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Printed Circuit Board Basics

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Creative Hi-Tech would like to share some basics of Printed Circuit Boards which will help you to gain some knowledge before going to any vendor. This power point presentation will clear your basic doubts regarding the PCB.

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Printed Circuit Board Basics

  1. 1. Printed Circuit Board Basics By - Creative Hi-tech Ltd. www.creativehitech.com
  2. 2. What are PCBs?  PCBs are the backbone of electrical devices.  They are non-conductive board that holds all electronic components through a circuit embossed over it.  PCBs are built to last for a wide range of industrial, commercial, and domestic applications.  They can be customized to any specifications to users’ requirements.
  3. 3. History of PCBs  PCBs were first developed during the Second World War.  The revolutionary invention was made by an Austrian Engineer, Paul Eisler.  Since 1929, PCBs have been mass produced for commercial applications.  They were first used in transformers and capacitors.
  4. 4. PCB Types  Single Sided – Base material (rigid laminate with a woven glass epoxy base material) clad with copper on one side.  Double Sided - The assembly encompasses a base material with copper on its both sides.  Multi Layered – Encompasses several layers of substrates. Each layer is separated by an insulation.
  5. 5. Board Styles The most common board styles are:  Rigid – Solid construction.  Flex – Flexible circuits.  Rigid-flex –Multi-circuit boards.  Hybrid – Very small circuit. Can be integrated as part of a larger circuit.
  6. 6. Parts of a PCB The assembly consists the following parts.  Components – Actual devices in the board. PCB components can be categorized as active and passive. Active components include: • Diode – Allows current to flow in one direction. • Transistor – Amplifies and switches electrical power and electronic signals. • Integrated Circuits (ICs) – Responsible for several signal processing functions. Passive components include: • Capacitor – Stores and discharge electricity. • Resistor – Limits the power of electrical current. • Inductor – Responsible for creating magnetic field.
  7. 7. Parts of a PCB  Pads – Location where components connect/solder to.  Traces – Connect pads together.  Vias – Responsible for making electrical connection between the layers of PCB.  Top metal layer – The layer where most of the components are assembled. Fewer traces in this top metal layer.  Bottom metal layer – Fewer components in bottom layer and many traces.
  8. 8. Package Types  PCB components can be mounted onto the board in two ways.  Surface Mount – PCB components are mounted directly onto the board.  Through-Hole – Components with leads are inserted through mounting holes, hence the name through hole.
  9. 9. Manufacturing/Assembly Steps Following are the step involved in PCB manufacturing.  PCB Manufacturing Steps 1. Following are the steps involved in PCB fabrication. 2. Base Material Preparation – Clean the laminate, containing copper foil. 3. Cutting the Base Material – Post the cleaning process, cut the laminate to required specifications. 4. Apply Adhesive on the Laminate - Choose between epoxy or acrylic adhesives to get the job done. 5. Generate Circuit Pattern –Desired circuit patterns can be generated by screen printing or photo imaging. 6. Etch the Circuit Pattern – Etch the copper laminate containing the circuit pattern. 7. Drilling – Drill holes, pads, and vias by using high speed drilling tools. 8. Through-Hole Plating – Deposit the holes with copper and must be chemically plated. 9. Apply Cover lay – Protect the top and bottom side of the board by applying suitable cover lay. 10.Cutting Flex - Cut individual flex from the production panel.
  10. 10. Manufacturing/Assembly Steps 11. Cleaning – Clean flux residues that are left behind during the manufacturing process. Use water solution or active cleaning agents to get the job done. 12. Testing – This Includes Automated Optical Inspection (AOI), flying probe test, functional test, and burn-in test. 13. Rework – Rework may be done on the PCB in case of: 14. Component missing 15. Component replacement 16. Trace or pad repair 17. Cuts and Jumps
  11. 11. PCB Material Options When it come to manufacturing PCBs, there are several material options available. 1. Substrate Material  Epoxy imprinted fiberglass  Polyester (PET)  Polyimide 2. Conductor Materiel  Electro-deposited copper foil  Rolled copper foil 3. Adhesives  Polyimide Adhesives  Polyester Adhesives  Acrylic Adhesives  Epoxies 4. Protective Coating  Polyimide Adhesives  Cover Lays - Polyester or polyimide is combined with a suitable adhesive.  Cover Coat - A thin coating of liquid acrylated epoxy and acrylated polyurethane.
  12. 12. PCB Material Options
  13. 13. Applications  Medical - Pacemakers, imaging equipment, drug delivery systems, wireless controllers.  Military - Weapons guidance systems, communication systems, GPS, aircraft missile-launch detectors.  Aerospace - Radar equipment, GPS, radio communication systems, control tower systems, sensors.  Telecommunication - Base stations, handheld units, communication satellites, wireless communication systems, signal processing systems.
  14. 14. Applications  Automotive - Electronic control module, transmission controls, LCD displays, comfort control units, air conditioning systems, music systems.  Manufacturing - Test equipment, electrical switches, industrial automation systems, control panels, industrial air conditioners, and CCTV surveillance systems.  Consumer Appliances - Oven, TV remote controllers, washing systems, lighting systems, solar power systems, UV water purifiers.
  15. 15. Contact Us 710 Cooper Ct. Schaumburg, IL 60173 phone 224.653.4000 fax 224.653.4100 Email: sales@creativehitech.com

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