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United Nations Organization (UNO)

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International Relations: UNO

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United Nations Organization (UNO)

  1. 1. INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS UNITED NATIONS ORGANIZATION (UNO) Presented By Group B
  2. 2. HISTORY Presented By Group B
  3. 3. LEAGUES OF NATION • IT WAS THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION. • FOUNDED ON 10 JANUARY 1920 AS A RESULT OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE THAT ENDED THE FIRST WORLD WAR. • THREE MAJOR ORGANS 1. SECRETARIAT 2. ASSEMBLY 3. COUNCIL Presented By Group B
  4. 4. GOALS OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS • PRIMARY GOAL IS TO MAINTAIN THE “WORLD PEACE”. • TO AVERT FUTURE CONFLICTS AS DIVESTING THE WORLD WAR ONE. • TO HELP COUNTRIES IN DIFFERENT CRISES LIKE ECONOMIC, HEALTH, EDUCATION ETC. Presented By Group B
  5. 5. FAILURE OF LEAGUE OF NATIONS • THE LEAGUE ULTIMATELY PROVED INCAPABLE OF PREVENTING THREATEN BY THE AXIS POWERS. • JAPAN WITHDREW FROM THE LEAGUE AS WELL AS GERMANY, SPAIN, ITALY, FRANCE AND OTHERS. • IN THE RESULT OF FAILURE OF LEAGUES OF NATIONS WORLD WAR TWO CAME INTO BEING. Presented By Group B
  6. 6. WORLD WAR II • THE OCCURRENCE OF WWII IS THE FAILURE OF “LEAGUE OF NATIONS”. • IT WAS HELD ON SEPTEMBER 1, 1939 – SEPTEMBER 2, 1945. • MAJOR ACTORS WERE “ALLIED POWERS” AND “AXIS OF POWER”. • WORLD WAR 2 ENDED WITH THE UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER OF THE AXIS POWERS. ON 8 MAY 1945, THE ALLIES ACCEPTED GERMANY'S SURRENDER, ABOUT A WEEK AFTER ADOLF HITLER HAD COMMITTED SUICIDE • THE OUTCOMES WERE 1. END OF GERMAN THIRD REICH. 2. UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA BECOME GLOBAL SUPERPOWERS.. Presented By Group B
  7. 7. CREATION OF UNO Presented By Group B
  8. 8. • JANUARY 1ST, 1942, THE NAME “UNITED NATION” COINED. • COINED BY US PRESIDENT FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT. • DURING 2ND WORLD WAR. • 26 NATION PLEDGED THEIR GOVERNMENT TO CONTINUE FIGHTING AGAINST THE AXIS POWERS. Presented By Group B
  9. 9. Presented By Group B • DURING PREPARATORY YEARS OF UN, DIFFERENT CHARTERS, CONFERENCES WERE HELD. • DECLARATION OF ST. JAMES PALACE., JUNE 12TH 1941. • THE ATLANTIC CHARTER, AUGUST 14TH 1941. • THE DECLARATION OF UN. JANUARY 1ST 1942. • MOSCOW AND TEHRAN CONFERENCE, 1943. • DUMBARTON OAKS AND YALTA. 1944-1945. • SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE, 1945.
  10. 10. • UNITED NATION MAIN BODIES; • GENERAL ASSEMBLY; • DECISIONS ARE MADE WITH 2/3RD MAJORITY. • SECURITY COUNCIL; • THEY ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR GENERAL SECURITY BETWEEN OR IN COUNTRIES. Presented By Group B
  11. 11. Member States 1945 Presented By Group B
  12. 12. MEMBER STATES 2015 Presented By Group B 193 Members in 2015
  13. 13. WORKING BODY Presented By Group B
  14. 14. MISSION • MAINTAINING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY • PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT • PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS • DELIVER HUMANITARIAN AID Presented By Group B
  15. 15. OBJECTIVES • MAINTAINING PEACE AND SECURITY • DEVELOPED FRIENDLY RELATIONSHIP • SOLVING INTERNATIONAL PROBLEMS • PROVIDING BASICS HUMAN RIGHTS Presented By Group B
  16. 16. PRINCIPLE OF UNO • THE ORGANIZATION OF UN IS BASED ON THE PRINCIPLES OF THE EQUALITY OF ITS MEMBERS. • MEMBERS SHALL SETTLE INTERNATIONAL DISPUTE BY PEACEFUL MEANS. • ALL MEMBERS SHALL REFRAIN FROM THREAT OR USE OF FORCE AGAINST ANY STATE. • ALL MEMBERS SHALL ASSIST THE UN IN ANY ACTION IT TAKES AGAINST STATE THAT IS AN OFFENDER. • UN IS NOT EMPOWERED TO INTERVENE IN THE DOMESTIC AFFAIRS OF ANY STATE. Presented By Group B
  17. 17. ORGANS OF UNO Presented By Group B
