United Nations


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United Nations

  1. 1. United Nations The Beacon of
  2. 2. Birth Of United Nations The United Nations was created at the end of the Second World War, replacing the League of Nations US President Franklin D Roosevelt was a driving force behind the creation of the United Nations The name “United Nations” was used by Roosevelt to describe the alliance fighting the Axis powers in World War 2
  3. 3. Birth Of United Nations From 1941 to 1945, United States President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin held various conferences in which they discussed various principles Their experiences helped them to formulate a plan to create an international peacekeeping organization with a goal of preventing future wars on the scale of World War II.
  4. 4. Birth Of United Nations 26 June 1945, Representatives of 50 countries sign the charter of the United Nations at a conference in San Francisco UN officially comes into existence on 24 October 1945 Charter of the United Nations
  5. 5. The four policemen World peace was to be maintained by what Roosevelt described as the “four policemen”-the US, UK, USSR and China, acting together to prevent conflict These four policemen, along with France, became the five permanent members of the UN Security Council The USSR initially opposed China’s inclusion as one of the “policemen”, but Roosevelt insisted. Churchill was not happy about it either.
  6. 6. Three of the “policemen” at Y ta al in 1945 From Left to Right : Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin
  7. 7. What is the United Nations ? • An international organization designed to make the enforcement of international law, security, human rights, economic and social progress easier for countries around the world Functions Of UN are:• Promote international cooperation • Maintain peace and security throughout the world • Develop friendly relations amongst nations • Cooperate in solving international problems • Promote respect for human rights
  8. 8. Principles of UN 1) To settle differences among nations by peaceful means. 2) Not to use any threat or force against any state. 3) Give the United Nations every assistance in any action, especially war. 4) Fulfill the charter’ obligations with all sincerity.
  9. 9. Organs of the UN Security Council General Assembly Economic and Social Council Trusteeship Council The Secretariat The International Court of Justice (The Hague)
  10. 10. United Nation’s SECURITY COUNCIL
  11. 11. Security Council • Purpose: Maintain peace and security • Membership: – 5 permanent members (China, France, Britain, US, Russia), – 10 non-perm members (elected 2 yrs. terms by GA) – 9/15 votes to take action, including all 5 permanent • Function/Powers: – Investigate and mediate disputes (binding decisions) – Apply political and economic sanctions – Take military action when necessary
  12. 12. The UN Security Council
  13. 13. The Security Council has the responsibility to… to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction; to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; to take military action against an aggressor; to recommend the admission of new Members; to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-General and to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.
  14. 14. United Nation’s GENERAL ASSEMBLY
  15. 15. General Assembl y • Purpose: Open, deliberative forum • Membership: – All member nations (193) – 1 vote per delegation – 2/3rd vote to pass resolutions • Function/Powers: – Elect members of other organs – Debate issues and make (non-binding) recommendations – Approve budget and spending – Suspend or revoke membership
  16. 16. UN General Assembl y
  18. 18. Economic and Social Council • Purpose: Promote higher standard of living, econ and social progress • Membership: – 54 members- regional representation – 3 year terms – 1 vote per nation • Function/Powers: – Formulate policy – Discuss & Initiate studies concerning economic/social issues – Call international summits
  19. 19. Economic and Social Council
  20. 20. United Nation’s TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
  21. 21. Trusteeship Council • Purpose: - Responsible for supervising the administration of Trust Territories placed under the Trusteeship System. • Major goals : - to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of Trust Territories and their progressive development - towards self-government or independence.
  22. 22. Trusteeship Council
  24. 24. International Court of Justice • Purpose: Settle disputes of international law • Membership: – 15 Justices (independent once elected) – 9 year terms – Peace Palace (The Hague, Amsterdam) • Function/Powers: – Nations submitting disputes agree to decisions – Advise organs on legal questions
  25. 25. International Court of Justice The Hague,
  26. 26. United Nation’s THE SECRETARIAT
  27. 27. THE Secretariat • Purpose: Carry out daily operations • Membership: – Secretary General (Ban Ki-moon) – 5 yrs. – ~50K+ workers in various agencies and offices (NYC main) • Function/Powers: – Administer programs and policies – Create press releases
  28. 28. United Nation’s SECRETARY-GENERAL
  29. 29. Secretary- general The secretary-general, appointed for a fiveyear term by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council. Secretary-general is the chief administrative official of the UN Current UN Secretary-General Ban-Ki Moon – South Korea
  30. 30. List of UN Secretary- General
  31. 31. Various Agency's of UN • World Health Organization (WHO), a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN), with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. WHO was established in 1948. Advisory services include aid in training medical personnel and in giving knowledge of various diseases. • United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), agency of the United Nations (UN) devoted to the welfare of children. The organization was established in 1946 to help children in post-World War II Europe and China. UNICEF currently focuses on establishing programs that give long-term benefits to children everywhere
  32. 32. Various Agency's of UN United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), agency of the United Nations (UN), created in 1946. The main priorities of UNESCO's programmes include achieving education for all, establishing a culture of peace through education promoting the free flow of information between countries,as well as freedom of the press, protecting natural and cultural heritage, and supporting the expression of cultural identities. Head quarter of UNESCO is in Paris. International Labour Organization (ILO), a specialized agency associated with the United Nations (UN), whose worldwide objectives are to improve,  labour conditions,  promote productive employment and social progress,  and raise living standards. The ILO headquarters is in Geneva, Switzerland;
  33. 33. UN facts UN has 192 member states Un headquarters is situated in New York The US has always been by far the largest single contributor to the UN budget. The budget for the UN's main operations is $2.5 billion a year. The UN Secretariat worldwide employs some 15,000 people from 170 different countries Six official languages are used at the UN: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish.