Introduction to Floral Design

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Introduction to Floral Design

  1. 1. Understanding the Principles & Elements of Floral Design<br />
  2. 2. What are the principles of floral design?<br />Floral design is the art of organizing the design elements inherent in plant materials and accessories according to principles of design art. <br />This is sometimes called floral arranging. <br />People who arrange flowers typically use floral design techniques.<br />
  3. 3. What are the principles of floral design?<br />Principles of design are rules and guidelines used by the floral designer to create a beautiful composition. <br />The use of these rules promotes beautiful, artistic arrangements. <br />Major principles include proportion, balance, rhythm, and dominance.<br />1. Proportion is the pleasing relationship between size and shape among objects and parts of objects.<br />
  4. 4. What are the principles of floral design?<br />2. Balance in a flower arrangement refers to the arrangement’s equilibrium and equality in weight, both physical and visual.<br />3. Rhythm is the orderly organization of design elements to create a visual pathway.<br />4. Dominance in a design means that one design element is more prevalent or noticeable, thereby capturing the viewer’s interest.<br />
  5. 5. What are the principles of floral design?<br />Minor principles of design include radiation, repetition, transition, variety, contrast, and focal point.<br />1. Radiation is characterized by stems that radiate naturally from the container.<br />2. Repetition is accomplished by repeating design elements throughout an arrangement to create unity in the work.<br />
  6. 6. What are the principles of floral design?<br />3. Transition is the change from one material to another.<br />4. Variety is created by using a diverse assortment and different components in a design.<br />
  7. 7. What are the principles of floral design?<br />5. Contrast describes objects that have striking differences beyond mere variety or diversity.<br />6. A focal point is a center of interest.<br />
  8. 8. How is proportion achieved in floral design?<br />In floral design, three aspects determine proportion: <br />Location of the arrangement<br />Height of the arrangement<br />Materials used in the arrangement.<br />The design must be in proportion to where it is going to be displayed. <br />The display area could involve a room, a table, or sometimes a person wearing the design.<br />Proportion requires that the design be suitable for and in harmony with its location.<br />
  9. 9. How is proportion achieved in floral design?<br />The height of an arrangement should be at least 1½ times the height of its container’s greatest dimension.<br />There are a few exceptions to this rule, including the idea that height may be increased to create proper dimension with the room.<br />Another increase might be because of the materials with which the designer is working.<br />
  10. 10. How is proportion achieved in floral design?<br />1. The container is a primary factor in determining appropriate height. <br />Four aspects that need to be considered are the container’s:<br />a. Physical dimensions<br />b. Color<br />c. Material and texture<br />d. Shape<br />
  11. 11. How is proportion achieved in floral design?<br />2. A heavy, dark container will support a taller arrangement, whereas a glass container will provide an excellent base for a shorter arrangement.<br />
  12. 12. How is proportion achieved in floral design?<br />3. An exception to the height rule applies to centerpieces and horizontal arrangements.<br />A centerpiece should not obstruct the view of people participating in a dinner conversation; therefore, the arrangement needs to be kept low. <br />A horizontal arrangement is short, but its linear dimension should be about 1½ times the size of the container.<br />
  13. 13. How is proportion achieved in floral design?<br />Using flowers and foliage of equal or nearly equal size will help in achieving proper proportion. <br />Large jumps in flower size within an arrangement should be avoided.<br />For example, large mums should not be mixed with baby’s breath.<br />
  14. 14. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />Balance, meaning design equilibrium and equality in weight, can be achieved through several different methods.<br />Physical balance is the actual stability of plant materials within a container. <br />A properly designed arrangement that has physical balance will not fall over and can stand freely on its own.<br />
  15. 15. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />Visual balance is the perception of an arrangement being balanced—that is, being of equal weight on both sides of the central axis. <br />A design that is not visually balanced will bother the viewer much like a crooked painting on a wall. <br />Visual balance should be evident from three views: side to side; top to bottom; and front to back. <br />There are two types of visual balance.<br />
  16. 16. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />1. Symmetrical balance is present when a design has equal material placements and weight on both sides of its central axis. <br />Symmetrical balance is historically European in style and often called formal balance. <br />Typically, symmetrical arrangements are exhibited in formal or symmetrical settings. <br />Examples of symmetrical designs are oval, round, fan, triangle, inverted-T, and vertical arrangements, as well as oval and round centerpieces.<br />
  17. 17. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />2. Asymmetrical balance is present when a design has material placements and weight that are not equal on both sides of its central axis. <br />This is often called informal design and stems from Asian influences. <br />Asymmetrical balance is achieved through compensation and counterbalancing. <br />Examples of asymmetrical designs are crescent, Hogarth curve, fan, diagonal, vertical, ikebana, scalene, and right triangle. <br />Asymmetrically balanced centerpieces are common.<br />
