SlideShare a Scribd company logo
CAD/CAM
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
• Need for CAD standard
• Understand the graphic kernel system and its extensions for
developing the graphic software systems
• Requirement of graphic data exchange formats and their details
such as IGES, DXF and STEP
• Dimensional measurement interface specification for
communication between coordinate measuring machine and the
CAD data
STANDARDIZATION IN GRAPHICS
-Necessary to standardise certain elements at each stage to minimize company investment on certain software and
hardware without much modification on the newer and different systems.
-This means that there should be compatibility between various software
elements as also between the hardware and software.
-Following are some of the interface standards at various levels;
•
GKS (Graphical Kernel System)
•
PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interface for Graphics)
•
CORE (ACM-SIGGRAPH)
•
GKS-3D
•
IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification)
•
DXF (Drawing Exchange Format)
•
STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data)
•
DMIS (Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification)
•
VDI (Virtual Device Interface)
•
VDM (Virtual Device Metafile)
•
GKSM (GKS Metafile)
•
NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol
•
Syntax)
VARIOUS STANDARDS IN GRAPHICS
PROGRAMMING
GRAPHICAL KERNEL SYSTEM (GKS)
• It is desirable to have programs
interchangeable with a number of systems,
and also to make programmers learn the
system once and then repeatedly use it on
different systems.
Examples are:
Tektronics Plot 10
GINO-F from CAD Centre, Cambridge.
The main objectives that were put forward
for GKS are:
1.To provide the complete range of graphical
facilities in 2D, including the interactive capabilities,
2.To control all types of graphic devices such as
plotters and display devices in a consistent manner,
3. To be small enough for a variety of programs.
LAYER MODEL OF GRAPHICS KERNEL
SYSTEM
The coordinate frames available to the user are of
three types:
1. World coordinates (WC) which are the user- oriented drawing
coordinates.
2. Normalised device coordinates (NDC) which is a
uniform system
for all work stations.
3. Device coordinates (DC) are the actual
coordinate system for the
particular work station.
• The GKS is essentially a set of procedures
that can be called by user programs for
carrying out certain generalized functions
(such as arc, circle, ellipse etc.)
• GKS is defined in terms of numbers of levels
describing the level of support in term of
facilities
GRAPHICS PRIMITIVES IN IBM GKS
OTHER GRAPHIC STANDARDS
• GKS 3D- maintains compatibility with the
2D standard.
• PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical
Interface for graphics)
• NAPLPS
NAPLPS NORTH AMERICAN PRESENTATION
LEVEL PROTOCOL SYNTEX
•

Presentation standard developed by the Canadian government with
AT&T and other telcos

•

Basis of transferring data from computer to video displays systems such
as tele-text and other video presentations systems

•

Is a means of encoding graphic data and text in electronically
transferable format (ASCII)

•

Features:
• Very compact (10% more compared with other format)
• Resolution will be clearer
• Integrated with communication networks
• Large range of colors
5.4 EXCHANGE OF MODELLING DATA
FIG. 5.4 DATA EXCHANGE BETWEEN VARIOUS SYSTEMS
1. INITIAL GRAPHICS EXCHANGE
SPECIFICATION (IGES)
• However, the IGES is the most comprehensive
standard and is designed to transmit the entire
product definition including that of
manufacturing and any other associated
information (Fig. 5.6).
• A brief description of the IGES version 3.0 is
given below highlighting the philosophy of the
conversion methodology.
•

Most comprehensive standards and is designed to transmit the entire product
definition including that of manufacturing and any other associated information

•

IGES file contains 6 sub-sections
• Flag Section – ASCII format. Version 3 onward standardized as follows
(ASCII default, binary form and compressed ASCII)
• Start Section – man-readable prologue. Information contain is essentially for
the person who would be processing this for other application.
• Global Section – Contains info. about detail of the product, originator,
company , date, drafting standards etc.
• Directory Entry Section – Each entiry present is fixed in size contains 20
fields and 8 character each. To provide an index for the file and to contain
attribute information such as color, line type transformation matrix etc.
• Parameter Data Section – contains data associated with entities. A free format
is allowed for maximum convenience. Also contains pointers.
• Terminate Section – Contains the sub-totals of the records present. This would
always contains a single records. It is possible that some design technique is
lost.
DEVELOPMENTS IN THE DRAWING DATA
EXCHANGE FORMATS
FIG 5.6 DATA INTERCHANGE METHOD BETWEEN TWO
DIFFERENT CAD SYSTEMS USING NEUTRAL DATA FORMAT
SUCH AS IGES OR STEP
FIG. 5.7 COMPONENT DRAWING FOR IGES FILE
GENERATION
PARTIAL LISTING OF THE IGES FILE FOR
DRAWING SHOWN IN FIG. 5.7
PROBLEMS WITH IGES
• Many incompatible “flavours”
• Unreliable translation, particularly for
complex geometry
• No formal information modelling basis
• Insufficient support for conformance
testing
2.STANDARD FOR THE EXCHANGE OF PRODUCT
MODEL DATA (STEP)
The broad scope of STEP is as follows:
1. The standard method of representing the information
necessary to completely define a product throughout its
entire life, i.e., from the product conception to the end of
useful life.
2. Standard methods for exchanging the data electronically
between two different systems.
Layer 3: Application protocols

