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Plant propagation techniques

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PMAS ARID UNIVERSITY RAWALPINDI PAKISTAN

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Plant propagation techniques

  1. 1. Asexual Propagation Techniques in Horticultural Crops Group Members Muhammad Ozair 09-arid-345 Adnan Saleem 05-arid-23 Syed Ali Ameer 09-arid-344
  2. 2. Why is plant propagation important?  Plant propagation- reproduction of new plants from seeds and vegetative parts, such as leaves, stems, or roots  Produce new and better breeds of plants faster  Can reproduce exact duplicates of desirable plants  Can increase quality of plants
  3. 3. Asexual propagation?  Asexual propagation  Reproduction of new plants from existing stem, leaf or root of parent plant  No seed is formed  Produces an exact duplicate of the parent plant called a clone  Can produce new plants from plants that are difficult to produce from seed
  4. 4. What are types of Asexual propagation?  Stem cuttings  Leaf cuttings  Leaf-bud cuttings  Budding  Layering  Separation and division  Tissue culture  Grafting
  5. 5. What are stem cuttings?  Stem cuttings: A portion of the stem that contains a terminal bud or lateral buds is cut and placed in growing media to produce roots.
  6. 6. Stem Cutting with terminal growing area. Stem Cutting
  7. 7. Leaf cuttings  Consists of a leaf blade or leaf blade with petiole attached
  8. 8. Leaf cutting with petiole. Leaf cutting without petiole. Leaf cutting that has rooted. Used leaf with petiole. Leaf Cuttings
  9. 9. Leaf-bud cuttings  Consists of a leaf blade, petiole and a short piece of stem with the lateral bud
  10. 10. Leaf-bud cutting
  11. 11. Budding  Budding is a grafting technique in which a single bud from the desired scion is used rather than an entire scion containing many buds.
  12. 12. Preparation of Scion Bud
  13. 13. Insertion of Scion bud in T-shape Cut
  14. 14. Rapping of Inserted bud
  15. 15. Bud sprouting
  16. 16. Pruning of Rootstock
  17. 17. Layering  Layering is a mean of plant propagation in which a portion of an aerial stem grow roots while still attached to the parent plant and then detaches as an independent plant
  18. 18. Removing epidermis for layering. Air Layering Packing moss around area to provide moisture. Wrap in saran wrap to keep moisture in. Removing saran wrap to see new roots and bud. New bud with roots.
  19. 19. Layering – taking a branch and placing it on the soil. Layering – Simple or mound
  20. 20. Separation Method Separation  Take mature plants that were stolons or offspring from a parent plant and separate.
  21. 21. Stolons – Parent plant puts out runners and each node a new plant forms along with roots. Runners or Stolons
  22. 22. Separation of runner from parent. Separation Method
  23. 23. Tissue culture (often called micropropagation) is a special type of asexual propagation where a very small piece of tissue (shoot apex, leaf section, or even an individual cell) is excised (cut-out) and placed in sterile (aseptic) culture in a test tube, Petri dish or tissue culture container containing a special culture medium. Tissue culture
  24. 24. Areas of Tissue Culture Collection
  25. 25. Overview of the Tissue Culture Process
  26. 26. 1.    It can create a large number of clones from a single  explant. 2.    It is easy to select desirable traits directly from the  culture setup (in vitro), thereby decreasing the amount of  space required for field trials. 3.    The time required is much shortened, no need to wait  for the whole life cycle of seed development. 4.    For species that have long generation time, low levels  of seed production, or seeds that do not readily germinate,  rapid propagation is possible. The advantages of plant tissue culture
  27. 27. 5.     It overcomes seasonal restrictions for seed  germination. 6.    It enables the preservation of pollen and cell  collections form which plants may be propagated. 7.    It helps to eliminate plant diseases through careful  stock selection and sterile techniques. The advantages of plant tissue culture
  28. 28. Grafting is a method of asexual plant propagation  widely used in agriculture and horticulture where the  tissues of one plant are encouraged to fuse with those  of another in such a way so that maximum cambial  contact takes place. Grafting 
  29. 29. Rootstock: That part of a tree which becomes the root system  of a grafted or budded tree. Scion: A piece of last year's growth with three or four buds;  the part inserted on the understock. To understand Grafting Cambium: The growing part of the tree; located between the  wood and bark.
  30. 30. Types of Grafting   Cleft Graft    Bark Graft    Side-Veneer Graft    Splice Graft    Whip and Tongue Graft    Saddle Graft    Bridge Graft    Inarch Graft   Approach Graft
  31. 31.   One of the simplest and most popular forms of grafting, cleft  grafting  is a method for top working both flowering and fruiting trees  (apples, cherries, pears, and peaches) in order to change varieties. Cleft Graft    The rootstock used for cleft grafting should range from 1 to 4  inches in diameter and should be straight.    The scion should be about 1 /4 inch in diameter, straight, and long  enough to have at least three buds.
