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Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2
Bikaner
Holiday’s Homework
Subject-Biology
Submitted
to,
Mr.Virendra
Kumar
Submitted
by,
Aryalaksh
mi.C
CHAPTER - 7
STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION
IN ANIMALS
Contents…
1. Animal Tissues
2. Cockroach
Introduction…
In preceding chapters, we
came across a large variety of
organisms, both unicellular
and multicellular, of the
animal kingdom.
 In unicellular organisms, all
the functions like digestion,
 In the complex body of
multicellular organisms, the same
basic functions are carried out by
different group of cells in a well
organised manner.
In this chapter, we are going to
study that how do these cells in
the body of a multicellular
organism work together, taking
the example of morphology &
Various tissues in a bird’s body
Various tissues in a mouse’s body
Various tissues in a human being’s body
Tissue is a group of
similar cells along
with intercellular
substances which
perform a specific
function.
Tissue
Cell
• Fundamental
unit of life
• Group of cells
performing
similar
functions
Tissue
Organ
• Group of
tissues
join
together
to form
organs
Organ
system
• Group
of
organs
forms
organ
system
Individual
• Group of
organ
systems
forms an
individual
In Multicellular
Organisms…
ANIMAL TISSUES
Animal tissues are classified
into four types:
Animal tissues
Epithelial
tissues
Connective
tissues
Muscular
tissues
Neural
tissues
Epithelial tissues
These tissues commonly called
epithelium.
Has free surface, which faces either a
body fluid or the outside environment.
Cells are compactly packed with little
intercellular matrix.
There are two types of epithelial tissues
on the basis of composition:
Simple epithelium.
Compound epithelium.
Epithelial tissues
Simple
epithelium
Compound
epithelium
 Simple epithelium is
composed of a single layer
of cells and functions as a
lining for body cavities,
ducts and tubes.
The Compound
epithelium consists of two
or more cell layers and has
protective function as it
Definitions
Simple epithelium
Compound
epithelium
 It is composed
of only one layer
of cells.
 It is mainly
involved in the
function of
absorption and
secretion.
 It is composed
of many layers of
cells.
It is mainly
involved in the
function of
protection and has
a limited role in
On the basis of
modification,
Simple
epithelium
Squamous
epithelium
Cuboidal
epithelim
Columnar
epithelium
epithelium
Composition: made of single
thin layer of flattened cells
with irregular boundaries.
Location: found in the wall of
blood vessels and air sacs of
lungs.
Function: as diffusion
Cuboidal
epithelium
Composition: made of a single
layer cube – like cells.
Location: found in ducts of
glands and tubular part of
nephrons in kidneys.
Function: main function is
Columnar
epithelium
Composition: made of a single
layer of tall and slender cells.
Their nuclei located at the base.
Free surface may have microvilli.
Location: found in the lining of
stomach and intestine
epithelium
It is a modified Cuboidal or
columnar epithelium.
Cell bears cilia on their free
surfaces.
Location: found in the inner
surface of hollow organs like
bronchioles and fallopian tubes.
Function: to move particles or
epithelium
It is a modified Cuboidal or
Columnar Epithelium.
Function: get specialized for
secretion.
Location:
1. Simple glands having
unicellular and isolated cells
of alimentary canal.
2. Multicellular glands:
4. Exocrine gland: the
secretory product
transported to a point by
means of a duct. These
glands secrete mucus,
saliva, ear wax, milk,
digestive enzymes etc
5. Endocrine gland: commonly
called as ductless gland,
Compound epithelium
Composition: made of more
than one layer of cells.
Functions:
limited role in absorption and
secretion.
main function is to provide
protection against chemical
and mechanical stresses.
Location: they cover the dry
surface of skin, moist surface of
buccal cavity, pharynx, inner
lining of duct of salivary gland
and pancreatic duct.
Cell junction
Cells of the epithelium are held together
with little intercellular matrix.