Layer 2: Resource information models
Layer 1: Implementation methods
(EXPRESS)

Physical files

Conformance testing
& test suites

STEP ARCHITECTURE
STEP APPLICATION PROTOCOL AP 203
EXPLICIT DRAUGHTING
STEP APPLICATION PROTOCOL AP207
CONFIGURATION CONTROLLED
DESIGN
EXAMPLE FOR STEP FILE GENERATION SHEET
METAL DIE PLANNING AND DESIGN
DXF DRAWING EXCHANGE FORMAT
•

DXF has been developed and and supported by AutoDesk for use with the
AutoCAD files

•

The drawing interchange file is ASCII

•

Overall organization:
•

HEADER section – contains general information about the drawing similar to the
global section of IGES. Consists of AutoCAD database version number of system
variables.

•

CLASSES section – Holds information for the application-defines classes.

•

TABLES section – contains definition of symbol tables such as line-tables, layer
table text style table etc.

•

BLOCK section – contains symbols

•

ENTITIES section – contains graphical objects

•

OBJECTS section – Contains non-graphical. Examples are dictionaries that contain
mline (multiple line styles and groups.
DMIS
Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification (DMIS) is a
new standard in communication being established by CAM-I
for manufacturing.
This standard tries to establish a means of knowing what has
been made by the CAM process.
The objectives – is to provide a bi-directional communication
of inspection data between computer systems and inspection
equipment.
INTRODUCTION OF MEASUREMENT IN
PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
INTRODUCTION OF MEASUREMENT IN PRODUCT
DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
FIGURE SHOWS: A CIRCULARITY TOLERANCE SPECIFIES A TOLERANCE ZONE BOUNDED BY
TWO CONCENTRIC CIRCLES WITHIN WHICH THE FEATURE MUST LIE

.
SUMMARY
•

GKS is used to standardise the graphic system calling procedures at the lowest
level so that programmers and program can be easily migrated between
different systems

•

The neutral CAD database is an important requirement to help with the transfer
of information between various CAD/CAM systems

•

IGES is used for transferring information between various CAD systems for
modelling as well as drafting data

•

STEP is being used extensively in view of its varied and better facilities for
exchanging product model data

•

DXF - ?

•

DMIS - ?
REVIEW QUESTIONS
• What is the importance of standards in CADCAM?
• Write briefly on any one of the known graphic standards
• What is meant by DMIS? Explain its importance in the
manufacturing of mass consumption items
• How is IGES different from GKS?
• Write a short note about DXF standard
• Explain the relevance of IGES in the Malaysian manufacturing
scene.
THANK YOU

More Related Content

What's hot

Numeric control
Numeric controlNumeric control
Numeric control
KANA RAM MEENA
 
UNIT III CAD STANDARDS
UNIT III CAD STANDARDS UNIT III CAD STANDARDS
UNIT III CAD STANDARDS
ravis205084
 
Graphics Kernel System (GKS).pptx
Graphics Kernel System (GKS).pptxGraphics Kernel System (GKS).pptx
Graphics Kernel System (GKS).pptx
FriendsPark1
 
Graphics standards
Graphics standardsGraphics standards
Graphics standards
parabajinkya0070
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&M
FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&MFUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&M
FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&M
Balamurugan Subburaj
 
Cnc, dnc & adaptive control
Cnc, dnc & adaptive controlCnc, dnc & adaptive control
Cnc, dnc & adaptive control
parabajinkya0070
 
Curves wire frame modelling
Curves wire frame modellingCurves wire frame modelling
Curves wire frame modelling
jntuhcej
 
CAD STANDARDS
CAD STANDARDSCAD STANDARDS
CAD STANDARDS
Balamurugan Subburaj
 
Data standard - IGES
Data standard - IGESData standard - IGES
Data standard - IGES
Himanshu Shrivastava
 
