Animal organ systems


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Animal organ systems

  1. 1. Animal Organ Systems Anatomy and Physiology
  2. 2. Fundamentals of Life  All living things are made up of cells.  Cells are the most basic structure of life.  Cells need oxygen, food/energy, and water to survive.
  3. 3. Natural Hierarchy  Cells are the most basic and simple.  Cells that are all alike work together to form tissues which perform tasks.  Tissues that are alike work together to form organs which complete jobs.  Organs work together in organ systems to carry out processes.  Organ systems work together to support the life of an organism.
  4. 4. How do we study animals?  We look at the outside of them – the outer physical structures.  We look inside of dead animals – the internal physical structures.  We look at the tissues under a microscope – microscopic structures.  We study the chemical reactions between cells, tissues, and organs.
  5. 5. Anatomy  The study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal – its structures both internal and external.  Gross anatomy is the study of the structures – internal and external – that we can see with the naked eye.  Microscopic anatomy is the structures that can only be seen under magnification
  6. 6. Physiology  The study of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal.  Biochemistry  How cells, tissues and organs work together to complete a task…digestion.
  7. 7. Why study anatomy and physiology?  Efficient production of livestock requires understanding the anatomy and physiology related to Production.  Production is muscle gain, milk or egg production, and hair or wool production.  Raising animals requires an understanding of the requires needed for animal wellbeing.  Animal wellbeing is caring for animals so that their basic needs are met and they do not suffer.
  8. 8. Mammals vs Non-mammals  Most of our livestock are mammals.  i.e. – vertebrate that has hair, gives birth to live young, produces milk, & maintains constant body temperature.  Cattle, horses, pigs, goats & sheep, etc.  Exceptions are poultry & aquacrops.  Poultry – birds – ducks, chickens, turkeys, etc.  Aquacrops – fish, shrimp, etc.
  9. 9. Organ Systems  Skeletal  Excretory  Muscular  Digestive  Nervous  Endocrine  Circulatory  Integumentary  Respiratory  Reproductive
  10. 10. Skeletal Bones  50% water, 26% minerals (Ca & P), 20% protein, 4% fat  Core is soft and spongy – called marrow  Marrow makes new red blood cells for body. Cartilage  Soft, tough tissue found between bones that cushions joints Ligaments  Long stretchy tissue that holds joints together
  11. 11. Skeletal  Gives structure and support  Protects internal organs  Makes locomotion/movement possible
  12. 12. Muscular Muscles  Fibrous cells that are design to contract and relax in pairs  Voluntary – under the organisms conscious control – triceps  Involuntary – automatically move to regulate body functions – heart and diaphragm Tendons  Long, thin, stretchy tissues that attach muscles to bones.  Muscles pull against bone when they contract which causes movement.
  13. 13. Muscular Primary function is movement.  External & internal Also protect delicate organs Muscles make up about half our livestock animals’ weight. Muscles are the meat of the animal. Composed mostly of protien.
  14. 14. A=Rhomboideus capitisB=SpleniusC=Levator scapulae ventralisD=SupraspinatusE=InfraspinatusF=Teres majorG=Serratus dorsalisH=Longissimus dorsiI=Multifidae spinaeJ=ClavotrapeziusK=ClavobrachialisL=AcromiodeltoidM=SpinodeltoidN=AcromiotrapeziusO=SpinotrapeziusP=Spinalis dorsalisQ=Latissimus dorsiR=Rhomboideus
  15. 15. Nervous Brain  Soft tissues that coordinates all aspects of animal function Spinal Cord  Main “highway” for nerve impulses to travel from brain to rest of body Nerves  Branch out and reach rest of body
  16. 16. Nervous  Uses electrical impulses to send messages from brain throughout body.  Controls activity, learning, memory  Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
  17. 17. Circulatory Heart  Technically a muscle  Pumps blood with 4 chambers and 2 valves Arteries  Carry oxygen rich blood from lungs and heart to tissues Veins  Carry blood back from tissues to lungs and heart.
  18. 18. Circulatory  Blood  Plasma  Liquid part of blood  red blood cells  Carries O2 and carbohydrates (glucose)  white blood cells  Fights pathogens  Platelets  Makes blood clot
  19. 19. Circulatory  Also includes the Lymph Glands  Secrete disease fighting materials  Moves materials throughout the body
  20. 20. Respiratory  Nose  External opening of the body  Pharynx & Larynx  Pharynx connects the esophagus and trachea  Larynx is the “voice box”  Trachea  Wind pipe that connects nasal passages with lungs  Lungs  “bags” that expand and contract to bring in fresh air and expel old air
  21. 21. Respiratory  Function is to bring oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide.  Exchange of gasses happens inside the lungs in the alveoli.  Lungs expand and contract due to the movement of the diaphragm.
  22. 22. Excretory  Also referred to as the urinary system.  Kidneys  Remove waste materials from blood  Bladder  Holds liquid wastes - urine  Ureters  Connect bladder to urethra  Urethra  Empties urine to the exterior of the animal
  23. 23. Digestive  Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, cecum, large intestine, rectum, anus  Breaks down food into usable energy  Removes unusable food from body
  24. 24. Endocrine  Ductless glands in the body  hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, liver, thyroid, adrenal  Secrete hormones that chemically regulate certain functions of the body  Play a large role in reproduction, digestion, growth, etc.
  25. 25. Integumentary Skin, hair, hooves, horns, etc Keeps out pathogens, regulates body temp, gives shape and color, protects internal organs System made almost entirely out of protein Animal skin is called the hide  Most animal hides made into leather
  26. 26. Reproductive System  Most complex system in animals  Allows for reproduction of animals and the continuation of the species  Different structures between male and female  Most animals fundamentally have the same system, just varies in structure between species.