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United nations organisation

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about united nations organization its effectiveness and failure. Suez crisis, apartheid, iraq and palestine issue

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United nations organisation

  1. 1. United Nations Organization
  2. 2. Members: • Zaynub Malik 92 • Mahanoor Saif 89 • Faiza Nawazish 132 • Roobash Tazein 135 • Zahra Naeem 108 • Mahnoor Shahid 123 • Ruhma Yousaf 130
  3. 3. » Introduction » Administrative Bodies » Achievements Of UNO » Failures Of UNO & it’s Causes » Realist & Liberalist School Of Thought for UNO » Conclusion & Recommendation 10/14/2014
  4. 4. United Nations » Intergovernmental Organization » Established on 24 October 1945 » To Enforce:  LAW  SECURITY  ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT  SOCIAL PROGRESS  HUMAN RIGHTS  BETTER LIVING STANDARDS
  5. 5. 10/14/2014 HISTORY World War 1 & World War 2 were highly destructive of life as well as of material
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  7. 7. 10/14/2014 • Axis Nations— Germany, Italy & Japan. • On 26 June 1945, Representatives of 50 countries signed the final charter of the UN. • Officially came into existence on 24 October 1945. Franklin D. Roosevelt 32nd President of the US
  8. 8. Preamble Of Charter • To maintain international peace and security. • To develop friendly relations among nations. • To achieve international cooperation in solving economic , social, cultural and humanitarian problems. 10/14/2014
  9. 9. PRINCIPLES • All Member States have sovereign equality. • All Member States must obey the Charter. • Countries must try to settle their differences by peaceful means. • Countries must avoid using force or threatening to use force. • The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs of any country. 10/14/2014
  10. 10. Administrative Bodies 1. The General Assembly -- Main deliberative organ of the United Nations -- WORKING Discusses any matter arising under the UN Charter and make recommendations to Members
  11. 11. 2. The Security Council — For international security issues — 10/14/2014 MEMBERS 5 permanent members and 10 elected by General Assembly
  12. 12. 3. The Economic and Social Council — For global economical and social affairs — • It has 54 member nations elected from all regions. • Responsible for co-operation between states as regards economic and social matters. 10/14/2014
  13. 13. 4. The Trusteeship Council — For administering trust territories — • Supervise the administration of dependent Territories • The system was created at the end of the Second World War. 10/14/2014
  14. 14. 5. The International Court of Justice — Universal court for international law — Functions: Settle legal disputes and provide advisory opinions on legal questions. Composition: 15 judges elected to nine year terms by the UN General Assembly Working: To adjudicate disputes among states. 10/14/2014
  15. 15. 6. The Secretariat — For administering trust territories — Function The Secretariat is made up of an international staff working at UN Headquarters in New York. Working To prevent conflicts or promote peaceful settlement of disputes between countries.
  16. 16. Agencies associated with UN 1. International Labor Organization (ILO) 2. International Monetary Fund (IMF) 3. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 4. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) 5. World Bank (WB) 6. World Health Organization (WHO) 7. The UN and the World Trade Organization (WTO) 10/14/2014
  17. 17. Suez Crisis (1956) 10/14/2014 Achievements SUEZ CANAL • Shipping canal through the 100 miles of desert between Africa and Asia. IMPORTANCE • Shortest ocean link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. • Eased Commerce for Trading Nations • Helped European Colonial Powers to gain and govern their colonies • Short Sea Route to the Oilfields of the Persian Gulf.
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  19. 19. • 1956, Egyptian leader “Gamal Abdel Nasser” seized control of the Suez Canal. • Britain and France, together with Israel launched attacks on Egypt. • USSR threatened to shower the west with Nuclear Weapons. • United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) 10/14/2014
  20. 20. Promoting and Protecting Human Rights • Political, Civil, Economic, Social and Cultural rights. • Promoted Human Rights of Children, Women, Refugees, Indigenous people • UN High Commissioner for Human Rights(UNHCR) established by the general assembly 10/14/2014
  21. 21. Health Care The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) It provide universal access to HIV prevention and treatment services 10/14/2014
