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UN Origin.pptx

  1. 1. An introduction to the United Nations • Salim N Asst. Professor and Head PG Dept. of Public Administration RGM Govt. College, Attappady
  2. 2. The United Nations has four purposes: • to maintain international peace and security; • to develop friendly relations among nations; • to cooperate in solving international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; • and to be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. Cooperating in this effort are more than 30 affiliated organizations, known together as the UN system.
  3. 3. • The United Nations is not a world government, and it does not make laws. • It does, however, provide the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all of us.
  4. 4. • At the UN, all the Member States — large and small, rich and poor, with differing political views and social systems — have a voice and a vote in this process. The United Nations gives the opportunity for countries to balance global interdependence and national interests when addressing international problems.
  5. 5. • The UN system works to promote respect for human rights, reduce poverty, fight disease and protect the environment. • The United Nations leads international campaigns against drug trafficking and terrorism.
  6. 6. • Throughout the world, the UN and its agencies help expand food production, assist refugees, lead the fight against AIDS and set up programmes to clear landmines, among others.
  7. 7. What is the United Nations? • The United Nations is a unique organization of independent countries that have come together to work for world peace and social progress. • The Organization formally came into existence on 24 October 1945, with 51 countries considered founding Members. • By the end of 2008, the membership of the UN had grown to 192 countries. • Since its inception, no country has ever been expelled from membership. Indonesia temporarily quit the UN in 1965 over a dispute with neighbouring Malaysia, but returned the following year.
  8. 8. So, the United Nations is like a world government? • Wrong. Governments represent countries and peoples. The United Nations represents neither a particular government nor any one nation. • It represents all its Members and does only what the Member States decide that it should do.
  9. 9. Origin • The idea of the United Nations was born during World War II (1939-1945). • World leaders who had collaborated to end the war felt a strong need for a mechanism that would help bring peace and stop future wars. • They realized that this was possible only if all nations worked together through a global organization. • The United Nations was to be that Organization.
  10. 10. • A similar organization, the League of Nations, was set up in 1919, following World War I. • Its main objective was to keep world peace. • However, not every country joined the League. • The United States, for example, was never a member. Others that had joined later quit, and the League often failed to take action. • Though it did not succeed, the League ignited a dream for a universal organization. • The result was the United Nations.
  11. 11. The Atlantic charter: • Even before the end of the war, in August 1941, the U.S. President, Franklin Roosevelt, and the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, met on a battleship, ‘the Cruiser’, in the mid-Altantic and drew up the Atlantic Charter which was released on 14 August, 1941.
  12. 12. The Atlantic Charter had the following objectives: • (1) To maintain international peace and security; • (2) To encourage international cooperation in the spheres of social, economic and cultural developments; • (3) To develop friendly relations among nations on principles of equal rights and self- determination; • (4) To recognise the fundamental rights of all people.
  13. 13. United Nations declaration or the Washington declaration: • On 1 January, 1942, representatives of 26 Allied countries met in Washington and signed a Declaration of United Nations. • The signatories endorsed the principles of the Atlantic Charter. This was the first time that the term ‘United Nations’ was used.
  14. 14. The name “United Nations” • The name “United Nations” was suggested by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. • It was first officially used in 1942, when representatives of 26 countries signed the Declaration by United Nations. • As a tribute to President Roosevelt, who died a few weeks before the signing of the Charter, all those present at the San Francisco Conference agreed to adopt the name “United Nations”.
  15. 15. • The UN Charter finally emerged after three major conferences—the Dumbarton Oaks Conference (1944), the Yalta Conference (1945) and the San Francisco Conference (1945). • At the Dumbarton Oaks Conference the representatives of four major powers (Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union and China) agreed on proposals for the aims, structure and functioning of the United Nations.
  16. 16. • They voted for an Assembly, a Security Council, a Secretariat and an International Court. The Yalta Conference decided on the voting procedure to be followed by the Security Council.
  17. 17. • Membership of the United Nations was to be opened to all peace- loving states. Representatives of fifty nations met at San Francisco to sign the Atlantic Charter. Poland signed it later and became one of the original 51 member states. • The Charter had been ratified by the five big powers Britain, China, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States and by a majority of the other signatories.
  18. 18. • All nations pledged themselves to the UN Charter. In the UN Charter they pledged “to save the succeeding generations from the scourge of war” They also promised to “promote social progress and better standards of life.” • The Charter came into force on October 24, 1945 after a majority of the signatories deposited their instruments of ratification. • Since then every year, 24th October is celebrated as the United Nations Day. • India had not achieved its independence by then and yet it became one of the founder members of the United Nations.