  32. 32. Cleft Graft
  33. 33. Bark Graft  This technique can be applied to rootstock of larger  diameter (4 to 12 inches).    Cut surface of the rootstock and make a vertical slit  through the bark where each scion can be inserted (2  inches long and spaced 1 inch apart).   Prepare several scions for each graft. Cut the base of  each scion to a 1 ½- to 2-inch tapered wedge on one side  only.  
  34. 34. Bark Graft
  35. 35. Side-Veneer Graft   Side-veneer grafting is usually done on potted rootstock.     Make a shallow downward cut about 3/4 inch to 1 inch long at  the base of the stem on the potted rootstock to expose a flap of  bark with some wood still attached.    Make an inward cut at the base so that the flap of bark and wood  can be removed from the rootstock.    Choose a scion with a diameter the same as or slightly smaller  than the rootstock. Make a sloping cut 3/4 to 1 inch long at the base 
  36. 36. Side-Veneer Graft
  37. 37. Splice Graft    In splice grafting, both the stock and scion must be of the same  diameter.    Cut off the rootstock using a diagonal cut 3/4 to 1 inch long.     Make the same type of cut at the base of the scion. Fit the scion  to the stock.    Wrap this junction securely with a rubber grafting strip or twine.  
  38. 38. Splice Graft
  39. 39. Whip and Tongue Graft  Both the rootstock and scion should be of equal size and preferably no more than 1/2 inch in diameter.  Cut off the stock using a diagonal cut. The cut should be four to five times longer than the diameter of the stock to be grafted.  Make the same kind of cut at the base of the scion.
  40. 40. Whip and Tongue Graft
  41. 41. Saddle Graft  Both rootstock and scion should be the same diameter.  Stock should not be more than 1 inch in diameter.  Using two opposing upward strokes of the grafting knife, sever the top from the rootstock. The resulting cut should resemble an inverted V, with the surface of the cuts ranging from 1/2 to 1 inch long.  Now reverse the technique to prepare the base of the scion
  42. 42. Saddle Graft
  43. 43. Bridge Graft  Bridge grafting is used to "bridge" a diseased or damaged area of a plant, usually at or near the base of the trunk.  Select scions that are straight and about twice as long as the damaged area to be bridged. Make a 1 1/2- to 2-inch-long tapered cut on the same plane at each end of the scion.  Cut a flap in the bark on the rootstock the same width as the scion and below the injury to be repaired.
  44. 44. Bridge Graft
  45. 45. Inarch Graft  Inarching, like bridge grafting, is used to bypass or support a damaged or weakened area of a plant stem.  Unlike bridge grafting, the scion can be an existing shoot, sucker, or watersprout that is already growing below and extending above the injury.  The scion may also be a shoot of the same species as the injured plant growing on its own root system next to the main trunk of the damaged tree.
  46. 46. Inarch Graft
  47. 47.  Approach grafting is a method used to propagate plants in which one independent plant is fused with another independent plant. It is usually done when the two plants grow close to each other.  At the point where the two plants will join, a 1- 2 inch long slice of bark is cut on each stem.  The two stems are bound together, with the cut areas touching, using any wrapping material. Approach Graft
  48. 48. Approach Graft
  49. 49. Dwarfing: To induce dwarfing or cold tolerance or other characteristics to the scion Ease of propagation: Because the scion is difficult to propagate vegetatively by other means, such as by cuttings. Hybrid breeding: To speed maturity of hybrids in fruit tree breeding programs. Hybrid seedlings may take ten or more years to flower and fruit on their own roots. Grafting can reduce the time to flowering and shorten the breeding program. Hardiness: Because the scion has weak roots or the roots of the stock plants have roots tolerant of difficult conditions. Sturdiness: To provide a strong, tall trunk for certain ornamental shrubs and trees. Advantages of Grafting
  50. 50. Repair: To repair damage to the trunk of a tree that would prohibit nutrient flow, such as stripping of the bark by rodents that completely girdles the trunk. Changing cultivars: To change the cultivar in a fruit orchard to a more profitable cultivar, called topworking. It may be faster to graft a new cultivar onto existing limbs of established trees than to replant an entire orchard. Maintain consistency: Apples are notorious for their genetic variability, even differing in multiple characteristics, such as, size, color, and flavor, of fruits located on the same tree. Pollen source: To provide pollenizers. For example, in tightly planted or badly planned apple orchards of a single variety, limbs of crab apple may be grafted at regularly spaced intervals onto trees down rows, say every fourth tree. Advantages of Grafting

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