Graphics standards

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Graphics standards

  1. 1. Arvind Deshpande
  2. 2.  Incompatibility among representations Complex CAD/CAM systems Shape, non-shape, design and manufacturing data Need to integrate and automate design and manufacturing processes to obtain maximum benefits from CAD/CAM systems Direct translators and neutral formats Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 2
  3. 3.  GKS (Graphical Kernel System) PHIGS (Programmers Hierarchical Interface for Graphics) CORE (ACM-SIGGRAPH) GKS-3D IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data) DMIS (Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification) VDI (Virtual Device Interface) VDM (Virtual Device Metafile) GKSM (GKS Metafile) NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax) Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 3
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  5. 5.  The main objectives that were put forward for GKS are: – To provide the complete range of graphical facilities in 2D, including the interactive capabilities, – To control all types of graphic devices such as plotters and display devices in a consistent manner, – To be small enough for a variety of programs Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 5
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  8. 8.  GKS 3D PHIGS NAPLPS Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 8
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  11. 11.  IGES is the most comprehensive standard and is designed to transmit the entire product definition including that of manufacturing and any other associated information Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 11
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  14. 14. 1. Flag section – Optional ASCII/binary/compressed ASCII2. Start section(S) – Man readable prologue3. Global section(G) – Details of product, person originating the product, name of the company originating it, date, details of system which generated it, drafting standard used etc.4. Directory section(D) – Index for the file and attribute information like colour, line type etc. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 14
  15. 15. 5. Parameter Entry section(P) Geometric entities- Point, line, arc, different surfaces, curves, solid primitives etc. Annotation entities – Angular dimension, diameter dimension, label, note, etc. Structure entities – Associativity definition, text font definition, color definition, units data etc.6. Terminate section – Sub-totals of record in each of earlier sections Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 15
  16. 16.  The broad scope of STEP is as follows:– The standard method of representing theinformation necessary to completely definea product throughout its entire life, i.e.,from the product conception to the end ofuseful life.– Standard methods for exchanging the dataelectronically between two differentsystems. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 16
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  20. 20.  The DXF format has been developedand supported by Autodesk for use withthe AutoCAD drawing files. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 20
  21. 21.  A coordinate measuring machine is a dimensional measuring device, designed to move the measuring probe to determine the coordinates along the surface of the work piece. Apart from dimensional measurement, these machines are also used for profile measurement, angularity, digitizing or imaging. A CMM consists of four main components: the machine, measuring probe, control system and the measuring software. The control system in a CMM performs the function of a live interaction between various machine drives, displacement transducers, probing systems and the peripheral devices. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 21
  22. 22.  Control systems can be classified according to the following groups of CMMs. 1. Manually driven CMMs 2. Motorized CMMs with automatic probing systems 3. Direct computer controlled (DCC) CMMs 4. CMMs linked with CAD, CAM and FMS etc. The first two methods are very common and self explanatory. In the case of DCC CMMs, the computer control is responsible for the movement of the slides, readout from displacement transducers and data communication. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 22
  23. 23. Cantilever Gantry typetype CMM CMM Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 23
  24. 24.  Dimensional Measurement InterfaceSpecification (DMIS) is a new standardin communication being established byCAM-I for manufacturing. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 24
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  26. 26. Function:Specifies a circularity tolerance for afeature, and assigns to it a label.• Format: T(label) = TOL/CIRLTY, tolzon,var_1, F(label)• var_1 can be: MMC or: LMC or: RFS• label is an alphanumeric label assignedto the tolerance, and is up to 10 charactersin length. Arvind Deshpande(VJTI) 4/10/2012 26
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