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  1. 1. Quality and Quantity<br />Water<br />
  2. 2. Can a price tag be put on water?<br />What would the price be?<br />Would it be the same for water of two different qualities?<br />
  3. 3. What are the different uses of water?<br />
  4. 4. Agricultural Uses of Water<br />Irrigation<br />A majority if agricultural water is for irrigation of crops<br />Large number of crops require long growing seasons, but lots of rain<br />In US, the areas that have long growing seasons are quite dry<br />California and Texas<br />Irrigation water is typically supplied by aquifers or lakes/ponds<br />One third of all marketable agriculture crops are irrigated at some point.<br />14% of all agricultural land is irrigated at some point<br />Quality for irrigation water is considerably less that for other purposes.<br />
  5. 5. Agricultural Uses of Water<br />Livestock<br />Usually from ponds or pumped to livestock tanks<br />Needs to be higher quality<br />Dilution for Pesticide Application<br />Lower quality is ok<br />
  6. 6. Industrial Uses of Water<br />Processing<br />Consumptive<br />Used in manufacturing – i.e. juices, canned goods, sodas<br />Needs to be highest quality<br />Non-Consumptive<br />Returned to the water cycle mostly unchanged<br />Cooling<br />Used to cool things like metals, condensing distillates, and nuclear reactions<br />Thermal Pollution – returns water at a much higher temp<br />Bad for aquatic life<br />
  7. 7. Domestic Uses of water<br />Amount of water used is variable depending on the development of the country<br />If water is withdrawn manually – consumption is much less<br />If water is mechanically withdrawn – consumption is much more<br />If water is scarce – it is hoarded<br />If water is plentiful – it is wasted<br />Cooking, drinking<br />Bathing, toilets<br />Watering gardens, lawns<br />Water fountains, pools<br />
  8. 8. Domestic Uses of Water<br />Much of the water used in the US is returned to the water supply as wastewater (sewage)<br />Showers, toilets, sinks, storm drains, etc.<br />Must be treated with complex processes and systems before it can be reused<br />Sewage treatment plants are large and expensive<br />
  9. 9. Water usage<br />Each day 330 billion gallons of water are withdrawn from our freshwater reserves.<br />26 billion for households<br />304 billion for industrial and agricultural<br />The average American uses 90 gallons per person per day.<br />Must be of the highest quality<br />Most of these 90 gallons are returned to the water supply as waste water<br />
  10. 10. How much water do we use?<br />Total freshwater withdraw in Million acre-feet<br />
  11. 11. Freshwater Withdraws<br />A acre foot is how much water it would take to flood one acre of land one foot deep.<br />It takes 325,828 gallons of water to flood an acre of land one foot deep.<br />One million acre-foot is equal to 325,828,000,000 gallons or over 325 billion gallons.<br />So to use 172.3 million acre feet for irrigation means that we use nearly 56 trillion gallons of water.<br />On average the US withdraws over 111.5 trillion gallons of water from our freshwater supplies each year.<br />
  12. 12. Where does the water come from?<br />Surface water<br />Ponds, lakes, rivers, etc<br />Ground water<br />Underground lakes, rivers, etc.<br />Aquifers<br />Porous rock that acts like a sponge and holds water<br />Vast underground networks<br />
  13. 13. How much water do we have?<br />97% of the worlds water is in the oceans and seas<br />3% is fresh water that could be consumed<br />77% of the worlds fresh water is tied up in the polar ice caps and glaciers<br />So only .69% of the water on earth is actually consumable<br />
  14. 14. Why do we need water so badly?<br />Water is essential for all life forms as a crucial ingredient in cell makeup, digestion, etc.<br />65-70% of the human body is made up of water<br />In order for cells to take up water it must be pure.<br />Every year 900 deaths in the us are due to waterborne infections<br />Bacteria, viruses, protozoa<br />
  15. 15. Why does water have a cost?<br />In the US most (85%) Americans get their water from a public works.<br />Pay a monthly bill based on gallons of water consumed.<br />Payment is used to pay for<br />labor to treat sewage<br />maintenance of lines<br />Chemical additives<br />Monitoring of safety of water<br />Regulated by federal law<br />
  16. 16. Why does water have a cost?<br />Other 15% get water from a private well<br />Must dig well and pay for electricity to pump water<br />Must monitor own quality<br />Often a cost in treating water to make it fit for consumption<br />Filters, softeners, etc.<br />
  17. 17. Water Cycle<br />The continuous movement of water from the earth to the atmosphere and back to the earth.<br />The sun provides the energy for the water cycle, also known as the hydrologic cycle.<br />The water cycle occurs in four overlapping spheres.<br />
  18. 18. Water Cycle<br />
  19. 19. Water Cycle Spheres<br />Hydrosphere<br />Atmosphere<br />Biosphere<br />Lithosphere<br />
  20. 20. Hydrosphere<br />Water moves from the earth to the atmosphere through the processes of evaporation and transpiration. <br />Evaporation is the transformation of water from its liquid form to its gaseous form as a result of coming in contact with heat or the air.<br />Transpiration is the process of plants releasing water through their leaves is called.<br />