Cell junction provide structural and
functional link between the cells
Cell junction
Tight
junction
Adhering
junction
Gap
junctions
1.Tight junction: help to stop
substances from leaking
across a tissue.
2.Adhering junctions:
perform cementing to keep
neighboring cells together.
3.Gap junctions: facilitate
the cells to communicating
the cytoplasm of adjoining
Adhering junction
Connective tissues
Most abundant and widely
distributed tissues.
Special function of linking
and supporting other
tissues/organs of the body.
Connective tissues include
areolar, adipose, cartilage,
bone, and blood.
In all connective tissue
except blood, the cells
secrete fibres of proteins
called collagen and elastin.
The fibre provides
strength, elasticity and
flexibility to the tissue.
Presence of ground
Specialized
Connective Tissues
Loose connective tissue
Has cells and fibres loosely
arranged in a semisolid
ground substance.
Loose connective tissues
Areolar
tissue
Adipose
tissue
Areolar Tissue
Areolar tissue is one example
of loose connective tissue.
Composition: it contains cell
like fibroblasts (secretes
fibres), macrophages and mast
cells.
Location: present beneath the
skin.
Function: it supports the
Adipose tissue
Another type of loose
connective tissues.
Location: mostly beneath
the skin.
Function: Cells of this
tissue specialized to store
fats called adipocytes.
Dense connective tissue
Fibres and fibroblasts are
compactly packed.
Dense connective tissue
Dense regular
tissue
Dense irregular
tissue
Dense regular
connective tissues
Dense irregular
connective tissues
In dense regular
connective
tissues, collagen
fibres are present
in rows between
parallel boundless
fibres.
They are
In dense
irregular
connective
tissues, fibres are
arranged
irregularly.
Dense regular
tissues
Orientation of fibres shows
a regular pattern.
The collagen fibres are
present in rows between many
parallel bundles of fibres.
It consists of tendons &
ligaments.
Dense regular tissues
Tendons Ligaments
Tendons attach bones to
muscles may also attach
muscles to structures such
as the eyeball. A tendon
serves to move the bone or
structure.
A ligament is a fibrous
connective tissue which
attaches bone to bone, and
usually serves to hold
tissues
•Fibroblasts and
many fibres are
oriented
differently.
•Location: this
tissue present in
Specialized Connective Tissues
Specialized
connective
tissue
Cartilage Bone Blood
Cartilage
Intercellular material of cartilage
is solid.
Chondrocytes are the cells of
cartilage.
Pliable and resists compression.
Cells are enclosed in small cavities
within the matrix.
Most of the cartilage of the
embryo replaced by bones in adult.
Location: present in nose tips, ear
Have hard and non pliable matrix or
ground substance.
The matrix is rich in calcium salts and
collagen fibers which give the bone its
strength.
Provides the structural frame of human
body.
Support and protect the soft tissues
and organs.
The bone cells called Osteocytes are
present in fluid filled cavity called
lacunae.
Sustain body weight.
Attached with skeletal muscles meant
Structure of
Blood
Blood is a fluid connective
tissue.
It is the main circulating fluid
that helps in the transport of
various substances.
It consists of:
Blood
Plasma
Red blood cells
(RBC)
White blood
cells (WBC)
Muscular tissues
Each muscle is made of many
long, cylindrical fibres arranged in
parallel arrays.
Each fibre composed of
numerous fine fibrils, called
myofibrils.
Muscle fibres contracts in
response to stimulus.
Muscle plays a great role in
Muscular
tissues
Skeletal
(striated)
muscular tissue
Smooth (non-striated)
muscular tissue
Cardiac
muscular tissue
Skeletal muscle
(Striated)
Closed attached to the skeleton or
bone and cartilage.
Muscle cells are unbranched and
multinucleated.
A number of muscle fibres are
bundled together in parallel fashion.
A sheath of tough connective tissues
encloses several bundles of muscle
fibres
Smooth muscle
(Non-Striated)
The smooth muscle fibres tapers or
pointed at both ends
Do not show cross striation.
Cell junctions hold them together.