Unit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Unit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURINGUnit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURING
Unit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Mohanumar S
 
4 tooling in cnc
4 tooling in cnc4 tooling in cnc
4 tooling in cnc
shaikusmanshag
 
Introduction to CAD/CAM
Introduction to CAD/CAMIntroduction to CAD/CAM
Introduction to CAD/CAM
DINBANDHU SINGH
 
Unit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Unit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURINGUnit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURING
Unit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Mohanumar S
 
Numerical control machines
Numerical control machines Numerical control machines
Numerical control machines
jntuhcej
 
CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)
CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)
CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)
Priscilla CPG
 
SURFACE MODELLING .pptx
SURFACE MODELLING .pptxSURFACE MODELLING .pptx
SURFACE MODELLING .pptx
jntuhcej
 
Numerical control machines tool
Numerical control machines toolNumerical control machines tool
Numerical control machines tool
jntuhcej
 
CNC MILLING Operations
CNC MILLING OperationsCNC MILLING Operations
CNC MILLING Operations
Krit Kumar Janghel
 
CNC machining centers
CNC machining centersCNC machining centers
CNC machining centers
Salman Jailani
 
Nc part programming
Nc part programmingNc part programming
Nc part programming
Vemulapalli Das
 

What's hot (20)

Numeric control
Numeric controlNumeric control
Numeric control
 
UNIT III CAD STANDARDS
UNIT III CAD STANDARDS UNIT III CAD STANDARDS
UNIT III CAD STANDARDS
 
Graphics Kernel System (GKS).pptx
Graphics Kernel System (GKS).pptxGraphics Kernel System (GKS).pptx
Graphics Kernel System (GKS).pptx
 
Graphics standards
Graphics standardsGraphics standards
Graphics standards
 
FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&M
FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&MFUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&M
FUNDAMENTALS OF CNC & PART PROGRAMMING - UNIT - 4 CAD&M
 
Cnc, dnc & adaptive control
Cnc, dnc & adaptive controlCnc, dnc & adaptive control
Cnc, dnc & adaptive control
 
Curves wire frame modelling
Curves wire frame modellingCurves wire frame modelling
Curves wire frame modelling
 
CAD STANDARDS
CAD STANDARDSCAD STANDARDS
CAD STANDARDS
 
Data standard - IGES
Data standard - IGESData standard - IGES
Data standard - IGES
 
Unit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Unit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURINGUnit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURING
Unit 1-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
 
4 tooling in cnc
4 tooling in cnc4 tooling in cnc
4 tooling in cnc
 
Introduction to CAD/CAM
Introduction to CAD/CAMIntroduction to CAD/CAM
Introduction to CAD/CAM
 
Unit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
Unit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURINGUnit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND    MANUFACTURING
Unit 3-ME8691 & COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING
 
Numerical control machines
Numerical control machines Numerical control machines
Numerical control machines
 
CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)
CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)
CAD - UNIT 2 (Geometric Modelling)
 
SURFACE MODELLING .pptx
SURFACE MODELLING .pptxSURFACE MODELLING .pptx
SURFACE MODELLING .pptx
 
Numerical control machines tool
Numerical control machines toolNumerical control machines tool
Numerical control machines tool
 
CNC MILLING Operations
CNC MILLING OperationsCNC MILLING Operations
CNC MILLING Operations
 
CNC machining centers
CNC machining centersCNC machining centers
CNC machining centers
 
Nc part programming
Nc part programmingNc part programming
Nc part programming
 

Similar to graphic stadards

CAD
CADCAD
Unit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptx
Unit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptxUnit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptx
Unit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptx
dinesh babu
 
UNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdf
UNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdfUNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdf
UNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdf
DURAIMURUGANM2
 
Graphic standards and exchange formats
Graphic standards and exchange formatsGraphic standards and exchange formats
Graphic standards and exchange formats
kishor kumar
 
CAD Data Exchange format used in industry
CAD Data Exchange format used in industryCAD Data Exchange format used in industry
CAD Data Exchange format used in industry
rahulkatre9
 
CAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECH
CAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECHCAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECH
CAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECH
RAJESHS631800
 
Graphical interfacing standards
Graphical interfacing standardsGraphical interfacing standards
Graphical interfacing standards
vaibhav tailor
 
2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx
2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx
2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx
RamanathanSabesan
 
