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modern periodic table

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periodic table for ninth grade IGCSE

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modern periodic table

  1. 1. Modern Periodic Table Mrs. Coyle
  2. 2. Part I  Introduction.  Periods and groups.  Metals, nonmetals and metalloids.
  3. 3. The Modern Periodic Table  The Periodic Table is a listing of all the known elements.  The elements are organized by:  Atomic number  Chemical Properties
  4. 4. Groups and Periods  Group( or Family): a vertical column. Elements in groups have similar chemical properties.  Period: a horizontal row.
  5. 5. Groups and Periods are numbered.  There are 7 periods.  There are 18 numbered columns.
  6. 6. IUPAC  International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry  1985 new system for labeling groups.
  7. 7. Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids  Elements can be classified into:  Metals  Nonmetals  Metalloids (semimetals)
  8. 8. Metals Nonmetals Metalloids
  9. 9. Actinides and Lanthanides
  10. 10. Physical Properties of Metals  Good conductors of electricity and heat.  Malleable (can be hammered into sheets).  Ductile (can be drawn into wires).  Lustrous.
  11. 11. Chemical Properties of Metals  Easily lose electrons.  Form positive (+) ions.
  12. 12. Nonmetal Physical Properties  They do not have the properties of metals.
  13. 13. Nonmetal Chemical Properties  Gain electrons.  Form negative ions.
  14. 14. Part II  Valence Electrons  Group 1  Group 2
  15. 15. -Niels Bohr’s Model – Distinct Energy Levels
  16. 16. Periods  The periods (rows) of the periodic table indicate the highest energy level occupied by one or more electrons.
  17. 17. Valence Electrons  The electrons the occupy the highest energy level of an atom.  Valence electrons play a key role in the chemical properties of an element.
  18. 18. “A” Groups (Old System)  The “A” groups are numbered 18.  The number of the “A” groups correspond to the number of valence electrons.
  19. 19. Group 1- Alkali Metals  1 valence electron (ns1)  Form a 1+ ion.  Note: Hydrogen, a nonmetal, is located in the first column because it has one valence electron.
  20. 20. Group 1- Alkali Metals Lithium Sodium Potassium Rubidium Cesium Francium
  21. 21. Sodium’s Reaction with H2O Produces Hydrogen
  22. 22. Reactivity of Alkali Metals  Increases from top to bottom of the group.  Which is more reactive Cesium or Sodium?
  23. 23. Note:  Sodium and Potassium are stored in oil to keep them from reacting with oxygen and water in the air.  Cesium is stored in glass tubes of argon gas( an inert gas).
  24. 24. Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals Beryllium Magnesium Calcium Strontium Barium Radium
  25. 25. Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals  Have 2 valence electrons.  Form 2+ ions.
  26. 26. Group 2- Alkali Earth Metals Reactions with Water  Be does not react with water.  Mg reacts with hot water.  Ca, Sr, Ba react easily with cold water.  Which way along the group does reactivity increase?
  27. 27. Notes:  There is Mg in chrolophyll C55H72O5N4Mg  Calcium is in your bones, chalk, limestone, toothpaste, pearl (all as calcium carbonate).
  28. 28. The Periodic Table

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