  18. 18. THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY • THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY IS THE MAIN DELIBERATIVE ORGAN OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND INCLUDES ALL ITS MEMBERS. • IT MAY DISCUSS ANY MATTER ARISING UNDER THE UN CHARTER AND MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS TO UN MEMBERS • IN THE ASSEMBLY, EACH NATION, LARGE OR SMALL, HAS ONE VOTE AND IMPORTANT DECISIONS ARE TAKEN BY A TWO-THIRDS MAJORITY VOTE. • THE ASSEMBLY MEETS EVERY YEAR FROM SEPTEMBER TO DECEMBER. • THE WORK OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY IS ALSO CARRIED OUT BY ITS SIX MAIN COMMITTEES, THE HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL, OTHER SUBSIDIARY BODIES AND THE UN SECRETARIAT. Presented By Group B
  19. 19. THE SECURITY COUNCIL • THE SECURITY COUNCIL HAS PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY UNDER THE CHARTER FOR MAINTAINING PEACE AND SECURITY • IF FIGHTING BREAKS OUT, THE COUNCIL TRIES TO SECURE A CEASEFIRE. IT MAY THEN SEND PEACEKEEPING MISSIONS TO TROUBLED AREAS. • THE COUNCIL HAS 15 MEMBERS, INCLUDING FIVE PERMANENT MEMBERS: CHINA, FRANCE, THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION, THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. • THE OTHER 10 ARE ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY ON THE BASIS OF GEOGRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION FOR TWO-YEAR TERMS. Presented By Group B
  20. 20. THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL • THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COUNCIL (ECOSOC) IS THE CENTRAL BODY FOR COORDINATING THE ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL WORK OF THE UNITED NATIONS AND THE UN FAMILY OF ORGANIZATIONS. • IT HAS 54 MEMBER NATIONS ELECTED FROM ALL REGIONS. AS MUCH AS 70 PER CENT OF THE WORK OF THE UN SYSTEM IS DEVOTED TO PROMOTING HIGHER STANDARDS OF LIVING. • TO MEET SPECIFIC NEEDS, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY HAS SET UP A NUMBER OF SPECIALIZED AGENCIES Presented By Group B
  21. 21. AGENCIES AND PROGAMMES • FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAO), • THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) • THE UN EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO) • THE UN DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMED (UNDP) • THE UN CHILDREN’S FUND (UNICEF) • THE OFFICE OF THE UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR). • THE WORK OF THESE AGENCIES AND PROGRAMMED IS COORDINATED BY ECOSOCPresented By Group B
  22. 22. THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL • THE TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL WAS ASSIGNED UNDER THE UN CHARTER TO SUPERVISE THE ADMINISTRATION OF TRUST TERRITORIES • THE SYSTEM WAS CREATED AT THE END OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR TO PROMOTE THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE INHABITANTS OF THOSE DEPENDENT TERRITORIES AND THEIR PROGRESSIVE. Presented By Group B
  23. 23. THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE • THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (ICJ) IS THE UN’S MAIN JUDICIAL ORGAN. PRESIDING OVER THE ICJ, OR “WORLD COURT”, ARE 15 JUDGES, EACH FROM A DIFFERENT NATION, ELECTED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY AND SECURITY COUNCIL. • THE SEAT OF THE INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE IS AT THE HAGUE IN THE NETHERLANDS Presented By Group B
  24. 24. THE SECRETARIAT • THE SECRETARIAT IS MADE UP OF AN INTERNATIONAL STAFF WORKING AT UN HEADQUARTERS IN NEW YORK, AS WELL AS UN OFFICES IN GENEVA, VIENNA, NAIROBI AND OTHER LOCATIONS. • IT CONSISTS OF DEPARTMENTS AND OFFICES WITH A TOTAL STAFF OF AROUND 16,000, DRAWN FROM SOME 175 COUNTRIES. • THE SECRETARIAT IS HEADED BY THE SECRETARY-GENERAL. • THE SECRETARY-GENERAL MAY BRING TO THE ATTENTION OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL ANY MATTER WHICH, IN HIS OPINION Presented By Group B
  25. 25. EIGHT SECRETARIES-GENERAL • TRYGVE LIE (NORWAY), 1946-1952 • DAG HAMMARSKJOLD (SWEDEN), 1953-1961 • U THANT (BURMA, NOW MYANMAR), 1961-1971 • KURT WALDHEIM (AUSTRIA), 1972-1981 • JAVIER PÉREZ DE CUELLAR (PERU), 1982-1991 • BOUTROS BOUTROS-GHALI (EGYPT), 1992-1996 • KOFI ANNAN (GHANA), 1997-2006 • BAN KI-MOON (REPUBLIC OF KOREA), SINCE 2007. Presented By Group B