They are bundled together in a
connective tissue sheath.
Present in wall of blood vessels, stomach
and intestine.
They are involuntary in nature.
Contractile muscular tissue
present in heart.
Cell junctions fuse the plasma
membranes of cardiac muscles
cells and make them stick
together.
Communication junction or
intercalated discs at some fusion
points allow the cells to contract
as a unit.
Muscle cells are branched and
Neural tissues
Neural tissues exert greatest
control over body’s response to
changing condition.
Neurons are the units of nervous
tissues.
Neuroglial cells non-conducting and
protects and support neurons.
Neuroglia makes up more than one-
half the volume of neural tissue.
Electrical impulse is conducted
through the plasma membrane of
Diagram of neural
Chapter: 5
Cockroach
Morphology of cockroach
The common species of cockroach periplaneta
americana .
The body of the cockroach is segmented and
divisible into three distinct region.
(i).Head
(ii)Thorax
(iii)Abdomen
Body covered by a hard chitinous exoskeleton
brown in colour .
• Segment , exoskeleton has hardened plates called
sclerites that are joined to each other by a thin and
flexible articular membrane
.
Parts of head region
• Head is triangular in shape and lies anteriorly at
right angle to the longitudinal body axis .
• It is formed by the fusion of six segments and
show great mobility in all direction due to flexible
neck.
• The head capsule bears a pair of compound eyes.
• Antennae have sensory receptors that help in
monitoring the environment.
• Anterior end of the head bears appendages
forming biting and chewing type of mouth parts.
• The mouthparts consisting of a labrum;
• A pair of mandibles
• A pair of maxillae and a labium
• A median flexible lobe , acting as tongue , lies
within the cavity enclosed by the mouthparts.
Thorax
• Thorax consist of three parts;
• Prothorax
• Mesothorax
• Metathorax
• The head is connected with thorax by a short
extension of the prothorax known as neck.
• Each thoracic segments bears a pair of walking
lags.
The first pair of wings arises from mesaothorax
The second pair from metathorax.
Forewings (mesothoracic) called tegmina are
opaque dark and leathery and cover the hind
wings when at rest .
The hind wings are transparent , membranous
and are used in flight .
Abdomen
• The abdomen in both males and females
consist of 10 segments .
• In females , the 7th sternum is boat shaped
and together with the 8th and 9th sterna forms
a brood or genital pouch whose anterior
contains female gonopore ,spermathecal pore
and collateral gland.
• In males genital pouch or chamber lies at the
hind end of abdomen bounded dorsally by 9th
and 10th terga and ventrally by the 9th
sternum .
It contains dorsal anus, ventral male genital pore
and gonapophysis .
Males bear a pair of short , thread like anal style
which are absent in females cockroach.
In both sexes ,the 10th segments bears a pair of
jointed filamentous structures called anal cerci
.
Anatomy of cockroach.
• Alimentary canal system
• The alimentary canal present in the body cavity is divided
into three parts ;
• Foregut
• Midgut
• Hindgut
• The mouth opens into a short tubular pharynx leading to a
narrow tubular passage called oesophagus .
.
•This opens into a sac like structure called crop
used for storing food
•The crop is followed by gizzard or
proventriculus .
•It has an outer layer of thick circular muscles
and thick inner cuticle forming six highly
chitinous plate called teeth .
•Gizzard helps in grinding the food particles .
•A ring of 6-8 blind tubules called hepatic or
gastric caecae is present at the junction of
foregut & midgut which secrete digestive juice .
• At the junction of midgut and hindgut is
present another ring of 100-150 yellow
coloured thin filamentous tubules .
• They help in removal of excretory products
from haemolymph .
• The hindgut is broader than midgut and is
differentiated into ileum , colon and rectum
the rectum opens out through anus .
Blood circulatory system
• Blood vascular system of cockroach is an open
type.
• Blood vessels are poorly developed and open
into space
• Visceral organs located in the are bathed in
blood .
