Non proliferation treaty-23_47


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Non proliferation treaty-23_47

  1. 1. Divye Garg (10810023) Rahul Agarwal (10810047) Nuclear non proliferation, Disarmament and Indo US Nuclear Deal
  2. 2. Nuclear Non-Proliferation & Disarmament Regime <ul><li>“ International initiatives to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons leading to their total elimination.” </li></ul><ul><li>A regime of United Nations Security Council & Disarmament Machinery. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Proliferation? <ul><ul><li>Horizontal Nuclear proliferation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Nuclear proliferation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>Horizontal nuclear proliferation Spread of weapons to states not currently possessing nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical nuclear proliferation Increase in number and destructiveness of nuclear weapons within a state already possessing them </li></ul></ul>What is Proliferation? Mostly applicable to nuclear weapons as biological and chemical weapons are banned.
  5. 5. W HAT IS DISARMAMENT ? <ul><li>“ It is the total elimination of weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons, through the prohibition on development, production and use and destruction of all such weapons.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why is Nuclear Disarmament & Non-proliferation a Priority?
  7. 8. 24,000 NUCLEAR WEAPONS <ul><li>Any single bomb can destroy any major city </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated 24,000 nuclear warheads worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>5 NPT nuclear weapons states (China, France, Russia, UK, USA) </li></ul><ul><li>4 states outside the NPT (India, Israel, Pakistan, North Korea) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Estimated Nuclear Weapons Location 2009
  9. 10. Components of The Nuclear Non -Proliferation regime United Nations Security Council & Disarmament Machinery
  10. 11. Non-Proliferation Treaty <ul><li>The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT or NNPT) : </li></ul><ul><li>Is a treaty to limit the spread (proliferation) of Nuclear Weapons . </li></ul>
  11. 12. How it started? <ul><li>Until the early 1960s, four nations (the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain and France) had acquired nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1964, after China detonated a nuclear weapon. </li></ul><ul><li>In June 1968, the U.N. General Assembly endorsed the NPT with General Assembly Resolution 2373 (XXII), and in July 1968, the NPT opened for signature in Washington, DC, London and Moscow. </li></ul><ul><li>The NPT entered into force in March 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>The IAEA now safeguards Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). </li></ul>
  12. 13. Non-Proliferation Treaty <ul><li>Embodies the international community's efforts to prevent the further spread of nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfill the aspirations for global disarmament. </li></ul><ul><li>To also facilitate the cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy under safeguards. </li></ul><ul><li>Entails commitments by both nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon states. </li></ul><ul><li>Verification of compliance with nonproliferation undertakings through the application of safeguards that was conferred on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Encourages & assists research, development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes & administers safeguards designed to ensure that the use of nuclear energy is not used for military purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Applies safeguards to relevant activities at the request of Member States </li></ul><ul><li>Applies mandatory </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive safeguards in </li></ul><ul><li>NNWS to the NPT & other </li></ul><ul><li>international treaties </li></ul>INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY (IAEA)
  14. 15. Why are safeguards important? <ul><li>Prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster the beneficial uses of atomic energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide confidence and build trust. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Bilateral treaties and agreements between Soviet Union and US <ul><li>Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT 1) – 1969 </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) - 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT 2) – 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty ( START 1) – 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty ( START 2) – 1993 </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate-Rang Nuclear Force Treaty (INF Treaty) – 1987 </li></ul>
