Fundamentals of Life All living things are made up of cells. Cells are the most basic structure of life. Cells need oxygen, food/energy, and water to survive.
Natural Hierarchy Cells are the most basic and simple. Cells that are all alike work together to form tissues which perform tasks. Tissues that are alike work together to form organs which complete jobs. Organs work together in organ systems to carry out processes. Organ systems work together to support the life of an organism.
How do we study animals? We look at the outside of them – the outer physical structures. We look inside of dead animals – the internal physical structures. We look at the tissues under a microscope – microscopic structures. We study the chemical reactions between cells, tissues, and organs.
Anatomy The study of the form, shape, and appearance of an animal – its structures both internal and external. Gross anatomy is the study of the structures – internal and external – that we can see with the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the structures that can only be seen under magnification
Physiology The study of the functions of the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal. Biochemistry How cells, tissues and organs work together to complete a task…digestion.
Why study anatomy and physiology? Efficient production of livestock requires understanding the anatomy and physiology related to Production. Production is muscle gain, milk or egg production, and hair or wool production. Raising animals requires an understanding of the requires needed for animal wellbeing. Animal wellbeing is caring for animals so that their basic needs are met and they do not suffer.
Mammals vs Non-mammals Most of our livestock are mammals. i.e. – vertebrate that has hair, gives birth to live young, produces milk, & maintains constant body temperature. Cattle, horses, pigs, goats & sheep, etc. Exceptions are poultry & aquacrops. Poultry – birds – ducks, chickens, turkeys, etc. Aquacrops – fish, shrimp, etc.
Skeletal Bones 50% water, 26% minerals (Ca & P), 20% protein, 4% fat Core is soft and spongy – called marrow Marrow makes new red blood cells for body. Cartilage Soft, tough tissue found between bones that cushions joints Ligaments Long stretchy tissue that holds joints together
Skeletal Gives structure and support Protects internal organs Makes locomotion/movement possible
Muscular Muscles Fibrous cells that are design to contract and relax in pairs Voluntary – under the organisms conscious control – triceps Involuntary – automatically move to regulate body functions – heart and diaphragm Tendons Long, thin, stretchy tissues that attach muscles to bones. Muscles pull against bone when they contract which causes movement.
Muscular Primary function is movement. External & internal Also protect delicate organs Muscles make up about half our livestock animals’ weight. Muscles are the meat of the animal. Composed mostly of protien.
Nervous Brain Soft tissues that coordinates all aspects of animal function Spinal Cord Main “highway” for nerve impulses to travel from brain to rest of body Nerves Branch out and reach rest of body
Nervous Uses electrical impulses to send messages from brain throughout body. Controls activity, learning, memory Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
Circulatory Heart Technically a muscle Pumps blood with 4 chambers and 2 valves Arteries Carry oxygen rich blood from lungs and heart to tissues Veins Carry blood back from tissues to lungs and heart.
Circulatory Blood Plasma Liquid part of blood red blood cells Carries O2 and carbohydrates (glucose) white blood cells Fights pathogens Platelets Makes blood clot
Circulatory Also includes the Lymph Glands Secrete disease fighting materials Moves materials throughout the body
Respiratory Nose External opening of the body Pharynx & Larynx Pharynx connects the esophagus and trachea Larynx is the “voice box” Trachea Wind pipe that connects nasal passages with lungs Lungs “bags” that expand and contract to bring in fresh air and expel old air
Respiratory Function is to bring oxygen into the body and expel carbon dioxide. Exchange of gasses happens inside the lungs in the alveoli. Lungs expand and contract due to the movement of the diaphragm.
Excretory Also referred to as the urinary system. Kidneys Remove waste materials from blood Bladder Holds liquid wastes - urine Ureters Connect bladder to urethra Urethra Empties urine to the exterior of the animal
Digestive Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, cecum, large intestine, rectum, anus Breaks down food into usable energy Removes unusable food from body
Endocrine Ductless glands in the body hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, liver, thyroid, adrenal Secrete hormones that chemically regulate certain functions of the body Play a large role in reproduction, digestion, growth, etc.
Integumentary Skin, hair, hooves, horns, etc Keeps out pathogens, regulates body temp, gives shape and color, protects internal organs System made almost entirely out of protein Animal skin is called the hide Most animal hides made into leather
Reproductive System Most complex system in animals Allows for reproduction of animals and the continuation of the species Different structures between male and female Most animals fundamentally have the same system, just varies in structure between species.