• The haemolymph is composed of colourless
plasma and
• Heart of cockroach consist of elongated
muscular tube lying along mid dorsal line of
thorax and abdomen .
• It is differentiated into funnel shaped chamber
with ostia on either side .
• blood from sinuses enter heart through ostia
and is pumped anteriorly to sinuses again .
• the respiratory system consist of
a network of trachea , that open
through 10 pair of small holes
called spiracles present on the
lateral side of the body .
• Thin branching tubes carry
oxygen from the air to all part .
• The opening of the spiracles is
regulated by the sphincters .
Exchange of gases take place at
the tracheoles by diffusion .
Excretory system of cockroach
• Excretion is performed by malpighian tubules.
• Each tubules is lined by glandular and ciliated
cells .
• They absorb nitrogenous waste product and
convert them in to uric acid which is excreted out
through the hindgut the hindgut .
• This insect is called uricotelic .
• The fat body nephrocytes and urecose glands also
help in excretion .
Nervous system of cockroach
• The nervous system of cockroach consist of
a series of fused segmentally Arranged
ganglia jointed by paired longitudinal
connective on the ventral side .
• Three ganglia lie in the thorax , and six in
the abdomen
• The nervous system of cockroach is spread
throughout the body
• The head holds a bit of a nervous system
while the rest is situated along the ventral
part of its body
Reproductive system of
cockroach ;
•Male
•Female
Male
• It consist of a pair of vasa deferentia , an
ejaculatory duct , a utricular gland , a phallic
gland , male genital apertures and external
genitalia .
• A testis gives rise to single narrow tube from its
posterior end called vas deferens .
• The two vasa deferentia run backwardly
inwardly and downwardly they meet in the
seventh or eight segment and open into an
ejaculatory duct .
• The union is covered over by a large white
mushroom shaped utricular gland present in
7th and 8th segments .
• The glands possesses three types of tubules-
• Peripheral
• Central
• Seminal
• The seminal tubules are bulbous in outline ,
they are also called seminal vesicles .
• The phallic or conglobate glands lies below
the ejaculatory duct and utricular glands .
female
• It is made up of ovaries
• A pair of oviduct
• A vagina
• Female genital opening
• Brood pouch
• Gonapophyses or phallomeres
• A pair of spermathecae
• A pair of colleterial glands.
By,
Arya

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11th-strl organisation by Arya

  • 1.
  • 2. Kendriya Vidyalaya No.2 Bikaner Holiday’s Homework Subject-Biology Submitted to, Mr.Virendra Kumar Submitted by, Aryalaksh mi.C
  • 3. CHAPTER - 7 STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS Contents… 1. Animal Tissues 2. Cockroach
  • 4.
  • 5. Introduction… In preceding chapters, we came across a large variety of organisms, both unicellular and multicellular, of the animal kingdom.  In unicellular organisms, all the functions like digestion,
  • 6.  In the complex body of multicellular organisms, the same basic functions are carried out by different group of cells in a well organised manner. In this chapter, we are going to study that how do these cells in the body of a multicellular organism work together, taking the example of morphology &
  • 7. Various tissues in a bird’s body
  • 8. Various tissues in a mouse’s body
  • 9. Various tissues in a human being’s body
  • 10. Tissue is a group of similar cells along with intercellular substances which perform a specific function. Tissue
  • 11. Cell • Fundamental unit of life • Group of cells performing similar functions Tissue Organ • Group of tissues join together to form organs Organ system • Group of organs forms organ system Individual • Group of organ systems forms an individual In Multicellular Organisms…
  • 12.
  • 13. ANIMAL TISSUES Animal tissues are classified into four types: Animal tissues Epithelial tissues Connective tissues Muscular tissues Neural tissues
  • 14.
  • 15. Epithelial tissues These tissues commonly called epithelium. Has free surface, which faces either a body fluid or the outside environment. Cells are compactly packed with little intercellular matrix. There are two types of epithelial tissues on the basis of composition: Simple epithelium. Compound epithelium.
