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Disarmament & Arms Control


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BY-Preeti Singh
Student International Studies

Published in: Education
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Disarmament & Arms Control

  1. 1. <ul><li>We are at the verge where we have the choice of Disarmament, Divided World or Complete Destruction. </li></ul>
  2. 3. “ Our Planet sits on a bubble of nuclear fuel heap underneath and the day this bubble of our mutual tolerance bursts , resulting in unleashing of this nuclear power ,our entire race and our planet will be gulped in by these tiny nuclear atoms.” WE DON’T RULE THESE ATOMS BUT THEY RULE US.
  3. 4. DISARMAMENT & ARMS CONTROL A Regime still awaited… A Presentation By:- PREETI SINGH International Studies
  4. 5. OVERVIEW <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Concept about Disarmament & Arms Control </li></ul><ul><li>Aim and objectives of Disarmament and Arms Control </li></ul><ul><li>Difference Between Disarmament & Arms control </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Importance of Disarmament & Arms Control </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Disarmament Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of Disarmament & Arms Control </li></ul><ul><li>Success or a failure? </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion. </li></ul>
  6. 7. INTRODUCTION <ul><ul><ul><li>Disarmament is an act of reduction or deprivation of arms , and as such is applicable to all weapons systems, ammunition and explosives, including nuclear, chemical, biological, radiological and conventional systems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disarmament is primarily aimed at reducing or controlling the number of weapons held by combatants before demobilization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. AIMS & OBJECTIVES <ul><li>To reduce or control the number of weapons held by the combatant forces before demobilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in the weapons possessed by, or available to, armed groups </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in actual or to the threat of occurrence of an armed violence </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal casualties during disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement in the perception of human security. </li></ul>
  8. 9. AIMS & OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Public connection between the availability of weapons and armed violence </li></ul><ul><li>To build an awareness across the globe against arms race and lethal consequences related to it </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Reduction and the disruption of the transfer and the illicit trade of weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of weapons existing on the face of the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Development on tough laws and regime against the illegal use of the weapons. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>30,000 NUCLEAR WEAPONS </li></ul>Hiroshima: August 6, 1945 Nagasaki: August 9, 1945 5 NPT nuclear weapons states (China, France, Russia, UK, USA) 3 states outside the NPT (India, Israel, Pakistan) North Korea, Iraq, Iran
  11. 12. CONCEPT <ul><li>The total elimination of the weapons of the Mass Destruction, including nuclear weapons, through the prohibition on development, production and use and then destruction of all such weapons existing in the world. </li></ul>
  12. 13. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE DISARMAMENT AND THE ARMS CONTROL <ul><li>Disarmament is the reduction of the number of weapons and troops maintained by a state. It always implies the decrease of the weapons or even abolishing certain categories of weapons. Whereas Arms control refers to treaties made between potential adversaries that reduce the likelihood and scope of war, usually imposing limitations on military capability. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Although disarmament always involves the reduction of military forces or weapons, arms control does not. In fact, arms control agreements sometimes allow for the increase of weapons by one or more parties to a treaty. </li></ul>
  14. 15. WHY IS ARMS CONTROL IMPORTANT? <ul><li>Helps to reduce incentives to initiate attack, </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances the predictability regarding the size and the structure of forces, thus reduces the fear of aggressive intent, </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring confidence in compliance through effective monitoring and verification & </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately contributing to a more stable and calculable balance of power. </li></ul>
  15. 16. IMPORTANCE OF THE DISARMAMENT <ul><li>It is generally difficult for states to ensure that rivals will not attempt to gain undue influence over them through the use of violence, trust is often lacking in relations, which leads opponents to seek increasingly greater capacity to inflicting violence on others that can result into stockpiling of pernicious weapons. So disarmament can be used to reduce these fears and tensions and pave the way for greater cooperation. </li></ul>
  16. 17. UN DISARMAMENT MACHINERY <ul><li>General Assembly First Committee </li></ul><ul><li>Conference on Disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>UN Disarmament Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters </li></ul><ul><li>UN Institute for Disarmament Research </li></ul><ul><li>UN Department for Disarmament Affairs </li></ul>
  17. 18. VARIOUS OTHER DISARMAMENT MACHINERY <ul><li>(CTBTO)Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization: - Standing Secretariat for CTBT,it is also the home for International Monitoring System. Although CTBT is yet to enter into force. </li></ul><ul><li>CTBT Article XIV Conferences: - CTBTO hosts a conference every 2 years focusing on Treaty to come into the force. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Biennial Meeting of States on Small Arms(BMS): - Every two years, states meet to consider the implementation of the Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat, and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons In All Its Aspects. The most recent BMS was held 14-18 July in 2008. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>International Court Of Justice: - The ICJ has a dual role as to settle in accordance with international law the legal disputes submitted to it by States, and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by duly authorized international organs and agencies. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>In its 1996 advisory opinion on nuclear weapons, the ICJ affirmed that under humanitarian law governing the conduct of warfare, states “must never use weapons that are incapable of distinguishing between civilian and military targets.” The Court holds the threat or use of nuclear weapons to be generally illegal under humanitarian and other law. </li></ul>