  16. 17. SALT I Strategic Arms Limitation Talks I <ul><li>SALT I, the first series of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, started in November 1969. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems (ABMS) and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of more favourable conditions and relaxation of international tension and the strengthening of trust between States. </li></ul><ul><li>SALT I was brought to conclusion on May 26, 1972 and ABM treaty was signed by President Nixon and General Secretary Brezhnev </li></ul>
  17. 18. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) Background <ul><li>An anti-ballistic missile ( ABM ) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet union introduced ABM systems which was followed by US. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to economic, political and technological reasons Uncle got afraid and went for the treaty. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) Clauses <ul><ul><li>Deployed ABM systems were limited to two sites: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- One around the national capital with no more than 100 ABM launchers and no more than 100 ABM interceptor missiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- The other, around ICBM launchers with no more than 100 ABM launchers, no more than 100 ABM interceptor missiles, two sites must be separated by no less than thirteen hundred kilometers </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. SALT II <ul><li>Capped the number of strategic offensive nuclear missiles, limited the number of multiple-warhead missiles, froze the number of permitted delivery systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Signed in 1979 , it was adhered to by both parties throughout the 1980s. </li></ul><ul><li>Six months after Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan, the treaty was never formally ratified by the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1986 US withdrew from SALT II after accusing the Soviets of violating the pact. Subsequent discussions took place START and CTBT. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty START I <ul><li>The treaty was signed on 31 July 1991 and entered into force on 5 December 1994 due to dissolution of Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Bans and limits the testing and development of ballistic missiles. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty START I <ul><li>The START I treaty expired 5 December 2009. On 8 April 2010, the replacement New START treaty was signed in Prague by U.S. President Obama and Russian President Medvedev. </li></ul><ul><li>Following ratification it went into force on 26 January 2011. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty START II <ul><li>Signed January 3, 1993 by U.S. and Russia. </li></ul><ul><li>Banned the use of multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) on intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). </li></ul><ul><li>On 14 June 2002, Russia withdrew from the treaty in response to U.S. withdrawal from ABM Treaty. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force Treaty (INF Treaty) <ul><li>Agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union in 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of Their Intermediate-Range ( between 500 and 5,500 km) and Shorter-Range Missiles. </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 2,692 missiles ( 846 by U.S. and 1,846 by Soviet Union) were eliminated by mid-1991. In 2007, Russia withdrew from the treaty. </li></ul>
  24. 25. COMPREHENSIVE NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY (CTBT) <ul><li>Bans any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion in all environments for military and civilian purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted by the UN General Assembly on 10 September 1996 but not yet entered into force. </li></ul><ul><li>As of May 2010, 153 states have ratified the CTBT and another 29 states have signed but not yet ratified it. </li></ul><ul><li>China, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Israel and the United States have signed but not yet ratified; India, North Korea and Pakistan have not signed. Indonesia has initiated the ratification process. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Nuclear Weapons Free Zone <ul><li>116 states covered </li></ul><ul><li>Antarctic </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America and the Caribbean (Tlatelolco) </li></ul><ul><li>South Pacific (Rarotonga) </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia (Bangkok) </li></ul><ul><li>Africa (Pelindaba) </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Central Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>South East Asia </li></ul>
  26. 27. Nuclear Weapons Free Zone Blue – Nuclear Weapon- Free Zones       Red - NW states       Yellow - NPT only <ul><li>189 states are members of NPT except India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>NWFZ bans whereas NPT limits the use, development and deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area. </li></ul>States 10 6 km² land Pop NWFZ 116 84 33% NWS 9 41.4 48% NPT only 68 24 19%
  27. 28. Are Nuclear weapons still in production & being tested ?
