United nations


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United nations

  1. 12. The League of Nations was to be based in Geneva, Switzerland. This was formed after World War I. But, this was failed. After, the World war II an organisation named United Nations was formed. It has many organs and agencies. Some of its Agencies were taken from League Of Nations agencies and organs.
  2. 14. • To keep peace throughout the world. •To develop friendly relations between nations. •To work together to help the people to live better lives, to eliminate poverty, disease and illiteracy in the world, to stop environmental destruction and to encourage respect for each other's rights and freedoms. •To be a centre for helping nations achieve these aims.
  3. 15. <ul><li>• All Member States should have sovereign equality. •All Member States must obey the Charter. •Countries must try to settle their differences by peaceful means. •Countries must avoid using force or threatening to use force. •The UN may not interfere in the domestic affairs of any country. •Countries should try to assist only the United Nations. </li></ul>
  4. 16. <ul><li>There are 6 organs of United Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>They are :- </li></ul><ul><li>General Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and Social Council </li></ul><ul><li>Trusteeship Council </li></ul><ul><li>International Court of Justice ( World Court) </li></ul><ul><li>Secretariat </li></ul>
  5. 18. It is the central body of the United Nations. It is a deliberative Organ. All members of UN are members of the General Assembly. Every member irrespective of its size or strength has one vote, but can send five representatives to the General Assembly session which is held in the month of September every year.
  6. 21. The Security is the most powerful organ is the most powerful organ of UN. It is responsible for maintaining peace and security in the world. It has a limited membership. It is comprised of 15 members out of which five members are the permanent members and the remaining ten which are elected by the general assembly are non permanent. The five permanent members are USA, UK, Russia ,China and France.
  7. 24. The very name of the Council indicates its functional concern. It discusses and tries to solve the economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems at international level. it also looks after the issue concerning women, children, food, housing, education and environment.
  8. 27. It was set up to ensure the administration and development of those areas of the world which were not able to govern themselves. Eleven such territories were bought under the trust of the council. All such territories are now either independent of have joined other countries .Since there is no trust territory to be administered now, it ceases to play any important role.
  9. 30. It is the Principal Judicial Organ of the United Nations. It is located at Hague, in the Netherlands. Popularly, it is known as World Court, it comprises of 15 Judges who are elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council for a term of nine years. The Judges are chosen on the basis of their expertise in International Law. There can’t be two judges from the same country at the same time. Only the member states can bring cases before this court and not the private individuals.
  10. 33. It is headed by the Secretary General. It serves the needs of various organs of UN as well as the representatives of the member countries. It’s staff is from the various countries. There are about 50,000 employees from about 170 nations. The staff is accountable only to the United Nations and not to any particular member country. Since the inception of UN there have been eight secretary generals including the present one. Ban-ki-moon is the present Secretary General of the UN.
  11. 36. <ul><li>There are approximately 60 agencies of United Nations. Some of them are given below :- </li></ul><ul><li>International Labour Organization (ILO) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) </li></ul>
  12. 37. <ul><li>United Nations High Commissioner for Refuges (UNHCR) </li></ul><ul><li>  United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) </li></ul><ul><li>  United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS (UN AIDS) </li></ul><ul><li>Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) </li></ul>
  13. 38. <ul><li>United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Volunteers (UNV) </li></ul><ul><li>  United Nations Women Fund (UNIFEM) </li></ul><ul><li>  World Food Programme (WFP) </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization (WHO) </li></ul><ul><li>Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) </li></ul>
  14. 39. <ul><li>International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) </li></ul><ul><li>International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) </li></ul><ul><li>International Maritime Organization (IMO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Monetary Fund (IMF) </li></ul>
  15. 40. <ul><li>International Telecommunication Union (ITU) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Postal Union (UPU) </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank (WB) </li></ul><ul><li>World Food Programme (WFP) </li></ul><ul><li>World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) </li></ul>
  16. 41. <ul><li>World Meteorological Organization (WMO) </li></ul><ul><li>World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) </li></ul><ul><li>Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) </li></ul>
  17. 42. <ul><li>United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) </li></ul>
  18. 43. <ul><li>United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) </li></ul>
  19. 44. <ul><li>United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–HABITAT) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR) </li></ul>
  20. 45. <ul><li>Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) </li></ul><ul><li>Universal Postal Union (UPU) </li></ul>
  21. 46. <ul><li>There are seven specialized agencies- </li></ul><ul><li>Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Labour Organization (ILO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Monetary Fund (IMF) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) </li></ul><ul><li>World Bank (WB) </li></ul><ul><li>World Health Organization (WHO) </li></ul>
  22. 48. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. FAO is the largest of UN agencies and its headquarters are in Rome, Italy.
  23. 50. The International Labour Organization (ILO) deals with labour issues. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1919, it was formed through the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, and was initially an agency of the League of Nations. It became a member of the UN system after the demise of the League and the formation of the UN at the end of World War II. Its Constitution, as amended to date, includes the Declaration of Philadelphia on the aims and purposes of the Organization. Its secretariat is known as the International Labour Office.
  24. 52. It provides monetary cooperation and financial stability and acts as a forum for advice, negotiation and assistance on financial issues.
  25. 54. UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1946. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.
  26. 56. United Nations Children's Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946, to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. In 1953, UNICEF became a permanent part of the United Nations System and its name was shortened from the original United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund but it has continued to be known by the popular acronym based on this old name. Headquartered in New York City provides long-term humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.`
  27. 58. The World Bank, a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), makes loans to developing countries for development programmes with the stated goal of reducing poverty. The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group in that the former only comprises the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA), while the latter incorporates these entities in addition to three others (i.e. IFC, MIGA and ICSID).
  28. 60. The World Health Organization (WHO) acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations.
  29. 62. Ban Ki-moon ( was born on 13 June, 1944 ) is the eighth and current Secretary-General of the United Nations, after succeeding Kofi Annan in 2007. Ban was the Foreign Minister of the Republic of Korea from January 2004 to November 2006. On 13 October 2006, he was elected to be the eighth Secretary-General by the United Nations General Assembly. On 1 January 2007, he successfully succeeded Annan, and led several major reforms regarding peacekeeping and UN employment practices. He became the first South Korean to run for the office.
  30. 66. India was among the original members of the United Nations that signed the Declaration by United Nations at Washington on 1 January 1942 and also participated in the historic UN Conference of International Organization at San Francisco from 25 April to 26 June 1945. Independent India viewed its membership at the United Nations as an important guarantee for maintaining international peace and security at the height of the Cold War especially by working towards eliminating the causes of war and conflict.
  31. 68. <ul><li>India has traditionally played an active role in the United Nations General Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1953, the chief delegate of India at the time, Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit was elected first woman President of the UN General Assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>India has been elected six times to the UN Security Council, and is the country that has served for the most number of years as an elected member. </li></ul><ul><li>India is currently seeking a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. </li></ul>
  32. 70. <ul><li>India is regular contributor to United Nations Peacekeeping mission and were other peacekeeping missions. </li></ul><ul><li>India is one of the main contributors to the UN regular budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Indian contribution to United Nations Democracy Fund was USD $15 million for the 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>India maintains a permanent mission to the UN, currently headed by Ambassador Nirupam Sen </li></ul>