17. Class Chondrichthyes Notes

14,589 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Sports
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
14,589
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
74
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
204
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

17. Class Chondrichthyes Notes

  1. 1. Class Chondrichthyes “ Cartilaginous Fish” Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Sub Phylum: Verterbrata Class: Chondrichthyes
  2. 2. Class Chondrichthyes <ul><li>Sharks, Rays, Skates, Ratfish </li></ul><ul><li>Skeleton made of cartilage </li></ul>
  3. 3. General Characteristics <ul><li>Possess movable jaws that usually have teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth is ventral, underneath the head </li></ul>
  4. 4. General Characteristics <ul><li>Paired lateral fins </li></ul>
  5. 5. General Characteristics <ul><li>Rough, sand paper like skin </li></ul><ul><li>Made up of scales that have the same composition as teeth </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ratfish / Chimaeras <ul><li>Gill slits covered by a flap of skin </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly deep-water fish </li></ul><ul><li>Eat crustaceans and mollusks </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skates & Rays <ul><li>Flattened bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Dermersal – live on the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Gill slits on the ventral side (bottom) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Skates & Rays <ul><li>Pectoral fins are flat and expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Head fuses with pectoral fins with eyes on top </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sawfish <ul><li>Ventral gill slits </li></ul><ul><li>Swing blade through schools disabling prey </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to saw sharks except for size and gill placement </li></ul>
  10. 11. Stingrays <ul><li>Equipped with a stinging spine </li></ul><ul><li>Spine connected to venomous glands </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth modified into grinding plates </li></ul>
  11. 12. Manta & Devil Rays <ul><li>Not bottom dwellers instead choose to swim </li></ul>
  12. 13. Sharks <ul><li>Living Fossils </li></ul><ul><li>Have not needed to evolve for 100 million years </li></ul>
  13. 14. Megalodon <ul><li>Ancient shark </li></ul><ul><li>Largest predatory fish ever </li></ul><ul><li>Twice the size of a great white </li></ul>
  14. 15. External Structure
  15. 16. Paired vs. Unpaired fins <ul><li>Paired: Pectoral & Pelvic </li></ul><ul><li>Comparable to our arms and legs </li></ul><ul><li>Unpaired: 1 st Dorsal, 2 nd Dorsal, Anal, and Caudal </li></ul><ul><li>All found along mid-line </li></ul>
  16. 17. Scales <ul><li>Scales are very small and sharp </li></ul><ul><li>Same composition as the teeth </li></ul>
  17. 18. Jaws <ul><li>Made of bone </li></ul><ul><li>Contain the disposable teeth </li></ul><ul><li>In some species capable of extending jaw out from body </li></ul>
  18. 19. Teeth <ul><li>Same composition as the scales </li></ul><ul><li>Continually shed and replaced by the rows behind </li></ul>
  19. 20. Respiration <ul><li>Must swim to force water through their gills </li></ul><ul><li>Some such as nurse sharks can get enough oxygen so they do not need to swim </li></ul>
  20. 21. Digestion <ul><li>Very short esophogus </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach can be up to 1/3 the length of the shark </li></ul><ul><li>Intestine is really small, only about a foot </li></ul>
  21. 22. Nervous System <ul><li>Lateral line used for sensing vibrations in the water </li></ul>
  22. 23. Nervous System <ul><li>Ampullae of Lorenzini </li></ul><ul><li>Jelly filled canals that can detect electrical fields, magnetic fields, temperature, salinity, water pressure, etc. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Nervous System <ul><li>Paired external nostrils that lead directly to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Very acute sense of smell, can detect concentrations as low as one part per billion </li></ul>
  24. 25. Shark Classification <ul><li>Two Super-Orders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Galeomorphs & Squalomorphs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Further broken down into orders </li></ul>
  25. 26. Order Heterodontiformes: <ul><li>Bullhead Sharks </li></ul><ul><li>Pig like snout </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom dwellers </li></ul>
  26. 27. Order Orectolobiformes: <ul><li>“ Carpet Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Very short mouths </li></ul><ul><li>Upper lobe of caudal fin extended with reduced lower lobe </li></ul><ul><li>Includes filter feeders </li></ul>
  27. 28. Order Lamniformes: <ul><li>“ Mackerel Fish” </li></ul><ul><li>Larger front teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Include some of most popular </li></ul><ul><li>Most are active predators </li></ul><ul><li>Functionally warm-blooded </li></ul>
  28. 29. Order Lamniformes: <ul><li>“ Goblin Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Mitsukurindidae </li></ul><ul><li>“ Sandtiger Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Carchariidae </li></ul>
  29. 30. Order Lamniformes: <ul><li>“ Ragged-Tooth Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Odontaspididae </li></ul><ul><li>“ Thresher Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Alopiidae </li></ul>
  30. 31. Order Lamniformes: <ul><li>“ Megamouth Shark” </li></ul><ul><li>Megachasmidae </li></ul><ul><li>“ Crocodile Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudocarchariidae </li></ul>
  31. 32. Order Lamniformes: <ul><li>“ Basking Shark” </li></ul><ul><li>Cetorhinidae </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mackerel Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Lamnidae </li></ul>
  32. 33. Order Carcharhiniformes: <ul><li>“ Ground or Whaler Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptable to many environments, even estuarine and freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Flappable lower eyelids </li></ul>
  33. 34. Order Carcharhiniformes: <ul><li>“ Whaler Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Carcharhinidae </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hammerhead Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Sphyrnidae </li></ul>
  34. 35. Order Carcharhiniformes: <ul><li>“ Cat Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Schliorhinidae </li></ul>
  35. 36. Order Chlamydoselachi <ul><li>“ Frilled Shark” </li></ul><ul><li>Eel like body </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth are three pronged </li></ul><ul><li>Deep water </li></ul>
  36. 37. Order Hexanchiformes <ul><li>“ Cow Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Deep water </li></ul><ul><li>Very little is known </li></ul>
  37. 38. Order Echinorhiniformes <ul><li>“ Bramble Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Thick tail stalk </li></ul><ul><li>Has bumps on skin </li></ul><ul><li>“ hedgehog shark </li></ul>
  38. 39. Order Sqauliformes <ul><li>“ Dogfish Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Large ranges of sizes </li></ul><ul><li>Generally best known shark </li></ul>
  39. 40. Order Sqauliformes <ul><li>Greenland Shark (21 feet +) </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarf Laternshark </li></ul>
  40. 41. Order Squantiniformes <ul><li>“ Angel Sharks” </li></ul><ul><li>Flattened bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Gills on ventral side </li></ul><ul><li>Mouth at end rather than ventral like rays and skates </li></ul>
  41. 42. Order Pristiophoriformes <ul><li>“ Sawsharks’ </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to sawfish, but skinnier and have sensitive barbs on snout </li></ul><ul><li>Alternating long short teeth </li></ul>

×