  22. 22. Environmental Issues TREATY • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), International Environmental Treaty. OBJECTIVE “To stabilize greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous and Anthropogenic Interference with the Climate system.” 10/14/2014
  23. 23. Human Activities are the primary cause for ‘Climatic Changes’ 10/14/2014
  24. 24. Ending of Apartheid • Apartheid: • Elimination of Apartheid was on the agenda of the United Nations • United nations took action against Apartheid 1. Arms embargo 2. Oil embargo 10/14/2014
  25. 25. • Declaration on Apartheid by general assembly in 1989 • The United Nations Observer Mission in South Africa was established by the Security Council on 17 August 1992 • In 1994 a democratic Government was established. 10/14/2014
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  27. 27. Failures Muammar Gaddafi (Late) criticized the UN 10/14/2014
  28. 28. Divided Council • its undemocratic structure • Counil ability to maintain peace depends upon interest of big five 10/14/2014
  29. 29. Palestine Issue • View of Jews for Jerusalem • Palestinians are deprived of their homeland • Importance of Israel for US 10/14/2014
  30. 30. • US prevents UNSC from adopting resolutions condemning Israeli activities in Jerusalem 10/14/2014
  31. 31. Syrian Crisis • Opposition of Russia and China over the issue of Syria • Interest of Russia Russia has a naval installation in Syria • Russia still has a bit of a Cold War mentality 10/14/2014
  32. 32. UN as an instrument of US • U.S allocate funds to UN in their budget planning… • The U.S. contributes more to the UN than any other country . • -- 22 percent of the regular UN budget and 27 percent of the peacekeeping budget 10/14/2014
  33. 33. IRAQ WAR 2003 • The war started without the consent of the Security Council amidst strong opposition from many countries. • Role of US and UK to use Veto and pass the resolution • France stops to introduce an other resolution • US and UK invade without the authority of UN • Later clarified the issue 10/14/2014
  34. 34. 10/14/2014 • Civil war between the two groups of Rwanda lead to genocide • Nearly 20% of the total population were killed. • Inefficiency of UN peacekeeper troops Rwanda Genocide
  35. 35. Sri Lanka Civil War 2009 • Long war of 26 years between the Buddhist Sinhalese majority and the Hindu Tamil minority. • The UN admitted its failure in Sri Lanka civil war to confront the government over the killing of separatist group members • The UN was failed to stop the war and to protect the human rights. 10/14/2014
  36. 36. DURFUR: • The unstable nation of Sudan erupted in conflict, , the UN did not enter Sudan, instead urging members of the African Union to intervene. SREBRENICA MASSACRE: • The United Nations designated Srebrenica a safe-zone in 1993. • 1995 Bosnian War massacre was the single worst act of mass murder on European soil since World War II. 10/14/2014
  37. 37. Realist & Liberalist School Of Thought for United Nations Organization (UNO) 10/14/2014
  38. 38. Two Classical view points: • Realist view • Liberalist view 10/14/2014
  39. 39. UN in and of itself is an “Idealist Forum." 10/14/2014
  40. 40. UN a Liberal or Realist Organization? • United Nations is a liberal organization. • The Liberal Theory focuses on international institutions and systems. • Liberal theorists often study institutions such as the United Nations. 10/14/2014
  41. 41. • The liberal idea that international security and order can develop under an international organization lead to the creation of the UNO. • International organizations, such as the United Nations , were calculated both to maintain a balance of power as well as regularize cooperation between nations. 10/14/2014
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  43. 43. 1. Generate a more balanced distribution 2. Enhances coherence 3. Pay increase attention to inter temporal decisions 4. Should emphasis on transparency, accountability, integrity, efficiency and flexibility. 5. Developing environment
  44. 44. CONCLUSION Efficient UN action was in fact stymied by superpower conflict that was based on both geopolitical and ideological factors. Some improvements towards peaceful cooperation were, made by simply providing a peaceful platform for global discussion. Thorough reforms of the UN, especially the UNSC, could work towards better international governance and maintenance of peace and security in the world, but they can only work if the Big Five are ready to give up their veto and engage in more democratic power-sharing. The world needs a truly legitimate international organization that serves the needs of those affected by conflicts directly, and not the interests of the power-hungry nations who run the show. This can only be achieved when there are serious diplomatic efforts to make the UNSC a truly “one member, one vote” system, serving the interests of all nations.
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