Water testing


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Reviews common water contaminants that enter the water supply and what problems those contaminants cause.

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Water testing

  1. 1. Conducting Water Quality Tests
  2. 2. Water Quality <ul><li>What does water quality mean to you? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes one sample of water better than another? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you be sure of the quality of the water you are using? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water Quality Monitoring <ul><li>Studying of water to detect changes in its quality. </li></ul><ul><li>The physical, chemical, and biological make-up of the water source should be monitored regularly. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular monitoring will help determine what changes are taking place and how to stop these changes or make other corrective measures. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Water Quality Monitoring <ul><li>Water testing can be done by the landowner, by a lab, or by private testing companies. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Monitoring <ul><li>Includes the visual and other physical observations of the water. </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring the odor of the water source and the course and any changes in the course of the water source are also examples of physical monitoring. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Visual Monitoring <ul><li>Determining changes in water by looking at it. </li></ul><ul><li>These changes may be in the color or the presence of sediment or other materials. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changes in Color <ul><li>May result from the presence of algae or bacteria. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Presence of Sediment <ul><li>May also change the color and turbidity of the water. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Foam Forming <ul><li>Would indicate the presence of decomposition. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Test for Odors <ul><li>As simple as smelling the water. </li></ul><ul><li>The odor of rotten eggs would indicate high levels of sulfur. </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage and chlorine are other obvious odors that would result from sources of pollution in the water. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Water Testing <ul><li>Can be done for a couple dollars or a couple hundred dollars. </li></ul><ul><li>The type and extent of the testing will determine the overall cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of different water tests that can be conducted include hardness, dissolved gases, nitrates and nitrites, and acidity. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Alkalinity <ul><li>The ability of the water to neutralize acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called buffering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Added to the water by rocks dissolving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents pH levels from dropping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measured in ppm CaCO 3 (calcium carbonate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from 20 -200 </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Ammonia <ul><li>Indicates bacterial decomposition of organic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs as NH 3 (toxic) and NH 4 (non-toxic) </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges from 0-10 ppm </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chloride <ul><li>A form of salt in the water </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a salty taste </li></ul><ul><li>Can poison plant/animal life in the water if too high </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges from 0-35 ppt </li></ul>
  15. 15. Chlorine <ul><li>Not naturally occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Result of deliberate addition or accidental pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Widely used as a disinfectant </li></ul><ul><li>Ranges from .5 ppm in drinking water to 1-3 ppm in swimming pools </li></ul>
  16. 16. Heavy metals <ul><li>Chromium, Copper, Lead, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Can build up in the body causing poisoning. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually present due to industrial pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromium level over .5 ppm are dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copper levels above 1 ppm are dangerous and give a bitter taste </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Hardness of Water <ul><li>Reported in parts per million (ppm) of CaCO 3 . (calcium carbonate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0-60 ppm is “soft” water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>60-120 is medium hard water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120-180 is hard water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>180 and up is considered very hard water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard water causes scaly buildup in plumbing and decrease cleaning in soaps </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Iron <ul><li>Present in most natural waters </li></ul><ul><li>Causes metallic taste and odor and orange staining on clothing and porcelain </li></ul><ul><li>Levels should not exceed .2 ppm in most cases </li></ul>
  19. 19. Nitrates and nitrites <ul><li>Present in the water when organic matter begins to break down. </li></ul><ul><li>Can also enter as fertilizer runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Normal levels are below 4 ppm. </li></ul><ul><li>Anything above 40 ppm is considered unsafe </li></ul><ul><li>Causes blue-baby syndrome </li></ul>
  20. 20. Water pH <ul><li>The acidity of water refers to the pH level. </li></ul><ul><li>On the pH scale 7 is neutral. Anything above is basic and anything below is acidic. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal water ranges from 5-8.5, with 6.5-8 being optimal. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Phosphate <ul><li>Commonly finds it way into water supply as detergents </li></ul><ul><li>Causes increased plant growth that impacts balance of aquatic ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Levels above .3 ppm can cause problems </li></ul>