  21. 21. Atmosphere<br />Air that holds moisture until it falls as precipitation.<br />Precipitation is the moisture from the atmosphere that is returned to the earth in the form of snow or rain.<br />
  22. 22. Biosphere<br />Includes all plant and animal life which are consumers of water.<br />
  23. 23. Lithosphere<br />Land where water falls as precipitation.<br />
  24. 24. Physical and Chemical Makeup of Water<br />Water, in its purest form, is tasteless, odorless, and colorless. <br />It is a chemical compound made up of two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen. <br />Its chemical symbol is H2O.<br />
  25. 25. Physical States of Water<br />Solid form of water is called ice.<br />Water freezes at 32F or 0C.<br />Gaseous form of water is called water vapor or steam. <br />When water boils it turns into water vapor or steam. Water boils at 212°F or 100°C.<br />In between the gaseous and solid form, water is in its liquid form.<br />
  26. 26. Chemical Make-up of Water<br />Water that contains salt is called saline water.<br />Sodium chloride, potassium, and magnesium can raise the level of salts in the water. <br />The amount of salt in the water will determine its usefulness. <br />Water that is too high in salt cannot be used for drinking or irrigation.<br />
  27. 27. Categories of Water<br />Freshwater<br />Saltwater<br />Brackish water<br />
  28. 28. Freshwater<br />Water with less than 3.0 parts per thousand (ppt) of salt.<br />Most commonly found in drilled wells, streams, and lakes. <br />
  29. 29. Saltwater<br />Water with 16.5 ppt or more of salt.<br />Some ocean and sea water is as high as 33 to 37 ppt. <br />Saltwater makes up about 97 percent of the earth’s water.<br />
  30. 30. Brackish Water<br />A mixture of saltwater and freshwater.<br />Brackish water is found where freshwater flows into the ocean or other bodies of saltwater. <br />An estuary is the area where a freshwater stream flows into the ocean or a saltwater lake.<br />
  31. 31. Usable Water<br />Two main ways that salt water and contaminated water can be turned into usable water: distillation and desalination. <br />
  32. 32. Usable Water<br />Desalination is the removal of salt from water. <br />It can involve the process of distillation or reverse osmosis but is not economical on a large scale.<br />Reverse osmosis is like using a microscopic filter that “presses” the clean water molecules through and leaves the salts behind.<br />Distillation is the boiling of water and collection of its vapor. <br />The vapor then turns into liquid when cooled. <br />The liquid is pure at this point. <br />
  33. 33. Flowing Bodies of Water<br />One of the most important parts of the water cycle is the stream.<br />Streams are flowing bodies of water that are useful resources for irrigation, factories, and local water systems.<br />
  34. 34. Types of Streams<br />Stream type is determined by the volume and velocity of the movement of water, or streamflow. <br />The four types of streams are rivers, creeks, brooks, and canals.<br />
  35. 35. Cross Section of a Stream<br /><ul><li>The rate of flow in a stream is called a current.</li></li></ul><li>River<br />The largest stream. <br />Have high streamflows.<br />
  36. 36. Creek<br />A stream that is smaller than a river. <br />Often flow into rivers, lakes, and oceans.<br />
  37. 37. Brook<br />A small stream. <br />Often flow into creeks, rivers, lakes, and oceans.<br />
  38. 38. Canal<br />An artificial waterway built for transportation, to relieve flooding, or to divert the flow of water.<br />
  39. 39. Stream Hydrology<br />The study of flowing water and its environment.<br />The physical, chemical, and biological properties of the water and the surrounding environment are tested. <br />The ecosystems, including food webs, are studied.<br />
  40. 40. Stream Structure<br />The area through which water flows in a stream is called a channel. <br />A channel is usually formed with rock or soil and it is the sides and bottom of the stream. <br />The bottom of the channel is called the stream bed, the sides are called the stream banks. <br />
  41. 41. Stream Structure<br />When a channel is not large enough to hold the flow of water the area that overflows is called a flood plain.<br />
  42. 42. Non-Flowing Bodies<br />These bodies may be natural or artificial. <br />Non-flowing bodies of water influence the weather and climate of an area. <br />Commerce, food supply, and recreational activities can also be influenced by the non-flowing bodies of water in an area.<br />
  43. 43. Types of Non-Flowing Bodies<br />Seven types of non-flowing bodies of water are oceans, lakes, ponds, reservoirs, sloughs, marshes, and estuaries.<br />As in flowing streams, non-flowing bodies of water may contain a variety of ecosystems.<br />
  44. 44. Oceans<br />Large bodies of saltwater. <br />Cover almost 75 percent of the surface of the earth.<br />
  45. 45. Lakes<br />Bodies of freshwater that are surrounded by land. <br />Vary in size, some are natural and others are man-made.<br />
  46. 46. Ponds<br />Non-flowing bodies of water that are smaller than lakes. <br />Commonly manmade and used as a source of recreation or for use by livestock.<br />
  47. 47. Reservoirs<br />Large bodies of stored water. <br />Commonly used to generate electric power.<br />
  48. 48. Sloughs<br />Thick, muddy areas of shallow water.<br />
  49. 49. Marshes<br />Areas of land covered with shallow water and plants such as cattails.<br />Do not contain trees and are similar in nature to sloughs.<br />
  50. 50. Estuaries<br />Areas where freshwater streams flow into the ocean or a saltwater lake.<br />