  26. 26. SUCCESS OF UNO ON WORLD Presented By Group B
  27. 27. SUEZ CRISIS (1956) SUEZ CANAL • SHIPPING CANAL THROUGH THE 100 MILES OF DESERT BETWEEN AFRICA AND ASIA. • 1956, EGYPTIAN LEADER “GAMAL ABDEL NASSER” SEIZED CONTROL OF THE SUEZ CANAL. IMPORTANCE • SHORTEST OCEAN LINK BETWEEN THE MEDITERRANEAN AND THE INDIAN OCEAN. • EASED COMMERCE FOR TRADING NATIONS • HELPED EUROPEAN COLONIAL POWERS TO GAIN AND GOVERN THEIR COLONIES • SHORT SEA ROUTE TO THE OILFIELDS OF THE PERSIAN GULF. Presented By Group B
  28. 28. Presented By Group B
  29. 29. • BRITAIN AND FRANCE, TOGETHER WITH ISRAEL LAUNCHED ATTACKS ON EGYPT. • USSR THREATENED TO SHOWER THE WEST WITH NUCLEAR WEAPONS. • UNITED NATIONS EMERGENCY FORCE (UNEF) Presented By Group B
  30. 30. PROMOTING AND PROTECTING HUMAN RIGHTS • POLITICAL, CIVIL, ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL RIGHTS. • PROMOTED HUMAN RIGHTS OF CHILDREN, WOMEN, REFUGEES, INDIGENOUS PEOPLE • UN HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS(UNHCR) ESTABLISHED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY Presented By Group B
  31. 31. HEALTH CARE • THE JOINT UNITED NATIONS PROGRAMMED ON HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) IT PROVIDE UNIVERSAL ACCESS TO HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT SERVICES Presented By Group B
  32. 32. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES TREATY • UNITED NATIONS FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE (UNFCCC), INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL TREATY. OBJECTIVE • “TO STABILIZE GREENHOUSE GAS CONCENTRATION IN THE ATMOSPHERE AT A LEVEL THAT WOULD PREVENT DANGEROUS AND ANTHROPOGENIC INTERFERENCE WITH THE CLIMATE SYSTEM.” Presented By Group B
  33. 33. • HUMAN ACTIVITIES ARE THE PRIMARY CAUSE FOR ‘CLIMATIC CHANGES’ Presented By Group B
  34. 34. FAILURE OF UNO Presented By Group B
  35. 35. TOP EIGHT FAILURES OF UNITED NATIONS 1. TERRORISM • BEGINNING OF MODERN TERRORISM IN 1968. • U.N FAILED TO TAKE ACTIONS AND FAILED TO MAKE STATE SECURE FROM THIS ACT. 2. NUCLEAR PROLIFERATION • AT THE CREATION OF THE UN IN 1945, THE UNITED STATES WAS THE ONLY NATION IN THE WORLD TO OWN AND TEST NUCLEAR WEAPONS. • THE FAILURE OF THE NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY LEADS UN TO THEIR INABILITY. Presented By Group B
  36. 36. 3. CHILD ABUSE • NUMEROUS NUMBER OF CASES IN 1990. • COUNTRIES INVOLVE ARE • BOSNIA, KOSOVO, CAMBODIA, HAITI, AND MOZAMBIQUE. 4. VETO POWER • THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL CONSISTS OF FIFTEEN NATIONS. • MOST USE OF VETOES BY CHINA AND RUSSIA LEADS TO INTERNATIONAL INTERVENTION. • SYRIAN CIVIL WAR BEGAN, AN ESTIMATED 60,000 CIVILIANS HAVE BEEN KILLED. Presented By Group B
  37. 37. 5. SREBRENICA MASSACRE • IN 1995 BOSNIAN WAR MASSACRE WAS THE SINGLE WORST ACT OF MASS MURDER ON EUROPEAN SOIL SINCE WORLD WAR II. • BY JULY 18TH, 7,800 BOSNIAKS WERE DEAD, DUE LARGELY TO AN ILL-EQUIPPED AND UNPREPARED UN FORCE. 6. THE COLD WAR • THE COLD WAR EXEMPLIFIES THE FAILURE BEHIND THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER. • IN 1948, THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS (UDHR) WAS ESTABLISHED. Presented By Group B
  38. 38. 7. SOMALIA CONFLICT • THERE WAS NO NATIONAL GOVERNMENT IN SOMALIA FOR NEARLY TWO DECADES. • INTERVENTION OF U.N DUE TO WEAK GOVERNMENT. • U.N WAS UNORGANIZED AND UNPREPARED. • IN 1991, AN ESTIMATED 350,000 TO 1,000,000 SOMALIS HAD DIED BECAUSE OF THE CONFLICT. 8. RWANDA GENOCIDE • THE RWANDAN CIVIL WAR IN THE EARLY 1990S, TENSIONS BETWEEN TWO ETHNIC GROUPS, THE HUTU AND THE TUTSIS, WERE AT A DANGEROUS HIGH. • THOUSANDS HAD FLOCKED TO THE SCHOOL FOR UN PROTECTION, AND ROAMING GANGS OF HUTU SUPPORTERS KILLED NEARLY ALL OF THEM. CLOSE TO ONE MILLION RWANDANS WERE KILLED IN THE GENOCIDE Presented By Group B
  39. 39. Presented By Group B

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