and to
place in tight layout
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES

Connection by riveting,
moment-resistant
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES

Connection
by welding,
momentresistant
 Cost Effective
 Can be installed quickly even without heavy

equipment to lift it into place
 Unique properties of a triangular object allow trusses
to span across longer distances
 A triangular truss maintains its shape, preventing shift
and sag. Thus giving stability to the structure.
 The shape of a triangle allows all of the weight applied
to the sides to be redistributed down and away from
the centre.
CE- 416 Truss & Frame
CE- 416 Truss & Frame

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CE- 416 Truss & Frame

  • 1. Presented To  Sabreena Nasrin B.Sc. Engg. (Civil), BUET Lecturer at Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology Presented By  Md. Neshar Ahmed Student ID: 10.01.03.151 4th Year, 2nd semester &  Munshi Galib Muktadir B.Sc. Engg. (Civil), BUET Lecturer at Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology Department of Civil Engineering Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology
  • 2.  A truss is a structure composed of slender members joined together at their end points. Planar trusses lie in a single plane. Typically a truss is a joint framed structure which is designed to sustain inclined, vertical or horizontal loads occurring at or between its points of supports and has the following characteristics:  Straight Members Members connected at their intersections by means of frictionless pins or hinges Members so arranged that the truss is loaded only at the joints Typical figure of Truss & Frames
  • 4.  Pitched Truss- Characterized by its triangular shape. It is most often used for roof construction.  Parallel Chord Truss- Its named from its parallel top and bottom chords. It is often used for roof construction.
  • 5. Flat Truss Queen Post Truss King Post Truss Lenticular Truss Bowstring Truss Lattice Truss
  • 9. The analysis of trusses is usually based on the following simplifying assumptions:  The centroidal axis of each member coincides with the line connecting the centers of the adjacent members and the members only carry axial force. All members are connected only at their ends by frictionless hinges in plane trusses. All loads and support reactions are applied only at the joints.
  • 10. Method of Joints Method of Joints: The axial forces in the members of a statically determinate truss are determined by considering the equilibrium of its joints. Tensile(T) axial member force is indicated on the joint by an arrow pulling away from the joint. Compressive(C) axial member force is indicated by an arrow pushing toward the joint.
  • 17. Effect of tension vs. compression on member sizes Potential for stress reversal Potential buckling failure modes and approaches to preventing Overall lateral stability (lateral- torsional buckling) Member redundancy: Determinate vs. Indeterminate Trusses
  • 22. Truss Determinacy Formula n = 2j – 3 →for determinacy „ n = Number of truss bars „ j = Number of joints n > 2j -3 →indeterminate n < 2j -3 →unstable
  • 23. Some renowned Trussed Structures Eifel Tower
  • 24.  Multi forced members are generally known as Frames.  Frames are commonly used to support various external loads. Figure of Frames
  • 25. Advantageous features of Framed structure 1. Speedy construction due to simplicity in geometry –consist of only columns and beams (or partially by the floor slab) as the main structural elements 2. Very rigid and stable –able to resist tremendous vertical (dead load) and lateral loads (wind) 3. Reduced dead load –absent of thick shear wall etc. 4. Roofed over at an earlier stage –every floor slab being finished becomes an cover to protect the lower floors from sun and rain 5. Offer large unobstructed floor areas –without obstacle between columns 6. Flexible utilization of space
  • 26. Advantages features of Framed structure (continued) 7. Adaptable to almost any shape 8. Easily altered within limits of frame –regular or non-regular grid system is very adaptable in spatial arrangement 9. Offsite preparation possible –especially for prefabricated construction using pre-cast concrete or structural steel elements 10. May be designed to accommodate movement 11. Acceptable distribution of natural light –window openings can be provided easily on eternal walls 12. Easy to design structurally including computer design –again, due to simple geometry
  • 27. Principle factors affecting choice of frame Structural Design consideration  Foundation consideration  Standardization of members or design  Span and floor loads  Fire resistance requirement  Maintenance consideration  Integration of architectural & structural elements
  • 28. Features of In-situ concrete frame construction Construction aspects 1. In-situ concrete is inconsistent in quality in performance -mixing, delivery, placing and compacting of concrete require very tight quality control 2. Overlapping formwork, steel fixing and concreting process make site operations more difficult –these works are to be done almost at the same time at the same location 3. Formwork erection is often timely, expensive, environmental unfriendly and labour intensive 4. Increase a lot of wet-work –difficult to maintain site in a clean and tidy environment
  • 29.  Draw the FBD of the frame or machine and its members as necessary.  Then identify any two-forced members  For a joint with more than two members or an external force, it is advisable to draw a FBD of the pin.
  • 30. Some Examples Framed Structures
  • 31. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES Trusses Frames Members are subjected to tension/compression only At least one member is subjected to bending, shear or torsion Composed of rods Composed of bars Usually more simple to calculate, more weight effective Usually more simple to manufacture, and to place in tight layout
  • 32. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES Connection by riveting, moment-resistant
  • 33. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRUSSES AND FRAMES Connection by welding, momentresistant
  • 34.  Cost Effective  Can be installed quickly even without heavy equipment to lift it into place  Unique properties of a triangular object allow trusses to span across longer distances  A triangular truss maintains its shape, preventing shift and sag. Thus giving stability to the structure.  The shape of a triangle allows all of the weight applied to the sides to be redistributed down and away from the centre.