  19. 19. Set of rules or principles that guides the United Nations • The Charter of the United Nations. • It is a set of guidelines that explains the rights and duties of each Member country, and what needs to be done to achieve the goals they have set for themselves. • When a nation becomes a Member of the UN, it accepts the aims and rules of the Charter.
  20. 20. The UN Charter: • The Charter is the Constitution of the United Nations Organisation. • It was made in October 1944 by the Dumbarton Oaks (Washington DC) Conference. • It lays down the rules which govern the organisation and functions of the UNO and all its organs. • The Charter has a Preamble, 19 Chapters and 111 Articles which explain the purposes, principles, organs, and operating methods of the UN.
  21. 21. Objectives of UN • (1) To maintain international peace and security. • (2) To develop friendly relations among nations on the basis of equality and the principle of self-determination. • (3) To foster worldwide cooperation in solving economic, social, cultural and humanitarian problems. • (4) To promote human rights and fundamental freedom for the people of the world.
  22. 22. • (5) To serve as a centre where various nations can coordinate their activities towards the attainment of the objectives of the United Nations. • (6) To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war.
  23. 23. (B) Principles of the UN: The principles are the means to achieve the objectives of the UN. These are contained in Article 2 of the UN Charter: • 1. All the member states are equal. • 2. The member states shall fulfill their obligations to the UN honestly. • 3. The member states shall settle their international disputes by peaceful means.
  24. 24. • 4. The member states shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against any other state. • 5. The member states shall give to the UN every assistance in any action it takes in accordance with the UN Charter. • 6. The states which are not members of the UN, should also act in accordance with these principles for the maintenance of international peace and security. • 7. No member state shall interfere in the internal affairs of any other state.
  25. 25. The United Nations Headquarters • The United Nations Headquarters is an international zone. • This means that the land on which the UN sits does not belong to just the United States, the host country, but to all the Members of the United Nations. • The UN has its own security officers who guard the area. • It also has its own post office and issues its own stamps. • These stamps can be used only from UN Headquarters or from UN offices in Vienna and Geneva.
  26. 26. Headquarters of UN: • The headquarters of UN is located at First Avenue, UN Plaza, New York the USA. • The UN building stand on a 17 acre tract of land donated, by John D Rockfeller on Manhattan Island, a suburb of New York. It is a 39-storey building which can house about 8000 employees.
  27. 27. The UN Flag: • The UN General Assembly adopted the UN Flag on October 20, 1947. The white UN emblem is superimposed on a light blue background. • The emblem consists of the global map projected from the North Pole and embraced in two Olive Branches (symbol of peace)
  28. 28. New Countries Membership in United Nations • Membership in the Organization, in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, “is open to all peace-loving States that accept the obligations contained in the United Nations Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able to carry out these obligations”. • States are admitted to membership in the United Nations by decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
  29. 29. Languages used by the UNO: • The UN conducts its business in six official languages; Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
  30. 30. Financing of the UN • The 192 Members of the United Nations pay for everything that the Organization does. • It has no other source of income. • There are two types of budgets at the UN: • The regular budget includes the core functions at its Headquarters in New York and field offices around the world;
  31. 31. • The peacekeeping budget pays for various operations, often in “hot spots” around the world. • Payments to the UN for both budgets are compulsory. • Members pay according to a scale of assessments agreed upon by all. This scale is based on a country’s ability to pay, national income and population.
  32. 32. • The United Nations and all its agencies and funds spend about $30 billion each year, or about $4 for each of the world's inhabitants. • This is a very small sum compared to most government budgets and it is less than three percent of the world's military spending. • Yet for nearly two decades, the UN has faced financial difficulties and it has been forced to cut back on important programs in all areas, even as new mandates have arisen
  33. 33. • Many member states have not paid their full dues and have cut their donations to the UN's voluntary funds. As of December 31, 2010, members' arrears to the Regular Budget topped $348 million, of which the US owed 80%.
  34. 34. Is the United Nations a good value for the money? • The regular budget for the United Nations is approved by the General Assembly for a two-year period. • The budget approved for 2008-2009 was $4.17 billion, which pays for UN activities, staff and basic infrastructure. • Citizens of the United States spend approximately the same amount on cut flowers and potted plants each year.
  35. 35. • For peacekeeping, the budget for the year from 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2008 was about $6.8 billion. This represented 0.5% of global military spending, estimated at $1,339 billion in 2007. • That amount would pay for the entire UN system for more • than 65 years. Peacekeeping is far cheaper than war and is good value for money!
  36. 36. • The four largest contributors to the United Nations – the US (22% of the UN budget), China (12.005%), Japan (8.564%) and Germany (6.090%) – together finance some 49% of the entire UN budget.