Graphics Standards and Algorithm
Graphics Standards and AlgorithmGraphics Standards and Algorithm
Graphics Standards and Algorithm
Yatin Singh
 
CADA
CADA CADA
CADA
Raju312687
 
Cad cam
Cad camCad cam
Cad cam
Raja Reddy
 
4. graphics standard
4. graphics standard4. graphics standard
4. graphics standard
Ratnadeepsinh Jadeja
 
Whats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_final
Whats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_finalWhats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_final
Whats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_final
Jurgis 'Jogi' Klaudius
 
designnotation-180731122143.database.pdf
designnotation-180731122143.database.pdfdesignnotation-180731122143.database.pdf
designnotation-180731122143.database.pdf
abhaysonone0
 
Design notation
Design notationDesign notation
Design notation
ramya marichamy
 
2016 workshops: understanding the language of gis and cad by warren geissler
2016 workshops:  understanding  the language  of gis and cad by warren geissler2016 workshops:  understanding  the language  of gis and cad by warren geissler
2016 workshops: understanding the language of gis and cad by warren geissler
GIS in the Rockies
 
LECT-standard for data exch.pptx
LECT-standard for data exch.pptxLECT-standard for data exch.pptx
LECT-standard for data exch.pptx
Khalil Alhatab
 
Ugif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutes
Ugif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutesUgif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutes
Ugif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutes
UGIF
 
coordinates system
coordinates systemcoordinates system
coordinates system
selvakumar948
 
Strategies for the curation of CAD Engineering Models
Strategies for the curation of CAD Engineering ModelsStrategies for the curation of CAD Engineering Models
Strategies for the curation of CAD Engineering Models
ManjulaPatel
 

Similar to graphic stadards (20)

CAD
CADCAD
CAD
 
Unit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptx
Unit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptxUnit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptx
Unit 3-ASSEMBLY OF PARTS AND CAD STANDARDS.pptx
 
UNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdf
UNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdfUNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdf
UNIT 5 CAD STANDARDS -GOoGLE.pdf
 
Graphic standards and exchange formats
Graphic standards and exchange formatsGraphic standards and exchange formats
Graphic standards and exchange formats
 
CAD Data Exchange format used in industry
CAD Data Exchange format used in industryCAD Data Exchange format used in industry
CAD Data Exchange format used in industry
 
CAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECH
CAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECHCAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECH
CAD STANDARDS - SMART MANUFACTURING MECH
 
Graphical interfacing standards
Graphical interfacing standardsGraphical interfacing standards
Graphical interfacing standards
 
2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx
2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx
2GKS, Open GL and IGES_Video Lect Given by Renjin.pptx
 
Graphics Standards and Algorithm
Graphics Standards and AlgorithmGraphics Standards and Algorithm
Graphics Standards and Algorithm
 
CADA
CADA CADA
CADA
 
Cad cam
Cad camCad cam
Cad cam
 
4. graphics standard
4. graphics standard4. graphics standard
4. graphics standard
 
Whats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_final
Whats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_finalWhats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_final
Whats new in_ic2018_lvb_approved_v7_final
 
designnotation-180731122143.database.pdf
designnotation-180731122143.database.pdfdesignnotation-180731122143.database.pdf
designnotation-180731122143.database.pdf
 
Design notation
Design notationDesign notation
Design notation
 
2016 workshops: understanding the language of gis and cad by warren geissler
2016 workshops:  understanding  the language  of gis and cad by warren geissler2016 workshops:  understanding  the language  of gis and cad by warren geissler
2016 workshops: understanding the language of gis and cad by warren geissler
 
LECT-standard for data exch.pptx
LECT-standard for data exch.pptxLECT-standard for data exch.pptx
LECT-standard for data exch.pptx
 
Ugif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutes
Ugif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutesUgif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutes
Ugif 10 2012 lycia2 introduction in 45 minutes
 
coordinates system
coordinates systemcoordinates system
coordinates system
 
Strategies for the curation of CAD Engineering Models
Strategies for the curation of CAD Engineering ModelsStrategies for the curation of CAD Engineering Models
Strategies for the curation of CAD Engineering Models
 

Recently uploaded

C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
Dr. Shivangi Singh Parihar
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
Celine George
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
EduSkills OECD
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Fajar Baskoro
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
Wahiba Chair Training & Consulting
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
Priyankaranawat4
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
Colégio Santa Teresinha
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
S. Raj Kumar
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Diana Rendina
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Dr. Mulla Adam Ali
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
TechSoup
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
iammrhaywood
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
siemaillard
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
History of Stoke Newington
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
eBook.com.bd (প্রয়োজনীয় বাংলা বই)
 

Recently uploaded (20)

C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH LỚP 9 CẢ NĂM - GLOBAL SUCCESS - NĂM HỌC 2024-2025 - ...
 
