Weather Part 2

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Weather Part 2

  1. 1.  Global circulations explain how air and storm systems move over the earth’s surface The circulation patterns are complicated by 3 factors:  Earth’s rotation  Tilted axis  Uneven distribution of land in Northern and Southern Hemisperes This complicated circulation patterns are broken into 3 “cells”:  Hadley – around equator, blows toward equator  Ferrel – mid-latitude, blows toward poles  Polar – around poles, blows easterly
  2. 2.  Jet streams are relatively narrow bands of strong wind in the upper levels of the atmosphere. The winds blows from west to east Jet streams are the strongest for both the northern and southern hemisphere winters
  3. 3.  The Jet stream follows the sun’s angle in the sky, southerly in the summer and northerly in the winter. Jet streams are typically wide and not distinct, but a region where the wind increase toward a core of strongest wind. One way of visualizing this is consider a river.  The rivers current is generally the strongest in the center with decreasing strength as one approaches the rivers bank. It can be said that jet streams are "rivers of air.“
  4. 4.  The reoccurring "average weather" found in any particular place German climatologist Wladimir Köppen divided the worlds climates into categories based on general temperature profile related to latitude A. Tropical, B. Dry, C. Moist Sub-tropical, D. Moist Continental, E. Polar, and F. Highlands
  5. 5.  Heat waves kill more people in the United States than all of the other weather related disasters combined Humans perspire to cool themselves, therefore the higher the humidity, the harder it is for humans to cool themselves Heat index is a function of humidity and temperature Remember, these values are in the SHADE You can add up to 15°F (8°C) to these values if you are in direct sunlight
  6. 6.  The effect of the wind on people and animals As the wind increases, it removes heat from the body, driving down skin temperature inanimate objects will not cool below the actual air temperature
  7. 7. Temperature (°F) W i n d 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 -55 -60(mph ) 0 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 -45 -50 -55 -60 5 37 31 25 19 13 7 1 -5 -11 -16 -22 -28 -34 -40 -46 -52 -58 -63 -69 -75 -8110 34 27 21 15 11 3 -4 -10 -16 -22 -28 -35 -41 -47 -53 -59 -66 -72 -78 -84 -9015 32 25 19 13 6 0 -7 -13 -19 -26 -32 -39 -45 -51 -58 -64 -71 -77 -83 -90 -96 -20 30 24 17 11 4 -2 -9 -15 -22 -29 -35 -42 -48 -55 -61 -68 -74 -81 -88 -94 101 -25 29 23 16 9 3 -4 -11 -17 -24 -31 -38 -44 -51 -58 -64 -71 -78 -84 -91 -98 104 - -30 28 22 15 8 1 -6 -12 -19 -26 -33 -39 -46 -53 -60 -67 -73 -80 -87 -94 101 107 - -35 28 21 14 7 0 -7 -14 -21 -27 -34 -41 -48 -55 -62 -69 -76 -83 -89 -96 103 110 - -40 27 20 13 6 -1 -8 -15 -22 -29 -36 -43 -50 -57 -64 -71 -78 -84 -91 -98 105 112 - - -45 26 19 12 5 -2 -9 -16 -23 -30 -37 -44 -51 -58 -65 -72 -79 -86 -93 100 107 114 - - -50 26 19 12 4 -3 -10 -17 -24 -31 -38 -45 -52 -60 -67 -74 -81 -88 -95 102 109 116
  8. 8.  All aspects of meteorology are based upon a world-wide 24-hour clock called Zulu time more commonly called Universal Time Coordinate With the 360° daily rotation of the earth, the sun is moving 15° each hour which leads to the formation of 24 time zones Based on the time in Greenwich, England. 00Z (midnight zulu) is 6 pm Central Standard
  9. 9.  Clouds form when air is cooled to its dewpoint  the temperature the air reaches saturation As air rises, it expands due to less pressure, and cools do to expansion  Called the Adiabatic Process The rate of this cooling and expanding with elevation is called lapse rate the dry lapse rate is a constant  for each 1000 feet increase in elevation, the air temperature will decrease 5.4°F
  10. 10.  Cirro form – high level clouds composed mostly of ice crystals, denote fair weather Nimbo form – mid-level clouds that are very heavy with moisture and bring steady rain Cumulo form – fluffy midlevel clouds that have a flat base and are very tall Strato form – low level clouds that form a blanket over the sky and bring dizzily weather
  11. 11.  Air in motion A wind vane measures the wind direction An anemometer measures the wind speed Isobars on a weather map denote areas of equal pressure  The closer the isobars, the greater the pressure gradient Wind speed is directly proportional to pressure gradient Wind speed and direction are also impacted by the coriolis force – the earth’s rotation
  12. 12.  Winds spiral out of high pressure regions and into low pressure regions because of friction.
  13. 13.  Fronts are the boundaries between two air masses The front is classified by what type of air is moving into the region (warm/cold) Warm fronts typically have a gentle slope so the air rising along the frontal surface is gradual  stratiform cloudiness and precipitation along and to the north of the front The slope of cold fronts are more steep and air is forced upward more abruptly  narrow band of showers and thunderstorms along or just ahead of the front
  14. 14.  Needs ingredients to create  A source of moisture  Typically a large body of water like oceans Lifting of moist air must occur  Mountains, pressure gradients, frontal boundaries Ice crystals or water droplets need to grow large enough to fall  Collision and coalescence or ice crystal method
  15. 15.  Rain – liquid water droplets Snow – Crystallized frozen water Sleet – frozen water droplets Freezing Rain – Water droplets that freeze when they land on objects Hail – Larger balls of ice that have formed from repeated lifting and falling through the atmosphere adding layers of ice each time
  16. 16.  Ingredients  Moisture, instability, uplift Life Cycle – lasts about 30 min  Towering Cumulus (strong updrafts)  Mature Cumulus (updrafts and down drafts)  Dissipating Stage (downdrafts)
  17. 17.  Tornadoes come from super cells with strong wind sheers. The greatest chance for tornado comes from the mesocyclone area. Enhanced F-Scale:  EF0 (65-85 mph) – EF5 (over 200 mph)
  18. 18.  Giant spark of static electricity Largely a mystery to scientists 1 billion volts, 300,000 amps, and 10 miles away Thunder is the acoustic shock wave resulting from the extreme heat generated by a lightning flash For every second between the flash of lightning and the clap of thunder, you can estimate 1 mile until the storm is directly over you
  19. 19.  Stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging WSR-88D  Weather Surveillance Radar - 1988 Doppler Gives the ability to detect motion Bounces radio waves off of water droplets in clouds.  The larger or denser the droplets, the stronger the reflected signal, and the more severe the storm.
  20. 20. Cloud Types Temperature Pressure in mb (999.8)Visibility (mi) Current weather Change in pressure (mb)Wind Speed& Direction Cloud TypesCloud Types Cloud ceiling

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