  21. 22. MISSILE REGIMES <ul><li>Currently, the two main missile non-proliferation regimes, the Hague Code of Conduct and the Missile Technology Control Regime, are not legally-binding. There remains, then, an important role for citizens and non-governmental organizations to play in promoting and implementing missile control and disarmament. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>ORGANIZATION FOR PROHIBITION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS The OPCW is a watchdog agency that monitors and assists with the implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>UNSC Summit Sep.2009 chaired by President Obama. </li></ul>
  23. 24. VARIOUS TREATIES UNDER THE DISARMAMENT INITIATIVE <ul><ul><ul><li>I. Antarctic Treaty: - In 1959, to keep the continent of Antarctica completely demilitarized. And this is a most significant accomplishment. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>II. PTBT (Partial Test Ban Treaty): - In 1963 banned nuclear weapon tests in atmosphere, outer space and under the water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>III. Treaty of Tlateloco: - In 1967, which prohibited presence of any kind of nuclear weapon in Latin America and the Caribbean. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>IV. The Sea Bed Treaty: - In 1969 prohibits any kind of nuclear or weapon of mass destruction placement on the seabed and the ocean floor and in the sub soil. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V. PNET(Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty): - Signed in 1976. Restricted nuclear explosions only for the peaceful purposes. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>VI. The Moon Agreement: - In 1979 prohibits the use of force on the moon, planting of any weapons on it or in the orbit around it and any kind of militarization of it or of other celestial bodies. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VII. TTBT (Threshold Test Ban Treaty): - Put restrictions on any kind of tests under ground, which were uncovered in PTBT. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>VIII. Treaty of Rarotonga: - In 1985, prohibiting the acquisition or the manufacture by any means of nuclear explosive device, as well as possession of such device by parties inside or outside its zone. It also bans dumping of the radioactive matter at the sea and also prohibits possession of the nuclear explosive devices for the peaceful purposes. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><ul><ul><li>IX. INF (Intermediate Range and Shorter Range Missiles): - Signed in 1987 between US & USSR eliminating two parties ground launched Ballistic and Cruise Missiles with the range between 500 and 5,500 kms. More than 2,500 missiles with the nuclear warheads were destroyed in 3 years time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><ul><ul><li>X. START-I (Strategic Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Treaty): - 1991. Under this US & USSR had to limit Strategic Offensive Arms within the time span of 7 years in 3 phases had to reduce their respective nuclear arsenals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>XI. START-II: - In 1993 kept the condition of 3,000 to 3,500 nuclear warheads for US and RUSSIA (successor of USSR) by year 2003. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 30. FEW INITIATIVES FOR ARMS CONTROL <ul><ul><ul><li>1. The Positive Security Assurance: - Under Res.255 (1968) in UNGA treaty assured protection of Non-nuclear state in case of nuclear attack by other state by P-5. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. The Zangger Committee: - 1971, Ensure that an importer places the safeguards on the specified materials that relates to the manufacturing of the nuclear power or the nuclear installations. Committee informs IAEA of its actions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><ul><ul><li>3. NSG (Nuclear Suppliers Group): - IN 1975, to protect the nuclear material and technology from being diverted from peaceful purposes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. MTCR (Missile Technology Control Regime): - IN 1987, to prevent and confront the means to deliver such weapons. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 32. WHAT IS NON PROLIFERATION? <ul><li>Prevention of the spread of weapons of mass destruction (nuclear, chemical, biological) and their means of delivery* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal nuclear proliferation : spread of weapons to states not currently possessing nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical nuclear proliferation : increase in number and destructiveness of nuclear weapons within a state already possessing them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Mostly applied to Nuclear weapons as rest are banned. </li></ul>
  32. 33. The Conference on Disarmament in 2009 <ul><li>On 29 May 2009, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) succeeded in adopting a programme of work for the first time since 1998. The programme included agreement to begin negotiations on a fissile cut-off treaty on the basis of the Shannon mandate(Based on limiting spread of Fissile material) established in 1995.(I)It also included agreement to begin substantive discussions on the CD's other core issues </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>(2)Regrettably, the Conference was unable to adopt a framework to implement its programme before the end of the 2009 session, primarily due to reservations by Pakistan. </li></ul>
  34. 35. IS IT A SUCCESS OR FAILURE? <ul><li>It is neither a complete failure nor a complete success and this could be well understood by two case studies I.e. when it comes to success Antarctica is a complete success and Iraq is a complete failure or debacle. </li></ul>
  35. 36. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Security cannot be achieved through the continued reliance on weapons, but only through international cooperation in developing and maintaining effective, binding, and verifiable multilateral agreements such as embodied in the peaceful regimes of Disarmament and Arms Control. </li></ul><ul><li>Disarmament and Arms Control must be given highest priority across the globe. </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment of commitments is integral to maintaining the Arms Control and the Disarmament .As to bring world to the peace every Nation- State has to do its Bit no matter Big or small. As it’s a long process before the peace is attained through them but every single step towards it defines will we ever attain it or not. </li></ul>