Creative Hi-Tech would like to share some basics of Printed Circuit Boards which will help you to gain some knowledge before going to any vendor. This power point presentation will clear your basic doubts regarding the PCB.
What are PCBs?
PCBs are the backbone of electrical
They are non-conductive board that
holds all electronic components
through a circuit embossed over it.
PCBs are built to last for a wide range
of industrial, commercial, and
They can be customized to any
specifications to users’ requirements.
History of PCBs
PCBs were first developed during the Second World
The revolutionary invention was made by an Austrian
Engineer, Paul Eisler.
Since 1929, PCBs have been mass produced for
They were first used in transformers and capacitors.
Single Sided – Base material (rigid laminate
with a woven glass epoxy base material)
clad with copper on one side.
Double Sided - The assembly encompasses a
base material with copper on its both sides.
Multi Layered – Encompasses several layers
of substrates. Each layer is separated by an
The most common board styles are:
Rigid – Solid construction.
Flex – Flexible circuits.
Rigid-flex –Multi-circuit boards.
Hybrid – Very small circuit. Can be integrated as part of a larger circuit.
Parts of a PCB
The assembly consists the following parts.
Components – Actual devices in the board.
PCB components can be categorized as active and
Active components include:
• Diode – Allows current to flow in one direction.
• Transistor – Amplifies and switches electrical
power and electronic signals.
• Integrated Circuits (ICs) – Responsible for
several signal processing functions.
Passive components include:
• Capacitor – Stores and discharge electricity.
• Resistor – Limits the power of electrical current.
• Inductor – Responsible for creating magnetic
Parts of a PCB
Pads – Location where components connect/solder to.
Traces – Connect pads together.
Vias – Responsible for making electrical connection between the layers of
Top metal layer – The layer where most of the components are assembled.
Fewer traces in this top metal layer.
Bottom metal layer – Fewer components in bottom layer and many traces.
PCB components can be mounted onto the board in two ways.
Surface Mount – PCB components are mounted directly onto the board.
Through-Hole – Components with leads are inserted through mounting
holes, hence the name through hole.
Following are the step involved in PCB manufacturing.
PCB Manufacturing Steps
1. Following are the steps involved in PCB fabrication.
2. Base Material Preparation – Clean the laminate, containing copper foil.
3. Cutting the Base Material – Post the cleaning process, cut the laminate to required
4. Apply Adhesive on the Laminate - Choose between epoxy or acrylic adhesives to get the job
5. Generate Circuit Pattern –Desired circuit patterns can be generated by screen printing or
6. Etch the Circuit Pattern – Etch the copper laminate containing the circuit pattern.
7. Drilling – Drill holes, pads, and vias by using high speed drilling tools.
8. Through-Hole Plating – Deposit the holes with copper and must be chemically plated.
9. Apply Cover lay – Protect the top and bottom side of the board by applying suitable cover lay.
10.Cutting Flex - Cut individual flex from the production panel.
11. Cleaning – Clean flux residues that are left behind during the
manufacturing process. Use water solution or active cleaning agents to get
the job done.
12. Testing – This Includes Automated Optical Inspection (AOI), flying probe
test, functional test, and burn-in test.
13. Rework – Rework may be done on the PCB in case of:
14. Component missing
15. Component replacement
16. Trace or pad repair
17. Cuts and Jumps
PCB Material Options
When it come to manufacturing PCBs, there are several material options available.
1. Substrate Material
Epoxy imprinted fiberglass
2. Conductor Materiel
Electro-deposited copper foil
Rolled copper foil
4. Protective Coating
Cover Lays - Polyester or polyimide is combined with a suitable adhesive.
Cover Coat - A thin coating of liquid acrylated epoxy and acrylated polyurethane.
Medical - Pacemakers, imaging equipment, drug delivery systems, wireless
Military - Weapons guidance systems, communication systems, GPS, aircraft
Aerospace - Radar equipment, GPS, radio communication systems, control
tower systems, sensors.
Telecommunication - Base stations, handheld units, communication
satellites, wireless communication systems, signal processing systems.
Automotive - Electronic control module, transmission controls, LCD displays,
comfort control units, air conditioning systems, music systems.
Manufacturing - Test equipment, electrical switches, industrial automation
systems, control panels, industrial air conditioners, and CCTV surveillance
Consumer Appliances - Oven, TV remote controllers, washing systems,
lighting systems, solar power systems, UV water purifiers.
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