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Pregnancy and parturition


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This presentation outlines the vocabulary associated with livestock reproduction, specifically during pregnancy. It also outlines a human's developmental milestones in the womb.

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Pregnancy and parturition

  1. 1. Pregnancy and Parturition
  2. 2. Pregnancy begins with <ul><ul><li>Fertilization – the union of sperm and ovum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a zygote </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. 24 hours <ul><li>Zona locks out all other sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm DNA and egg DNA combine </li></ul><ul><li>Cell divides </li></ul>
  4. 4. 8 celled pig zygotes
  5. 5. Day 5 <ul><li>Arrive in the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>About 100 cells </li></ul><ul><li>Called a blastisist </li></ul>
  6. 6. Day 6 <ul><li>Break out of Zona </li></ul><ul><li>Suppresses Mother’s immune system in the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Attaches to uterine wall </li></ul><ul><li>Begin to form placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Placenta is the membrane that surrounds and supports the embryo inside the uterus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Week 2 <ul><li>Blastisist is the size of a poppy seed </li></ul><ul><li>Gasterlation begins – forms 3 layers of cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lungs, liver, digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heart, muscles, bones, blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>central nervous system, skin, hair </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embryo </li></ul>
  8. 8. Week 3 <ul><li>Form a neural tube </li></ul><ul><li>Brain begins to form </li></ul><ul><li>Blood vessels connect </li></ul><ul><li>Heart begins to beat </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone begins to form </li></ul>
  9. 9. Week 4 <ul><li>Arm buds develop </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone curls into a tail </li></ul><ul><li>1/5 inch long </li></ul>
  10. 10. Week 5 <ul><li>Retina and lens form </li></ul><ul><li>Ear begins to form </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 inch long </li></ul>
  11. 11. Growth of Embryo <ul><li>Week 6 - 5/8 inch long </li></ul><ul><li>Week 7 - 3/4 inch long </li></ul><ul><li>Week 8 - 1 inch long </li></ul><ul><li>Week 9 - 1 1/2 inch long </li></ul><ul><li>Week 12 - 3 inches long </li></ul><ul><li>Week 16 - 5 inches long </li></ul>
  12. 12. Milestones of the embryo <ul><li>Month 4 - Hard bone begins to form </li></ul><ul><li>Month 5 - Fetus can hear sound </li></ul><ul><li>Month 7 - Fetus begins to lay down fat deposits under skin and in brain </li></ul>
  13. 13. Gestation <ul><li>period of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Lengths of Gestation in livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Cow 285 days </li></ul><ul><li>Sow 114 days </li></ul><ul><li>Mare 336 days </li></ul><ul><li>Ewe 147 day </li></ul>
  14. 14. Parturition <ul><ul><li>birth of the fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with the release of cortisol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix relaxes and dilates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxytocin and estrogen are released to begin labor and milk production </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Parturition (cont) <ul><ul><li>Contractions of the uterus push the fetus through the cervix and down the birth canal out in to the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetus must fine the path of least resistance through the pelvic bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The normal presentation for lambs, calves, and foals is front feet first with the head tucked between </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Problems <ul><ul><li>Wrong presentation of fetus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too small pelvic area </li></ul><ul><li>Too large fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Placenta does not break </li></ul><ul><li>Mother does not come to milk </li></ul>
  17. 18. After Parturition <ul><li>Afterbirth – the uterus releases the placenta, and it passes out shortly after the fetus is born. ** Retained placenta </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation – mother making milk for baby </li></ul><ul><li>Colostrum – mother’s first milk that contains antibodies for the baby; foals die without it, so horse breeders milk mares and freeze it. </li></ul>
  18. 19. 28 day pig embryo