  28. 29. Are Nuclear weapons still in production & being tested ? <ul><li>The 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty bans all explosive nuclear tests, but has not yet entered into force. </li></ul><ul><li>In May 1998, India and Pakistan each conducted a series of underground nuclear tests, but all of the NPT nuclear weapon states have refrained from conducting explosive nuclear tests pending entry into force of the CTBT. </li></ul>
  29. 30. India's Nuclear Capable Missiles Name Class Range Payload Status Agni-I SRBM 700 km 1,000 kg Operational Agni-II MRBM 2,200 km 500 kg - 1,000 kg Operational Agni-II Prime MRBM 2,750 km - 3,000 km 500 kg - 1,500 kg Under Development Agni-III IRBM 3,500 km 2,490 kg Under induction Agni-V ICBM 5,000 km - 6,000 km 3,000 kg+ Under Development Surya-I ICBM 5,200 km - 11,600 km 700 kg - 1,400 kg Under Development Dhanush SRBM 350 km 500 kg Operational Nirbhay Subsonic Cruise Missile 1,000 km   ? Under Development Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile 290 km 300 kg Operational P-70 Ametist Anti-shipping Missile 65 km 530 kg Operational P-270 Moskit Supersonic Cruise Missile 120 km 320 kg Operational Popeye ASM 78 km 340 kg Operational Prithvi-I SRBM 150 km 1000 kg Operational Prithvi-II SRBM 250 km 500 kg Operational Prithvi-III SRBM 350 km 500 kg Operational Sagarika (missile) SLBM 700 km - 2,200 km 150 kg - 1000 kg Under Development Shaurya TBM 700 km - 2,200 km 150 kg - 1,000 kg Under Development
  30. 31. About Indo-US Nuclear deal <ul><li>Also known as U.S.-India Civil Nuclear or more commonly known as 123 Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>India agreed to separate its civil and military nuclear facilities </li></ul><ul><li>India to place all its civil nuclear facilities under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards </li></ul><ul><li>United States agreed to work toward full civil nuclear cooperation with India </li></ul>
  31. 32. Exceptions made for India <ul><li>Amendment of U.S. domestic law, specially the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>Civil-military nuclear Separation Plan in India, </li></ul><ul><li>An India-IAEA safeguards (inspections) agreement </li></ul><ul><li>The grant of an exemption for India by the Nuclear Suppliers Group </li></ul>
  32. 33. Approval at NSG <ul><li>United States approached the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to grant a waiver to India to commence civilian nuclear trade </li></ul><ul><li>On September 6, 2008 45-nation NSG granted the waiver to India </li></ul><ul><li>This approval makes India first country have nuclear arsenal, not a party to NPT and yet allowed nuclear commerce </li></ul>
  33. 34. Hyde Act <ul><li>Also known Henry J. Hyde United States-India Peaceful Atomic Energy Cooperation Act of 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. domestic law that modifies the Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act to permit nuclear cooperation with India </li></ul><ul><li>The Act was passed by an overwhelming 359–68 in the house of representatives </li></ul>
  34. 35. Major events in the development of the Deal <ul><li>July 18, 2005 – First public announcement </li></ul><ul><li>March3, 2006 – Bush meets Singh in India </li></ul><ul><li>July 26, 2006 – Hyde Act passed </li></ul><ul><li>July 28, 2006 – Left parties demand threadbare discussion in Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>December 18, 2006 - President Bush signs into law congressional legislation on Indian atomic energy. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Contd.. <ul><li>Aug 13, 2007 – PM Singh makes a suo motu statement on the deal in Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Feb 25, 2006 to July 8, 2008 - Left parties warn the ruling party against the deal and finally withdraws support </li></ul><ul><li>July 22, 2008 – PM Manmohan Singh survives vote of confidence in Lok Sabha </li></ul><ul><li>July 24, 2008 - India launches lobbying among the 45-nation NSG for an exemption for nuclear commerce. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Contd.. <ul><li>Sept 11, 2008 - President Bush sends the text of the 123 Agreement to the US Congress for final approval </li></ul><ul><li>Sept 21, 2008 - US financial crisis diverts attention from N-deal </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 8, 2008 - President Bush signs legislation to enact the landmark US-India civilian nuclear agreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Oct 10, 2008 - The 123 Agreement operationalized </li></ul>
  37. 38. What is “123 Agreement” ? <ul><li>It is Section 123 of the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1954 </li></ul><ul><li>Till date U.S. has entered into roughly twenty-five 123 Agreements </li></ul><ul><li>What problems India had with 123 </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear Liability Bill – limited liability </li></ul>
  38. 39. Implications of the Nuclear Deal <ul><li>Indian Constitution does not warrant capping of nuclear liability </li></ul><ul><li>US Law permits limited liability only, for American vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Max. compensation of $450 million </li></ul>
  39. 40. Thank You