Animal Reproductive Tracts


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This presentation gives a detailed description of male and female reproductive structures in livestock animals.

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Animal Reproductive Tracts

  1. 1. Reproductive Structures
  2. 2. Male Reproductive Structures <ul><li>Testicles - produce sperm </li></ul><ul><li>testosterone – hormone responsible for libido and masculine appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Epididymis – Where the immature sperm are stored to mature </li></ul><ul><li>Vas Deferens – transportation tube that carries sperm from epididymis to the urethra </li></ul>
  3. 4. Sperm
  4. 5. Male Repro (cont) <ul><li>Scrotum sac-like structure that contains and protects the testes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>regulate temperature of the testes by contracting and relaxing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>testes must stay several degrees cooler than body temp. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Male Repro (cont) <ul><ul><li>Urethra – large muscular tube that transports semen and urine out the penis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen – contains sperm, fluid to travel in, and nutrient solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penis – organ that extends into the female reproductive tract and deposits semen at the cervix – engorges with blood to cause an erection necessary for copulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sigmiod Flexure & Retractor Muscle – are necessary to extend the penis out of it’s protective sheath in bulls, rams, and boars </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Male Repro (cont) <ul><ul><li>Seminal Vesicles – Glands that produce fluid that protects and transports the sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prostate Gland – produces fluid that is mixed with the seminal fluid to protect and transport the sperm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cowper’s Gland – produces fluid that precedes semen in the urethra to clean and neutralize the tract </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Reproductive Tract of Bull
  8. 9. Reproductive Tract of a Ram
  9. 10. Reproductive Tract of a Stallion
  10. 11. Reproductive Tract of a Stallion
  11. 12. Female Reproductive Structures <ul><li>Ovary – stores the eggs and produces estrogen and progesterone – hormones responsible for feminine appearance and estrus; eggs mature and are released one at a time - ovulation . </li></ul><ul><li>Follicles – as the eggs begin to mature, they become enlarged bodies on the ovary known as a follicle. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Follicles on Sow ovaries
  13. 14. Female Repro (cont) <ul><li>Oviducts – also known as Fallopian Tubes in humans; tubes that carry the egg to the uterine horn; site of fertilization . **Ectopic Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum – “catcher’s mitt”; as the egg is released, the infundibulum sweeps it off the ovary and into the oviducts. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Female Repro (cont) <ul><li>Uterus – y-shaped body that has 2 horns and cervix; it is very muscular and supports the fetus during pregnancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Horns – litter bearing animals have long uterine horns and single bearing animals have shorter horns; horses and humans do not have uterine horns, just the main body of the uterus. </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrium – lining of the uterus that becomes engorged with blood to support the fetus </li></ul>
  15. 16. Uterus Configurations
  16. 17. Female Repro (cont) <ul><li>Cervix – lower outlet of the uterus that has cartilage rings; this is the structure that dilates during birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina – organ where copulation occurs and serves as the birth canal </li></ul><ul><li>Vulva – external (visible) portion of the female reproductive tract; made up of the Labia Majora and the Labia Minora (outer and inner folds) </li></ul><ul><li>Clitoris – homologous to the penis in the male </li></ul>
  17. 18. Reproductive tract of a Cow
  18. 19. Dorsal View
  19. 20. Reproductive Tract of a Sow