  • 17.  Simple epithelium is composed of a single layer of cells and functions as a lining for body cavities, ducts and tubes. The Compound epithelium consists of two or more cell layers and has protective function as it Definitions
  • 18. Simple epithelium Compound epithelium  It is composed of only one layer of cells.  It is mainly involved in the function of absorption and secretion.  It is composed of many layers of cells. It is mainly involved in the function of protection and has a limited role in
  • 19. On the basis of modification, Simple epithelium Squamous epithelium Cuboidal epithelim Columnar epithelium
  • 20.
  • 21. epithelium Composition: made of single thin layer of flattened cells with irregular boundaries. Location: found in the wall of blood vessels and air sacs of lungs. Function: as diffusion
  • 22.
  • 23. Cuboidal epithelium Composition: made of a single layer cube – like cells. Location: found in ducts of glands and tubular part of nephrons in kidneys. Function: main function is
  • 24.
  • 25. Columnar epithelium Composition: made of a single layer of tall and slender cells. Their nuclei located at the base. Free surface may have microvilli. Location: found in the lining of stomach and intestine
  • 26.
  • 27. epithelium It is a modified Cuboidal or columnar epithelium. Cell bears cilia on their free surfaces. Location: found in the inner surface of hollow organs like bronchioles and fallopian tubes. Function: to move particles or
  • 28.
  • 29. epithelium It is a modified Cuboidal or Columnar Epithelium. Function: get specialized for secretion. Location: 1. Simple glands having unicellular and isolated cells of alimentary canal. 2. Multicellular glands:
  • 30. 4. Exocrine gland: the secretory product transported to a point by means of a duct. These glands secrete mucus, saliva, ear wax, milk, digestive enzymes etc 5. Endocrine gland: commonly called as ductless gland,
  • 31.
  • 32. Compound epithelium Composition: made of more than one layer of cells. Functions: limited role in absorption and secretion. main function is to provide protection against chemical and mechanical stresses.
  • 33. Location: they cover the dry surface of skin, moist surface of buccal cavity, pharynx, inner lining of duct of salivary gland and pancreatic duct.
  • 34. Cell junction Cells of the epithelium are held together with little intercellular matrix. Cell junction provide structural and functional link between the cells Cell junction Tight junction Adhering junction Gap junctions
  • 35. 1.Tight junction: help to stop substances from leaking across a tissue. 2.Adhering junctions: perform cementing to keep neighboring cells together. 3.Gap junctions: facilitate the cells to communicating the cytoplasm of adjoining
  • 36.
  • 38.
  • 39. Connective tissues Most abundant and widely distributed tissues. Special function of linking and supporting other tissues/organs of the body. Connective tissues include areolar, adipose, cartilage, bone, and blood.
  • 40. In all connective tissue except blood, the cells secrete fibres of proteins called collagen and elastin. The fibre provides strength, elasticity and flexibility to the tissue. Presence of ground
  • 42. Loose connective tissue Has cells and fibres loosely arranged in a semisolid ground substance. Loose connective tissues Areolar tissue Adipose tissue
  • 43. Areolar Tissue Areolar tissue is one example of loose connective tissue. Composition: it contains cell like fibroblasts (secretes fibres), macrophages and mast cells. Location: present beneath the skin. Function: it supports the
  • 44.
  • 45. Adipose tissue Another type of loose connective tissues. Location: mostly beneath the skin. Function: Cells of this tissue specialized to store fats called adipocytes.
  • 46.
  • 47. Dense connective tissue Fibres and fibroblasts are compactly packed. Dense connective tissue Dense regular tissue Dense irregular tissue
  • 48.
  • 49. Dense regular connective tissues Dense irregular connective tissues In dense regular connective tissues, collagen fibres are present in rows between parallel boundless fibres. They are In dense irregular connective tissues, fibres are arranged irregularly.
  • 50. Dense regular tissues Orientation of fibres shows a regular pattern. The collagen fibres are present in rows between many parallel bundles of fibres. It consists of tendons & ligaments.