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
How to Fix the Import Error in the Odoo 17
 
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptxBeyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
Beyond Degrees - Empowering the Workforce in the Context of Skills-First.pptx
 
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptxPengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
Pengantar Penggunaan Flutter - Dart programming language1.pptx
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
 
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdfclinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
clinical examination of hip joint (1).pdf
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
 
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching AptitudeUGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
UGC NET Exam Paper 1- Unit 1:Teaching Aptitude
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
 
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdfHindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
Hindi varnamala | hindi alphabet PPT.pdf
 
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdfWalmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
Walmart Business+ and Spark Good for Nonprofits.pdf
 
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptxNEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
NEWSPAPERS - QUESTION 1 - REVISION POWERPOINT.pptx
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptxPrésentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
Présentationvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv2.pptx
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street NamesThe History of Stoke Newington Street Names
The History of Stoke Newington Street Names
 
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdfবাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
বাংলাদেশ অর্থনৈতিক সমীক্ষা (Economic Review) ২০২৪ UJS App.pdf
 

graphic stadards

  • 2.
  • 3. LEARNING OBJECTIVES • Need for CAD standard • Understand the graphic kernel system and its extensions for developing the graphic software systems • Requirement of graphic data exchange formats and their details such as IGES, DXF and STEP • Dimensional measurement interface specification for communication between coordinate measuring machine and the CAD data
  • 4. STANDARDIZATION IN GRAPHICS -Necessary to standardise certain elements at each stage to minimize company investment on certain software and hardware without much modification on the newer and different systems. -This means that there should be compatibility between various software elements as also between the hardware and software. -Following are some of the interface standards at various levels; • GKS (Graphical Kernel System) • PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interface for Graphics) • CORE (ACM-SIGGRAPH) • GKS-3D • IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) • DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) • STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product Model Data) • DMIS (Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification) • VDI (Virtual Device Interface) • VDM (Virtual Device Metafile) • GKSM (GKS Metafile) • NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol • Syntax)
  • 5. VARIOUS STANDARDS IN GRAPHICS PROGRAMMING
  • 6. GRAPHICAL KERNEL SYSTEM (GKS) • It is desirable to have programs interchangeable with a number of systems, and also to make programmers learn the system once and then repeatedly use it on different systems. Examples are: Tektronics Plot 10 GINO-F from CAD Centre, Cambridge.
  • 7. The main objectives that were put forward for GKS are: 1.To provide the complete range of graphical facilities in 2D, including the interactive capabilities, 2.To control all types of graphic devices such as plotters and display devices in a consistent manner, 3. To be small enough for a variety of programs.
  • 8. LAYER MODEL OF GRAPHICS KERNEL SYSTEM
  • 9. The coordinate frames available to the user are of three types: 1. World coordinates (WC) which are the user- oriented drawing coordinates. 2. Normalised device coordinates (NDC) which is a uniform system for all work stations. 3. Device coordinates (DC) are the actual coordinate system for the particular work station.
  • 10. • The GKS is essentially a set of procedures that can be called by user programs for carrying out certain generalized functions (such as arc, circle, ellipse etc.) • GKS is defined in terms of numbers of levels describing the level of support in term of facilities
  • 12. OTHER GRAPHIC STANDARDS • GKS 3D- maintains compatibility with the 2D standard. • PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interface for graphics) • NAPLPS
  • 13. NAPLPS NORTH AMERICAN PRESENTATION LEVEL PROTOCOL SYNTEX • Presentation standard developed by the Canadian government with AT&T and other telcos • Basis of transferring data from computer to video displays systems such as tele-text and other video presentations systems • Is a means of encoding graphic data and text in electronically transferable format (ASCII) • Features: • Very compact (10% more compared with other format) • Resolution will be clearer • Integrated with communication networks • Large range of colors
