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CAMLESS ENGINES 
BY 
ARVIND KUMAR 
RAJPUT
Introduction 
 CAMS 
 Control the breathing channels (valves) of an IC 
engine 
 Connected to camshaft which is operated by 
crankshaft 
 Cams push open valves at proper time & guide 
their closure 
 But they are inflexible except VTEC & VVT-I 
 Engineers could not vary timing, lift & duration of 
valve opening infinitely
 CAMLESS ENGINES 
 Eliminated mechanical linkages 
 Could provide infinite variation of valve 
parameters 
 It can make engines clean, efficient & 
responsive
Working of conventional 
engines 
 The crankshaft turns camshaft which 
operates valves by mechanism as in figure 
 Spring brings back valve to initial position 
 Timing of engine valves depends on shape 
of cams
Conventional engine valves
 Engineers must design cams in the 
development stages 
 This design compromises b/n engine power 
& fuel efficiency 
 Considering this compromise automobile 
companies brought variable valve timing 
mechanisms 
 But is effects were limited
Camless engines overview 
 Main sensors - 
Engine load sensor Exhaust gas sensor 
Valve position sensor Engine speed sensor 
ELECTRONIC 
CONTROL 
SENSORS ACTUATORS 
UNIT
 Sensors sense parameters & send signals to 
ECU 
 ECU contains microprocessors with 
associated software 
 This ECU controls the actuators to work 
according to requirements
Actuators 
 It is a electro-hydraulic camless valve train 
(ECV) 
 Uses elastic property of compressed 
hydraulic fluid which acts like a liquid 
spring, accelerates & decelerates the valves
 
Hydraulic pendulum 
 Involves conversion of PE to KE and back 
to PE with minimum energy loss 
 During acceleration of valves PE is 
converted to KE 
 During deceleration of valve energy of 
moving valve is returned to fluid
Detailed view of Hydraulic 
Pendulum
Operation of hydraulic 
pendulum
 Lift, timing & duration of valve opening is 
varied by controlling solenoid valves 
 This is done by ECU when signals are sent 
from the sensors
Modifier Rod 
 Used to impart 
 Unequal lift to the 
paired valves 
 Zero motion to any 
valve
Modifier Rod Operation
Advantages 
 Offers continuously variable & independent 
control of all aspects of valve motion - lift, 
operation duration, event of opening 
 ECV system can control valve velocity, 
valve acceleration and deceleration
Resultant Advantages 
 Better fuel economy- 7 to 10 % increase 
 Higher torque & power- 10 to 15 % 
increase 
 Lower exhaust emissions- EGR system is 
eliminated since EGR effect occurs on its 
own & thus reduces NOx emissions 
 Reduction in size & weight
Disadvantages 
 Opening & closing of valves requires some power- 
Electromechanical- alternator 
Electrohydraulic- accumulator 
 
Sophisticated electronic control required for 
gentle seating of valves 
 
Current solenoids cannot run at high rpms; 
 
Hidden cost of microprocessor & software 
controls
Conclusion 
Even though some disadvantages are 
present, we can expect electrohydraulic & 
electromechanical valves to replace the 
conventional camshaft technology.
Thanks

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Camless engines

  • 1. CAMLESS ENGINES BY ARVIND KUMAR RAJPUT
  • 2. Introduction  CAMS  Control the breathing channels (valves) of an IC engine  Connected to camshaft which is operated by crankshaft  Cams push open valves at proper time & guide their closure  But they are inflexible except VTEC & VVT-I  Engineers could not vary timing, lift & duration of valve opening infinitely
  • 3.  CAMLESS ENGINES  Eliminated mechanical linkages  Could provide infinite variation of valve parameters  It can make engines clean, efficient & responsive
  • 4. Working of conventional engines  The crankshaft turns camshaft which operates valves by mechanism as in figure  Spring brings back valve to initial position  Timing of engine valves depends on shape of cams
  • 6.  Engineers must design cams in the development stages  This design compromises b/n engine power & fuel efficiency  Considering this compromise automobile companies brought variable valve timing mechanisms  But is effects were limited
  • 7. Camless engines overview  Main sensors - Engine load sensor Exhaust gas sensor Valve position sensor Engine speed sensor ELECTRONIC CONTROL SENSORS ACTUATORS UNIT
  • 8.  Sensors sense parameters & send signals to ECU  ECU contains microprocessors with associated software  This ECU controls the actuators to work according to requirements
  • 9. Actuators  It is a electro-hydraulic camless valve train (ECV)  Uses elastic property of compressed hydraulic fluid which acts like a liquid spring, accelerates & decelerates the valves
  • 10.  Hydraulic pendulum  Involves conversion of PE to KE and back to PE with minimum energy loss  During acceleration of valves PE is converted to KE  During deceleration of valve energy of moving valve is returned to fluid
  • 11. Detailed view of Hydraulic Pendulum
  • 13.
  • 14.
  • 15.  Lift, timing & duration of valve opening is varied by controlling solenoid valves  This is done by ECU when signals are sent from the sensors
  • 16. Modifier Rod  Used to impart  Unequal lift to the paired valves  Zero motion to any valve
  • 18.
  • 19. Advantages  Offers continuously variable & independent control of all aspects of valve motion - lift, operation duration, event of opening  ECV system can control valve velocity, valve acceleration and deceleration
  • 20. Resultant Advantages  Better fuel economy- 7 to 10 % increase  Higher torque & power- 10 to 15 % increase  Lower exhaust emissions- EGR system is eliminated since EGR effect occurs on its own & thus reduces NOx emissions  Reduction in size & weight
  • 21. Disadvantages  Opening & closing of valves requires some power- Electromechanical- alternator Electrohydraulic- accumulator  Sophisticated electronic control required for gentle seating of valves  Current solenoids cannot run at high rpms;  Hidden cost of microprocessor & software controls
  • 22. Conclusion Even though some disadvantages are present, we can expect electrohydraulic & electromechanical valves to replace the conventional camshaft technology.