  • 52. Tendons attach bones to muscles may also attach muscles to structures such as the eyeball. A tendon serves to move the bone or structure. A ligament is a fibrous connective tissue which attaches bone to bone, and usually serves to hold
  • 53.
  • 54. tissues •Fibroblasts and many fibres are oriented differently. •Location: this tissue present in
  • 56. Cartilage Intercellular material of cartilage is solid. Chondrocytes are the cells of cartilage. Pliable and resists compression. Cells are enclosed in small cavities within the matrix. Most of the cartilage of the embryo replaced by bones in adult. Location: present in nose tips, ear
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. Have hard and non pliable matrix or ground substance. The matrix is rich in calcium salts and collagen fibers which give the bone its strength. Provides the structural frame of human body. Support and protect the soft tissues and organs. The bone cells called Osteocytes are present in fluid filled cavity called lacunae. Sustain body weight. Attached with skeletal muscles meant
  • 61. Blood Blood is a fluid connective tissue. It is the main circulating fluid that helps in the transport of various substances. It consists of: Blood Plasma Red blood cells (RBC) White blood cells (WBC)
  • 62.
  • 63. Muscular tissues Each muscle is made of many long, cylindrical fibres arranged in parallel arrays. Each fibre composed of numerous fine fibrils, called myofibrils. Muscle fibres contracts in response to stimulus. Muscle plays a great role in
  • 65.
  • 66. Skeletal muscle (Striated) Closed attached to the skeleton or bone and cartilage. Muscle cells are unbranched and multinucleated. A number of muscle fibres are bundled together in parallel fashion. A sheath of tough connective tissues encloses several bundles of muscle fibres
  • 67. Smooth muscle (Non-Striated) The smooth muscle fibres tapers or pointed at both ends Do not show cross striation. Cell junctions hold them together. They are bundled together in a connective tissue sheath. Present in wall of blood vessels, stomach and intestine. They are involuntary in nature.
  • 68. Contractile muscular tissue present in heart. Cell junctions fuse the plasma membranes of cardiac muscles cells and make them stick together. Communication junction or intercalated discs at some fusion points allow the cells to contract as a unit. Muscle cells are branched and
  • 69.
  • 70. Neural tissues Neural tissues exert greatest control over body’s response to changing condition. Neurons are the units of nervous tissues. Neuroglial cells non-conducting and protects and support neurons. Neuroglia makes up more than one- half the volume of neural tissue. Electrical impulse is conducted through the plasma membrane of
  • 71.
  • 74. Morphology of cockroach The common species of cockroach periplaneta americana . The body of the cockroach is segmented and divisible into three distinct region. (i).Head (ii)Thorax (iii)Abdomen Body covered by a hard chitinous exoskeleton brown in colour .
  • 75. • Segment , exoskeleton has hardened plates called sclerites that are joined to each other by a thin and flexible articular membrane .
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79. Parts of head region • Head is triangular in shape and lies anteriorly at right angle to the longitudinal body axis . • It is formed by the fusion of six segments and show great mobility in all direction due to flexible neck. • The head capsule bears a pair of compound eyes. • Antennae have sensory receptors that help in monitoring the environment. • Anterior end of the head bears appendages forming biting and chewing type of mouth parts.
  • 80. • The mouthparts consisting of a labrum; • A pair of mandibles • A pair of maxillae and a labium • A median flexible lobe , acting as tongue , lies within the cavity enclosed by the mouthparts.
  • 81.
  • 82. Thorax • Thorax consist of three parts; • Prothorax • Mesothorax • Metathorax • The head is connected with thorax by a short extension of the prothorax known as neck. • Each thoracic segments bears a pair of walking lags.
  • 83. The first pair of wings arises from mesaothorax The second pair from metathorax. Forewings (mesothoracic) called tegmina are opaque dark and leathery and cover the hind wings when at rest . The hind wings are transparent , membranous and are used in flight .
