Digestion

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Digestion

  1. 1. 1. Carnivores – eat meat – dogs and cats2. Herbivores – eat plants - cattle, horses,and sheep3. Omnivores – both plant and animal eaters – pig and humans
  2. 2.  Monogastric – 1 stomach – can’t digest cellulose (fiber) – pigs and humans Ruminant – 4 stomachs – polygastric – digest cellulose, produce own B vitamins and proteins – cows and sheep Pseudo-ruminant - have 1 stomach, but have enlarged cecum that digests cellulose – horses and rabbits
  3. 3.  Prehension – gathering food – teeth, lips, tongue Mastication – Chewing – break food into smaller pieces for swallowing – teeth and saliva
  4. 4.  Esophagus – transport tube to stomach – muscular contractions move food down
  5. 5.  Stomach  conditions – pH of 2, churning and contracting to mix and grind food  ingredients – food, HCl, enzymes
  6. 6.  Small intestine  major site of nutrient absorption  Functions – villi absorb nutrients that have been broken down – minerals, vitamins, amino acids, Fatty acids, simple sugars
  7. 7.  Glands – gallbladder secretes bile used for lipid breakdown; Pancreas secretes enzymes for protein and carbohydrate breakdown
  8. 8.  Large intestine – colon  accumulates wastes  absorbs water Rectum and Anus
  9. 9.  Mouth  Prehension – cow tongue is very long  Mastication – graze rapidly, and don’t chew much 1st time Esophagus – liquids to the reticulum and solids to the rumen Rumen – very large compartment
  10. 10. Regurgitation – when rumen full, force contents back up to re-chew Rumination  re-mastication of cud or bolus  Bolus – ball of grass  Adds saliva to food Esophagus – re-swallow food Reticulum – honeycomb
  11. 11. – fermentation vat 30 gal or more contains microbes that break down the cellulose pH of 6.5 – 7 for microbes releases methane – belch creates B vitamins and proteins from amino acids also contains papalli that absorb nutrients released by microbes
  12. 12.  Omasum – filter for large particles – grinds them down Abomasum – like the monogastric stomach – acidic Small intestine – same as monogastric Large intestine – same as monogastric Rectum and anus
  13. 13. Omasum AbomasumRumen Reticulum
  14. 14. Rumen Large intestine Omasum RectumAnus Cecum Abomasum Reticulum Small intestine
  15. 15. Small colon Large colonRectum EsophagusAnus Cecum Small intesine
  16. 16. Mouth a. prehension b. masticationEsophagusStomach a. same as monogastric b. too small in horses and inactive – doesn’t break down cellulose c. require frequent smaller meals
  17. 17.  Small intestine – absorption of nutrients – same as monogastric **Still has not digested the cellulose – large amount Cecum  enlarged area between small and large intestine contains microbes that break down cellulose like rumen
  18. 18.  Large colon – absorbs nutrients released by cecum Small colon – absorbs water and collects waste Rectum and Anus
  19. 19.  Beak  Prehension – claws  Mastication - no teeth and no enzymes in the saliva Esophagus Crop – enlargement in esophagus that adds moisture Proventriculus – adds HCl and enzymes to begin digestion
  20. 20.  Gizzard – muscular region that contains grit to grind food Small intestine – absorbs nutrients through villa Ceca – bi-lobed region that breaks down and absorbs cellulose – not much in chicken diet Large intestine – very short – absorbs water Cloaca – urine is combined with feces – very high in N Vent – homologous to the anus

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