  • 14. 5.4 EXCHANGE OF MODELLING DATA FIG. 5.4 DATA EXCHANGE BETWEEN VARIOUS SYSTEMS
  • 15. 1. INITIAL GRAPHICS EXCHANGE SPECIFICATION (IGES) • However, the IGES is the most comprehensive standard and is designed to transmit the entire product definition including that of manufacturing and any other associated information (Fig. 5.6). • A brief description of the IGES version 3.0 is given below highlighting the philosophy of the conversion methodology.
  • 16. • Most comprehensive standards and is designed to transmit the entire product definition including that of manufacturing and any other associated information • IGES file contains 6 sub-sections • Flag Section – ASCII format. Version 3 onward standardized as follows (ASCII default, binary form and compressed ASCII) • Start Section – man-readable prologue. Information contain is essentially for the person who would be processing this for other application. • Global Section – Contains info. about detail of the product, originator, company , date, drafting standards etc. • Directory Entry Section – Each entiry present is fixed in size contains 20 fields and 8 character each. To provide an index for the file and to contain attribute information such as color, line type transformation matrix etc. • Parameter Data Section – contains data associated with entities. A free format is allowed for maximum convenience. Also contains pointers. • Terminate Section – Contains the sub-totals of the records present. This would always contains a single records. It is possible that some design technique is lost.
  • 17. DEVELOPMENTS IN THE DRAWING DATA EXCHANGE FORMATS
  • 18. FIG 5.6 DATA INTERCHANGE METHOD BETWEEN TWO DIFFERENT CAD SYSTEMS USING NEUTRAL DATA FORMAT SUCH AS IGES OR STEP
  • 19. FIG. 5.7 COMPONENT DRAWING FOR IGES FILE GENERATION
  • 20. PARTIAL LISTING OF THE IGES FILE FOR DRAWING SHOWN IN FIG. 5.7
  • 21. PROBLEMS WITH IGES • Many incompatible “flavours” • Unreliable translation, particularly for complex geometry • No formal information modelling basis • Insufficient support for conformance testing
  • 22. 2.STANDARD FOR THE EXCHANGE OF PRODUCT MODEL DATA (STEP) The broad scope of STEP is as follows: 1. The standard method of representing the information necessary to completely define a product throughout its entire life, i.e., from the product conception to the end of useful life. 2. Standard methods for exchanging the data electronically between two different systems.
  • 23. Layer 3: Application protocols Layer 2: Resource information models Layer 1: Implementation methods (EXPRESS) Physical files Conformance testing & test suites STEP ARCHITECTURE
  • 24. STEP APPLICATION PROTOCOL AP 203 EXPLICIT DRAUGHTING
  • 25. STEP APPLICATION PROTOCOL AP207 CONFIGURATION CONTROLLED DESIGN
  • 26. EXAMPLE FOR STEP FILE GENERATION SHEET METAL DIE PLANNING AND DESIGN
  • 27. DXF DRAWING EXCHANGE FORMAT • DXF has been developed and and supported by AutoDesk for use with the AutoCAD files • The drawing interchange file is ASCII • Overall organization: • HEADER section – contains general information about the drawing similar to the global section of IGES. Consists of AutoCAD database version number of system variables. • CLASSES section – Holds information for the application-defines classes. • TABLES section – contains definition of symbol tables such as line-tables, layer table text style table etc. • BLOCK section – contains symbols • ENTITIES section – contains graphical objects • OBJECTS section – Contains non-graphical. Examples are dictionaries that contain mline (multiple line styles and groups.
  • 28. DMIS Dimensional Measurement Interface Specification (DMIS) is a new standard in communication being established by CAM-I for manufacturing. This standard tries to establish a means of knowing what has been made by the CAM process. The objectives – is to provide a bi-directional communication of inspection data between computer systems and inspection equipment.
  • 29. INTRODUCTION OF MEASUREMENT IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE
  • 30. INTRODUCTION OF MEASUREMENT IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT CYCLE FIGURE SHOWS: A CIRCULARITY TOLERANCE SPECIFIES A TOLERANCE ZONE BOUNDED BY TWO CONCENTRIC CIRCLES WITHIN WHICH THE FEATURE MUST LIE .
  • 31. SUMMARY • GKS is used to standardise the graphic system calling procedures at the lowest level so that programmers and program can be easily migrated between different systems • The neutral CAD database is an important requirement to help with the transfer of information between various CAD/CAM systems • IGES is used for transferring information between various CAD systems for modelling as well as drafting data • STEP is being used extensively in view of its varied and better facilities for exchanging product model data • DXF - ? • DMIS - ?
  • 32. REVIEW QUESTIONS • What is the importance of standards in CADCAM? • Write briefly on any one of the known graphic standards • What is meant by DMIS? Explain its importance in the manufacturing of mass consumption items • How is IGES different from GKS? • Write a short note about DXF standard • Explain the relevance of IGES in the Malaysian manufacturing scene.