  • 84. Abdomen • The abdomen in both males and females consist of 10 segments . • In females , the 7th sternum is boat shaped and together with the 8th and 9th sterna forms a brood or genital pouch whose anterior contains female gonopore ,spermathecal pore and collateral gland. • In males genital pouch or chamber lies at the hind end of abdomen bounded dorsally by 9th and 10th terga and ventrally by the 9th sternum .
  • 85. It contains dorsal anus, ventral male genital pore and gonapophysis . Males bear a pair of short , thread like anal style which are absent in females cockroach. In both sexes ,the 10th segments bears a pair of jointed filamentous structures called anal cerci .
  • 86. Anatomy of cockroach. • Alimentary canal system • The alimentary canal present in the body cavity is divided into three parts ; • Foregut • Midgut • Hindgut • The mouth opens into a short tubular pharynx leading to a narrow tubular passage called oesophagus . .
  • 87. •This opens into a sac like structure called crop used for storing food •The crop is followed by gizzard or proventriculus . •It has an outer layer of thick circular muscles and thick inner cuticle forming six highly chitinous plate called teeth . •Gizzard helps in grinding the food particles . •A ring of 6-8 blind tubules called hepatic or gastric caecae is present at the junction of foregut & midgut which secrete digestive juice .
  • 88. • At the junction of midgut and hindgut is present another ring of 100-150 yellow coloured thin filamentous tubules . • They help in removal of excretory products from haemolymph . • The hindgut is broader than midgut and is differentiated into ileum , colon and rectum the rectum opens out through anus .
  • 89. Blood circulatory system • Blood vascular system of cockroach is an open type. • Blood vessels are poorly developed and open into space • Visceral organs located in the are bathed in blood . • The haemolymph is composed of colourless plasma and
  • 90. • Heart of cockroach consist of elongated muscular tube lying along mid dorsal line of thorax and abdomen . • It is differentiated into funnel shaped chamber with ostia on either side . • blood from sinuses enter heart through ostia and is pumped anteriorly to sinuses again .
  • 91.
  • 92. • the respiratory system consist of a network of trachea , that open through 10 pair of small holes called spiracles present on the lateral side of the body . • Thin branching tubes carry oxygen from the air to all part . • The opening of the spiracles is regulated by the sphincters . Exchange of gases take place at the tracheoles by diffusion .
  • 93. Excretory system of cockroach • Excretion is performed by malpighian tubules. • Each tubules is lined by glandular and ciliated cells . • They absorb nitrogenous waste product and convert them in to uric acid which is excreted out through the hindgut the hindgut . • This insect is called uricotelic . • The fat body nephrocytes and urecose glands also help in excretion .
  • 94. Nervous system of cockroach • The nervous system of cockroach consist of a series of fused segmentally Arranged ganglia jointed by paired longitudinal connective on the ventral side . • Three ganglia lie in the thorax , and six in the abdomen • The nervous system of cockroach is spread throughout the body • The head holds a bit of a nervous system while the rest is situated along the ventral part of its body
  • 95. Reproductive system of cockroach ; •Male •Female
  • 96. Male • It consist of a pair of vasa deferentia , an ejaculatory duct , a utricular gland , a phallic gland , male genital apertures and external genitalia . • A testis gives rise to single narrow tube from its posterior end called vas deferens .
  • 97. • The two vasa deferentia run backwardly inwardly and downwardly they meet in the seventh or eight segment and open into an ejaculatory duct . • The union is covered over by a large white mushroom shaped utricular gland present in 7th and 8th segments .
  • 98. • The glands possesses three types of tubules- • Peripheral • Central • Seminal • The seminal tubules are bulbous in outline , they are also called seminal vesicles . • The phallic or conglobate glands lies below the ejaculatory duct and utricular glands .
  • 99.
  • 100. female • It is made up of ovaries • A pair of oviduct • A vagina • Female genital opening • Brood pouch • Gonapophyses or phallomeres
  • 101. • A pair of spermathecae • A pair of colleterial glands.