  18. 18. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />Designers use three main techniques to help achieve balance.<br />1. Visual weight is a flower’s perceived lightness or heaviness based on its color, shape, and pattern. <br />Varying visual weight helps achieve the compensation or counterbalancing in asymmetrical designs. <br />Lighter materials and color are used toward the outside of an arrangement, whereas heavier materials are used toward the center.<br />
  19. 19. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />2. Centering is the technique of placing dominant plant material along a design’s central vertical axis. <br />This allows heavier plant materials to be placed higher in a design.<br />
  20. 20. What is balance and how is it achieved?<br />3. Counterbalancing is the practice of balancing plant materials on one side of a design with visually equal materials on the opposite side. <br />This technique is essential in asymmetrical design work, and can be used to avoid strict mirror imaging in symmetrical work.<br />
  21. 21. How is rhythm created in a floral design?<br />Creating a pathway for the eye to follow is the purpose of rhythm. <br />An arrangement with good rhythm will cause the viewer to look at the entire arrangement. <br />There are two types of rhythm.<br />Regular, repeated rhythm is present when materials are repeated at regular intervals from the top to the bottom of an arrangement.<br />Free, variable rhythm is an unstructured style with subtle flowing movements created with unstructured materials.<br />
  22. 22. How is rhythm created in a floral design?<br />Five techniques that can be used to achieve both regular and free rhythm are:<br />1. Radiation—Stems radiate naturally from the container. <br />A top view shows the stems appearing as spokes on a wheel. <br />Crossing stems is avoided.<br />2. Repetition—Repeating design elements throughout an arrangement to create unity in the work. <br />It may include color, shape, space, and lines.<br />
  23. 23. How is rhythm created in a floral design?<br />3. Transition—Change from one material to another. <br />It should be smooth and gradual. <br />Lighter flowers near the container edge blend into the heavier ones near the center.<br />4. Variety—A diverse assortment and different components in a design. <br />Variety focuses attention and stimulates interest and imagination.<br />5. Contrast—Describes objects that have striking differences beyond mere variety or diversity, taking variety to a higher degree.<br />
  24. 24. What is dominance and how is a focal point used to create it?<br />The use of dominance suggests to the viewer what is important in a design.<br />Interest and attention are captured when one feature dominates and others are secondary.<br />Dominance can be achieved by:<br />1. Using dominant plant material<br />2. Using an emphasized design element<br />3. Using a distinct style of design<br />4. Using a theme<br />5. Using a focal point<br />
  25. 25. What is dominance and how is a focal point used to create it?<br />A focal point is a center of interest. <br />It can be created several different ways. <br />Not all arrangements need a focal point or center of interest. <br />If, however, one is intended, there are several methods to create one.<br />1. Use of large flowers<br />2. Use of special-form flowers, such as orchids<br />
  26. 26. What is dominance and how is a focal point used to create it?<br />3. Use of dark shades<br />4. Variation of concentration of plant material<br />5. Use of framing materials<br />6. Use of strong color contrast<br />7. Radiation of plant materials to a particular area<br />8. Use of accessories<br />
  27. 27. What is the difference between principles of design and design elements?<br />While Principles of Design are abstract rules to follow, Elements of Design are the physical characteristics of the plant materials that the designer uses to create the arrangements.<br />Design elements include form, shape, and line; space; texture and pattern; and color.<br />
  28. 28. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />Design elements that must be understood first when creating floral arrangements are form and shape. <br />Form refers to the three-dimensional outline of an arrangement, while shape refers to the two-dimensional aspect of form. <br />Form and shape can exist naturally in floral design elements, or they can be created by the designer. <br />
  29. 29. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />The common forms used in floral design are geometric, naturalistic, and free form.<br />1. The geometric forms and shapes used in floral design are most often the circle and the triangle. <br />Circular forms and shapes can be varied to create ovals, fans, or crescent arrangements from the circles. <br />Right triangles, scalene triangles, and isosceles triangles are variations of the basic triangle.<br />
  30. 30. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />
  31. 31. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />2. Naturalistic designs mirror the natural growth of plant material. <br />They often include groupings of plant material. <br />Sometimes branches are used to symbolize trees, and shorter flowers to symbolize undergrowth.<br />
  32. 32. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />3. A free-form arrangement has a contemporary look. <br />Free form allows the designer to take any liberty with color, form and shape, or placement. <br />Freeform arrangements are very creative and do not have to follow any particular design rule.<br />
  33. 33. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />All forms of arrangement are created through the use of lines. <br />Line is the visual movement between two points in an arrangement. <br />The placement of lines can help create a form or shape or express an emotional response. <br />Lines can be created through the use of line materials. <br />
  34. 34. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />Line materials, like snapdragon, liatris, and scotch brooms, can produce very definite vertical, horizontal, diagonal, or curvilinear lines.<br />
