• Axis Nations— Germany, Italy &
• On 26 June 1945, Representatives
of 50 countries signed the final
charter of the UN.
• Officially came into existence on 24
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd President of the US
Preamble Of Charter
• To maintain international peace
• To develop friendly relations
• To achieve international
cooperation in solving economic ,
social, cultural and humanitarian
• All Member States have sovereign equality.
• All Member States must obey the Charter.
• Countries must try to settle their differences by
• Countries must avoid using force or threatening
to use force.
• The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs
of any country.
1. The General Assembly
-- Main deliberative organ of the United Nations --
Discusses any matter arising under the UN Charter
and make recommendations to Members
2. The Security Council
— For international security issues —
5 permanent members and 10 elected by General
3. The Economic and Social Council
— For global economical and social affairs —
• It has 54 member nations elected from all regions.
• Responsible for co-operation between states as regards
economic and social matters.
4. The Trusteeship Council
— For administering trust territories —
• Supervise the administration of dependent Territories
• The system was created at the end of the Second World
5. The International Court of Justice
— Universal court for international law —
Settle legal disputes and
provide advisory opinions on
15 judges elected to nine year
terms by the UN General
To adjudicate disputes among
6. The Secretariat
— For administering trust territories —
The Secretariat is made up of an international staff working at UN
Headquarters in New York.
To prevent conflicts or promote peaceful settlement of disputes
Agencies associated with UN
1. International Labor Organization (ILO)
2. International Monetary Fund (IMF)
3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
4. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
5. World Bank (WB)
6. World Health Organization (WHO)
7. The UN and the World Trade Organization
Suez Crisis (1956)
• Shipping canal through the 100 miles of desert
between Africa and Asia.
• Shortest ocean link between the Mediterranean and
the Indian Ocean.
• Eased Commerce for Trading Nations
• Helped European Colonial Powers to gain and govern
• Short Sea Route to the Oilfields of the Persian Gulf.
• 1956, Egyptian leader “Gamal Abdel
Nasser” seized control of the Suez
• Britain and France, together with Israel
launched attacks on Egypt.
• USSR threatened to shower the west
with Nuclear Weapons.
• United Nations Emergency
Promoting and Protecting Human Rights
• Political, Civil, Economic, Social
and Cultural rights.
• Promoted Human Rights of
Children, Women, Refugees,
• UN High Commissioner for
established by the general
The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS
(UNAIDS) It provide universal access to HIV
prevention and treatment services
• United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), International Environmental Treaty.
“To stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the
atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous and
Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate system.”
Human Activities are the primary cause for
Ending of Apartheid
• Elimination of Apartheid was
on the agenda of the United
• United nations took action
1. Arms embargo
2. Oil embargo
• Declaration on Apartheid by
general assembly in 1989
• The United Nations Observer
Mission in South Africa was
established by the Security
Council on 17 August 1992
• In 1994 a democratic Government
Muammar Gaddafi (Late) criticized the
• its undemocratic structure
• Counil ability to maintain peace
depends upon interest of big
• View of Jews for Jerusalem
• Palestinians are deprived of
• Importance of Israel for US
• US prevents UNSC
Israeli activities in
• Opposition of Russia and China
over the issue of Syria
• Interest of Russia
Russia has a naval installation in
• Russia still has a bit of a Cold
UN as an instrument of US
• U.S allocate funds to UN in their budget
• The U.S. contributes more to the UN than any
other country .
• -- 22 percent of the regular UN budget and 27
percent of the peacekeeping budget
IRAQ WAR 2003
• The war started without the consent of the
Security Council amidst strong opposition
from many countries.
• Role of US and UK to use Veto and pass the
• France stops to introduce an other
• US and UK invade without the authority of
• Later clarified the issue
• Civil war between the two
groups of Rwanda lead to
• Nearly 20% of the total
population were killed.
• Inefficiency of UN
Sri Lanka Civil War 2009
• Long war of 26 years between the Buddhist
Sinhalese majority and the Hindu Tamil
• The UN admitted its failure in Sri Lanka civil
war to confront the government over the
killing of separatist group members
• The UN was failed to stop the war and to
protect the human rights.
• The unstable nation of Sudan erupted in conflict, ,
the UN did not enter Sudan, instead urging members
of the African Union to intervene.
• The United Nations designated Srebrenica a safe-zone
• 1995 Bosnian War massacre was the single worst act
of mass murder on European soil since World War II.
Realist & Liberalist School Of Thought for
United Nations Organization (UNO)
UN in and of itself is an “Idealist
UN a Liberal or Realist Organization?
• United Nations is a liberal organization.
• The Liberal Theory focuses on
international institutions and systems.
• Liberal theorists often study institutions such as
the United Nations.
• The liberal idea that international security and
order can develop under an international
organization lead to the creation of the UNO.
• International organizations, such as the United
Nations , were calculated both to maintain a
balance of power as well as regularize
cooperation between nations.
1. Generate a more balanced distribution
2. Enhances coherence
3. Pay increase attention to inter temporal
4. Should emphasis on transparency,
accountability, integrity, efficiency and
5. Developing environment
Efficient UN action was in fact stymied by superpower conflict that
was based on both geopolitical and ideological factors. Some
improvements towards peaceful cooperation were, made by simply
providing a peaceful platform for global discussion. Thorough
reforms of the UN, especially the UNSC, could work towards better
international governance and maintenance of peace and security in
the world, but they can only work if the Big Five are ready to give up
their veto and engage in more democratic power-sharing. The world
needs a truly legitimate international organization that serves the
needs of those affected by conflicts directly, and not the interests of
the power-hungry nations who run the show. This can only be
achieved when there are serious diplomatic efforts to make the UNSC
a truly “one member, one vote” system, serving the interests of all