  35. 35. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />The remainder of the arrangement is created through the combination of form flowers, mass flowers, and filler flowers.<br />1. Form flowers are those flowers that have distinctive shapes, like lilies and tropical flowers.<br />2. Mass flowers are round, solid flowers, like carnations and mums.<br />3. Filler flowers are light, airy flowers, like baby’s breath and sea lavender, that fill in the space between other flowers.<br />
  36. 36. What are the major forms used in floral design?<br />By combining any number of line flowers, mass flowers, form flowers, and filler flowers, a designer has infinite ways of creating attractive, eye-catching, visually pleasing arrangements.<br />
  37. 37. How do space and depth enhance floral design?<br />Almost as important as the areas where individual flowers are placed in a design are the areas where there are no flowers. <br />An area devoid of flowers is called space. <br />It is important for floral designers to leave space in their arrangements. <br />A designer can also increase the apparent size of a design by adding space and depth to it.<br />
  38. 38. How do space and depth enhance floral design?<br />Creating space by placing flowers away from each other makes an arrangement appear larger, even though no additional materials have been used. <br />When this technique is employed, the designer can save money by creating the illusion of a larger, more expensive design. <br />Space between individual flowers showcases the visual attributes of each flower. <br />This results in added interest in the design.<br />
  39. 39. How do space and depth enhance floral design?<br />Depth in a design gives the arrangement more of a three-dimensional form than just a shape. <br />Tucking flowers in farther so they are partially hidden by others and radiating flowers upward or dangling them to the side are ways a designer can create depth and add interest and character to an arrangement.<br />
  40. 40. How is texture important in floral design?<br />Floral designers can create visually attractive arrangements by combining plant materials of different textures. <br />Texture is the surface quality of plant material.<br />Plant material can be rough, smooth, leathery, velvety, satiny, or hairy.<br />Plant material also has visual texture. <br />It may look fine and airy, lacy, delicate, or bold and coarse. <br />When the textures are varied, the arrangement can attract attention and hold the viewer’s interest for a longer period of time.<br />
  41. 41. How is texture important in floral design?<br />Textures provide visual energy. <br />Coarse textures carry more visual weight than fine textures. <br />Glossy textures draw the viewer’s attention. <br />Combining different textures in an arrangement adds interest through contrast.<br />
  42. 42. How is texture important in floral design?<br />Pattern is the coloration of plant materials and the arrangement of plant parts.<br />Pattern is closely related to texture. <br />A plant material that has a color pattern appears to be textured even when the plant surface is smooth. <br />Color patterns of foliage and flowers add interest to an arrangement.<br />
  43. 43. How does color influence floral work?<br />Color is probably the most obvious element in design. <br />An arrangement in which all other elements have been masterfully considered may lack appeal if the color combination is not striking.<br />Physiological studies have shown that colors actually help contribute to people’s feelings. <br />Colors have also come to symbolize certain occasions or events. <br />
  44. 44. How does color influence floral work?<br />Red has become the symbol for love, while yellow often means friendship or happiness. <br />Green is very restful and symbolizes life, while blue is very cooling.<br />Other color associations are white for purity and innocence, purple for royalty, and orange for warmth. <br />An understanding of the color wheel is important when designing floral work.<br />
  45. 45. How does color influence floral work?<br />The color wheel is made up of primary colors, secondary colors, and tertiary colors.<br />1. Primary colors are the basic colors of red, yellow, and blue. <br />All other colors come from combining these primary colors.<br />2. Secondary colors are green, orange, and violet. <br />They are created by combining two primary colors. <br />For example, yellow and red create orange.<br />3. Tertiary colors are third-rank colors. <br />By combining one primary color with one secondary color, a tertiary color is created. <br />The names of tertiary colors are often hyphenated, such as blue-green and yellow-orange.<br />
  46. 46. How does color influence floral work?<br />
  47. 47. How does color influence floral work?<br />Floral designers often use basic color schemes to create eye-catching arrangements. <br />Color schemes are created through the combination of colors chosen.<br />1. A monochromatic color scheme would be made from one color and all its light and dark variations. <br />For example, if red was the chosen color, the arrangement might include deep red, maroon, pale pink, and hot pink. <br />All these colors originate from the primary color red.<br />
  48. 48. How does color influence floral work?<br />2. An analogous color scheme uses colors that are next to each other on the color wheel. <br />An arrangement made of yellow, yellow-orange, and orange would be analogous.<br />3. By choosing two colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel, a complementary color scheme is created. <br />Red/green, violet/yellow, and blue/orange are all complementary color schemes.<br />4. A polychromatic color scheme includes a wide range of colors.<br />
  49. 49. How does color influence floral work?<br />No matter what color scheme is chosen, the designer must remember that colors are viewed differently depending on the colors with which they are combined.<br />When yellow and violet are placed together, yellow tends to be a more advancing color, moving toward the viewer. <br />
  50. 50. How does color influence floral work?<br />Violet, on the other hand, tends to be a receding color, disappearing into the background. <br />This is important to remember when creating arrangements for a stage or altar. <br />Violet tends to disappear when viewed from a distance.<br />

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